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The Nation Back of Us, The World in Front. 

Out Vv^est 

A Magazine; of 

The Old Pacific and the New 



Staff — David Starr Jordan, Joaquin Miller, Tlieodore H. Hittell, Mary Halloclv Foote, Marg-arei 

Collier Graham, Charles Warren Stoddard, Grace Ellery Channiiig-, Ina Coolbrith, William 

Keith, Dr. Washingrtou Matthews, Geo. Parker Winship, Frederick Webb Hodg-e, 

Charles F. Holder, Edwin Markham, Geo. Hamlin Fitch, Chas. Howard Shinn, 

Wm. E. Smythe, T. S. Van Dyke, Chas. A. Keeler, Louise M. Keeler, 

A. F. Harmer, L. Maynard Dixon, Charlotte Perlcins Stetson, 

Constance Goddard Dubois, Batterman Lindsay, Charles 

Dwig-ht Willard, Elizabeth and Josepli Grinnell, 

Frederick Starr, Charles Aniadon Moody, 

Sharlot M. Hall. 

Volume XVI 
January to June, 1902 

Out West Company 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Copyright, 1902 


Out West Company 


^ 3 ^ f d 
Bancroft Library 


Index to Vol. XVI. 

A Modern Sapphira (story) , Grace Ellery Charming 503, 627 

Annex Arid America, C. B. Boothe 92 

Back There (poem), Tracy and Ivucy Robinson 391 

Ballade of Wild Bees (poem), Eugene M. Rhodes 244 

Bar Cross Iviar, The (story), Eugene M. Rhodes 619 

Biennial, The Sixth, of the G. F. W. C, illustrated, Harriet H. Barry... 557 
California Constructive Eeague, The, illustrated, Wm. E. Smythe, 

197, 317, 332, 435, 545, 675 

California, The Right Hand of the Continent, illustrated, Chas. F. 

Eummis 569 

Camino Real, The, and its Old Art, illustrated, Auguste Wey 480 

Captain of the Gate, The (story), Eugene M. Rhodes 391 

Certain Problems of Democracy in Hawaii, illustrated, David Starr 

Jordan 25, 139 

Child Birds in our Gardens, illustrated, Elizabeth Grinnell 597 

Children of the Soil (poem), Eucy Robinson 512 

Chinese Journalism in California, ilkistrated, Ednah Robinson 33 

Citrus Fruits 250 Years Ago, illustrated, Chas. F. Eummis 126, 255, 377 

Colorado River, The, illustrated, J. B. Eippincott 430 

• Costanso, Miguel, letter on California in 1772 50^ 

County that Should be Great, A, Wm. E. Smythe 670 

Cupa, The Exiles of, illustrated, C. F. E 465 

Discovery of Our Pacific Coast, illustrated, R. A. Thompson 352, 489 

Dodder (poem), Julia Boynton Green 282 

Duel in the Desert, illustrated, Chas. F. Eummis 5 

Early Western History, from documents never before published in 

English— Costansd's letter on California in 1772 50 S V» 

Diary of Junipero Serra (March 28- June 30, 1769) 293, 399, 513, 635 

Fog (quatrain), Gertrude M. Chance... 512 

For Vicente's Sake (story), Darwin Gish 179 

Garden, The (poem), Edward S. Field 176 

Hawaii, Certain Problems of Democracy in, illustrated, David Starr 

Jordan 25, 139 

His Star (poem), Ella Higginson 626 

Hour and the Man, The (story), Eugene M. Rhodes 43 

Illusion (poem) Juliette Estelle Mathis 185 

In Absence (poem), Anna Spencer Twitchell 52 

Indian Ba.sket-Maker, The (poem), Anna Ball 158 

Indian Baskets, Porno, illustrated, Carl Purdy 9, 150, 262 

In the Eion's Den (by the editor) 60, 186, 304, 416, 524, 651 

In Western Eetters, with portraits, C. F. L-. 274, 389 

Irrigation, Problems of, Geo. H. Maxwell 546 

It Was His (story), Cloudesley Johns 397 

June Wedding, A (poem), Chas. Elmer Jenney 619 

Kings River Conquest, The, illustrated, Wm. E. Smythe 323, 437 

Eace-Making by Indian Women, illustrated, Mrs. A. S. C. Forbes 613 


Landmarks Club, The 184, 303, 415,523 

Lion's Den, In the (by the editor) 60, 186, 304, 416, 524, 651 

Looking California in the Face, illustrated, Wm. E. Smythe...,323, 437, 670 

Lubly Ge-Ge and Gruffangrim (story), Eugene M. Rhodes 166 

Manzano Salt Lakes, The, illustrated, D. W. Johnson 367 

Mascot of the Grays, The (story), Henry Wallace Phillips 283 

Matilija Poppies (poem), Julia Boynton Green 165 

Mesa Grande and its Indians, illustrated, C. P. L 602 

Modern Sapphira, A (story), Grace Ellery Channing 503, 627 

New Zealand Institutions, Wm. E. Smythe 82, 200, 440, 677 

Oranges 250 Years Ago, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 126, 255, 377 

Out West (poem), Sharlot M. Hall 3 

Pacific Coast Discovery, illustrated, R. A. Thompson 352, 489 

Ponio Indian Baskets, illustrated, Carl Purdy 9, 150, 262 

Public Works of Irrigation, Wm. E. Smythe 88 

Right Hand of the Continent, The, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 569 

Riverside View of Reforms, illustrated, John G. North 443 

Runaway Freight, The (story). Colvin B. Brown ■.. 53 

Sapphira, A Modern (story), Grace Ellery Channing 5 3, 627 

Sequoya League, The, " To Make Better Indians," C. F. L 

177, 297, 391, 407, 519, 643 

Serra, Fray Junipero, The Unpublished Diary of, 1769 293, 399, 513, 635 

Simple Story of a Man, The, illustrated, Chas. Amadon Moody 159 

Socialism and Construction, Wm. E. Smythe 527 

Studies in Floral Portraiture, illustrated, O. V. Lange 244 

Sunrise (poem), Marian Warner Wildman 555 

That Which is Written (reviews by the editor and C. A. M.) 

70, 194, 312, 421, 533, 659 

The House that Once was Blessed of Thee (poem), Ella Higginson 32 

The Wind Seems Kind Today (poem), Edward S. Field 511 

Thoughts in the Campagna (poem), Nancy K. Foster 669 

'Tis Very Trying to be Poor (verse), Edward S. Field 601 

To Build the State, Wm. E. Smythe 317 

To Eulalia (poem), A. B. Bennett 398 

Twentieth Century West, The, illustrated, conducted by Wm. E. Smythe 

75, 197, 317, 425, 537, 663 

Two Bits (poem), Sharlot M. Hall 617 

Two Days at Mesa Grande, illustrated, C. F. L 602 

Valentine, John J., illustrated, Chas. Amadon Moody 159 

Warner's Ranch, illustrated, C. F. L 65 

(also pp. 66, 177, 300, 407, 519, 643) 

Water and Forest Association, The 209 

Week of Wonders, A, III, illustrated, C. F. L 19 

Wyoming Law, The, Wm. E Smythe 329 

AK'riCl,K.S ()!-• I<()CAI.ITIHS" 

Prescott, A. T., illustrated, Sharlot M. Hall 101 

San Mateo County, Cal., illustrated, Wm. deJung 223 

San Diego Co., Cal., illustrated, H. P. Wood, 337 

Sacramento Valley, illustrated, W. S. Greene 447 

Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal., illustrated, R. A. Thompson 683 


iiTHEiiTu iHt LAINU Uh ^Ul^^nil^ 





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President of Stanford University. 


Chicairo Uniyeraity. 


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Author of "The Led-Horse Claim," etc. 


Author of '* Stories of the Foothills." 


Author of " The Sister of a Saint," etc. 

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Contents — January, 1902. 

A Duel in the Desert Frontispiece 

Out West (poem), Sharlot M. Hall 3 

A Duel in the Desert, Chas. F. Lummis 5 

Porno Indian Baskets, II, illustrated, Carl Purdy 8 

A Week of Wonders, III, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 18 

me Problems of Democracy in Hawaii, illustrated, David Starr Jordan 25 

. le House that Once was Blessed of Thee (poem), Ella Higginson , 32 

Chinese Journalism in California, illustrated, Ednah Robinson .' 33 

The Hour and the Man (story), Eugene M. Rhodes 4^ 

Absence (poem), Anna Spencer Twitchell 52 

lie Runaway Freight (story), Colvin B. Brown S3 

.irly Western History — from documents never before published in English — California in 1772 ; 

letters of Miguel Costansd, Fray Juan Crespi and Fray Francisco Palou 56 

he Lion's Den (by the editor) 60 

t Which is Written (reviews by the Editor and C. A. Moody) 70 

20th Century West, conducted by Wm. E. Smythe 75 

A Few Coming Features 81 

New Zealand Institutions : 82 

Public Works of Irrigation .. 88 

Annex Arid America, by C. B. Boothe 92 

A Notable Water System 94 

Pnscott, Arizona, by Sharlot M. Hall, illustrated 99 

Our Western Wonderland (views Snoqualmie Falls, Mt. Tacoma, Mt. Shasta, the Yosemite, etc. 116 

Copyriffht 1901. Entered at the Loa Anreles Postoffice as aecond-class matter, (sbb pobusbkr's paob.) 

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great citrus belt — pays a revenue not exceeded by any in the world. 

Write for Prices and Terms, or see Sole Ag-ents, 

P»«,e Mai. .430 BIRBANK & BAKER 







In the foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains near Redlands. 
For information address The Loma Linda Association, Loma Linda, California. 

Los Ang-eles Office : 1319 South Grand Ave, 
Tel. Loma Linda, or West 10, Los Ang-eles, 

Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. & Co., Tel. IViain 509. 

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THE CENTURY, now beginning it.s32d year, is every- 
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periodical." It stands pre-eminent. 

THE CENTURY'S career has been marked by many 
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ever written, Kennan's world-thrilling expos^ of the 
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A Year of American Humor 

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XKe Land of SvinsKine. 




I i i I I ^^ I 

Vol. XVI, No. I. 

JANUARY, 1902. 

OUT \v e: S T. 


HEN the world of waters was parted by the stroke 

of a mighty rod, 
Her eyes were first of the lands of earth to look 

on the face of God ; 
The white mists robed and throned her, and the 

sun in his orbit wide 
Bent down from his ultimate pathwa}' and 
claimed her his chosen bride ; 
And He that had formed and dowered her with the dower of a 

royal queen. 
Decreed her the strength of mighty hills, the peace of the plains 

between ; 
The silence of utmost desert, and caiions rifted and riven. 
And the music of wide-flung forests where strong winds shout 
to heaven. 

Then high and apart He set her, and bade the grey seas guard. 
And the lean sands clutching her garment's hem keep stern and 

solemn ward. 
What dreams she knew as she waited ! What strange keels 

touched her shore ! 
And feet went into the stillness, and returned to the sea no more. 
They passed through her dream like shadows — till she woke one 

pregnant morn, 
And watched Magellan's white-winged ships swing round the 

ice-bound Horn ; 
She thrilled to their masterful presage, those dauntless sails 

from afar, 
And laughed as she leaned to the ocean till her face shone out 

like a star. 

Copyrleht 1901 by Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. 


And men who toiled in the drudging hives of a world as flat as 

a floor 
Thrilled in their souls to her laughter, and turned with hand to 

the door ; 
And creeds as hoary as Adam, and feuds as old as Cain, 
Fell deaf on the ear that harkened and caught that far refrain ; 
Into dungeons by light forgotten, and prisons of grim despair, 
Hope came with the pale reflection of her star on the swooning 

air ; 
And the old, hedged, human whirlpool, with its seething misery, 
Burst through — as a pent-up river breaks through to the heal- 
ing sea. 

Calling — calling — calling — resistless, imperative, strong — 
Soldier, and priest, and dreamer — she drew them, a mighty 

The unmapped seas took tribute of many a dauntless band. 
And many a brave hope measured but bleaching bones in the 

sand ; 
Yet for one that fell, a hundred sprang out to fill his place. 
For death at her call was sweeter than life in a tamer race. 
Sinew and bone she drew them ; steel-thewed — and the weaklings 

shrank — 
Grim-wrought of granite and iron were the men of her foremost 


Stern as the land before them, and strong as the waters crossed ; 
Men who had looked on the face of defeat nor counted the battle 

lost ; 
Uncrowned rulers and statesmen, shaping their daily need 
To the law of brother with brother, till the world stood by to 

heed ; 
The sills of a greater empire they hewed and hammered and 

And the torch of a larger freedom from their blazing hill-tops 

burned ; 
Till the old ideals that led them grew dim as a childhood's 

And Caste went down in the balance, and Manhood stood 


The wanderers of earth turned to her — outcast of the older 

lands — 
With a promise and hope in their pleading, and she reached 

them pitying hands ; 
And she cried to the Old-World cities that drowse by the Eastern 

main ; 
'* Send me your weary, house-worn broods and I'll send you Men 

again ! 
Lo, here in my wind-swept reaches, by my marshalled peaks of 

Is room for a larger reaping than your o'er-tilled fields can grow; 
Seed of the Man-Seed springing to stature and strength in my 

Free with a limitless freedom no battles of men have won." 


For men, like the grain of the cornfields, grow small in the 
huddled crowd. 

And weak for the breath of spaces where a soul may speak aloud ; 

For hills, like stairways to heaven, shaming- the level track ; 

And sick with the clang of pavements and the marts of the 
trafiicking pack. 

Greatness is born of greatness, and breadth of a breadth pro- 
found ; 

The old Antaean fable of strength renewed from the ground 

Was a human truth for the ages ; since the hour of the Eden- 

That man among men was strongest who stood with his feet on 
the earth! 

Nations are men grown greater — with the course of their des- 

Fore-shaped in the womb that bore them to the ultimate fall or 
rise ; 

Doomed by a dull horizon, or damned by a tread-mill path 

To sink into stolid slumber, or trample the grapes of wrath : 

But shamed by Her tameless grandeur, what soul could be mean 
and poor ? 

Upheld by Her lofty courage, what heart would fail to endure ? 

As the blood of the breast that suckled, the sons in their man- 
hood are — 

She has mothered a brood of lion's cubs, and they bear Her name 

Prescott, Ariz. 



F the innumerable tragedy of the wilderness 
— the grim procession of life and death, the 
irreconcilable conflict of the animals as bound- 
en as we are to appetite and passion and self- 
preservation — probably every hunter of con- 
siderable experience has seen the eloquent 
tokens ; and every reader has heard at least 
of the sensational cases. The wonder is, per- 
haps, that these latter are so few ; that only one death out 
of a million is so far outside the vast inclusive rule as to be of 
interest to us dull-eyed observers. For the law of conflict is in- 
exorable. Outside of man and his protected servitors, only a 
tiny fraction of a per cent, of the animals die "a natural death" 
— that is, without violence. Of teeming sea and teem- 
ing forest, a vast majority of the denizens perish "with 
their boots on" — overwhelmingly a prey to that insatiate 
"hollow feeling" which Nature has put for warder of the feral 
population, lest it overwhelm the earth. The "defensive" 
animals fall, as a rule, to the appetite of their predatory neigh- 
bors ; the predatory beasts, in turn, have a reasonable expecta- 
tion of death at the "hands" of their rivals in the tribe, their 
foes outside, or the only unnatural killer, Man. Every acre of 
field and forest has had its myriad tragedies of the humble 

6 our WEST. 

wild-folk — though we are too unobservant to note the fact. A 
few bleaching- bones, a wisp of fur or feathers, a dim scurry in 
the dust — this and no more is the chronicle of the snuffing out 
of a life as gladly lived, as hardly parted with as our own. 
Many authors have become famous by their skillful dissection 
of the Beastliness of Man ; but we too seldom remember (un- 
less while reading the Jungle Stories or Wahb) the Humanity 
of the Beasts, which is quite as true a part of natural history. 
This is mostly because in our civilized cushioning we know 
nothing real about the beasts. They are very little more to 
us than so many forms of speech, raw material for perfunctory 
literature or for "hunting," whose only serious penetration is 
put up in brass cylinders by the U.M.C. Co. It is nothing short 
of astounding how little the average "hunter" knows of the 
game he kills, except so much of its habit as shall enable him 
to kill it. Indeed the very name " Game" is perhaps significant 
of this blindness. It is a game, and a great game, if shrewdly 
played ; but pity the man who can see in it nothing but the 
killing ! He is as far from being what I would soberly call a 
hunter, as the fellow whose only notion of whist is to play 
trumps at every lead is far from being a whist player. One who 
knows as well as anyone, and as well loves, the wild thrill of 
the chase, who has hunted and been hunted, and found the 
keenest "sport" when the "game" turned the tables and he 
had to fight hand-to-hand for his own life, is not apt to be fool- 
ishly sentimental. But he is very apt to pity those who have 
never learned the higher side of hunting. To watch a beaver 
colony at work ; or a vixen with her pups ; or a bear family at 
play ; or the wild stallion herding his flirtatious vianada and 
falling like a thunderbolt upon some mustang Lothario ; or 
partridge or wild turke}' at mating time —cxpcrto crcditi\ it is 
quite as much " fun" and rather more woodcraft than trapping 
or killing or "creasing." Which is saying a great deal. And 
to such as mix the game with brains, these things become more 
and more the refinement and expertness of it. As a matter of 
fact, a fox is a much smarter hunter than any man who hunts 
only to kill. His eyes and ears are far better, his nose is a 
genius of which no human has so much as an inkling, his foot- 
fall is infinitely softer, his strategy far more competent. For 
that matter, more foxes escape the allied force and wit of a score 
of men and a half-score of hounds than partridges or c|uail 
escape the unaided campaign of one fox. As to that, in the 
average foxhunt at least (and leaving out of the count the 
trapper and real wilderness hunter), one hound is worth in 
effectiveness half a hundred people. Without a single dog to 
lead them the whole chase could as soon stay at home. 

More picturesque, perhaps, than the every-day sacrifice of a 
life to an appetite is the animal dtiel to the death ; and particu- 
larly when both parties fall. Feral combats — mostly deriving 
from sexual jealousy, for it is comparatively rare that predatory 
beasts shall fight outside their kind — are innumerable, though 
in a small minority of cases fatal to either combatant ; perhaps 
fifty times as rarely to both. Even in the extreme event, there 
is generally little visible record left, and that of a sort that 


shamefully few of our hunters can identify. The best known 
— because the most unmistakable — is the entang-lement of buck 
deer by their horns in such inextricable fashion that the duellists 
starve to death. This is not so extremely rare. I have found 
such g-rappled skulls thrice — in Maine, in the Sierra Madre of 
Mexico, and in Colorado so noble a duo of elk heads locked in 
this Chinese puzzle of death that the inaccessibility of the range 
and the impossibility of bringing- out these ponderous relics 
have given me a standing grievance these seventeen years. The 
swordfish pinned by his beak to starve beside the pierced hull ; 
the rat in the fatal nip of a big clam ; the buffalo and the cin- 
namon bear fallen together dead — all these I believe to be 
authentic ; and of the mutual Pyrrhic victory of two rattle- 
snakes I have seen the proof. 

But beyond reasonable comparison the most extraordinar}' 
"document" I have ever seen or heard of in this sort is the ab- 
solutely unique relic found in 1900 by Kdwin R. Graham in the 
desert count}" of Inyo, Cal., near Coalingo, and now in the 
museum of the Leland Stanford, Jr., University. There is no 
possible question of its authenticity. All the ingenuit}' of man 
could not make a tolerable counterfeit of it. Nor do I believe 
there is anj' reasonable doubt that it is the most remarkable 
record ever found of a fight to the death. 

It is unflattering but typical of our civilized observation that 
thousands of people — including a great manj- "hunters" — 
identified these mummied protagonists as " a coyote and an 
eagle." Even the photograph shows what they are, as well as 
the vindictiveness of their death-struggle. 

A prowling wildcat (evidently too hungry to be fanciful) 
finds a great horned owl blinking upon the brink of a cliflf, and 
pounces upon it, catching a wing hold. The owl, somewhat 
armored, even against those terrible teeth and claws, by its 
quilting of feathers, flings itself upon its back ; pounding 
fiercely with its free wing, tearing with its hooked beak, and 
clenching its talons into the flesh with that peculiar mechanical 
lock-grip of its kind — a grip which death does not loosen, as 
more than one hunter who picked an owl up unripe has learned 
to his sorrow. That even this large owl could not kill a full- 
grown wildcat in any ordinary combat, probably ever}" hunter 
knows. But this owl chanced to get a clutch on the wildcat's 
open fore paw, one of his claws clinched behind a tendon — and 
there it still is, traceable even in the photograph. Perhaps he 
could not have withdrawn it himself, had he been the survivor 
of the struggle. The cat's jaws are still locked upon the broken 
bone of the owl's left wing. Neither is otherwise very badl}' 
mangled : and doubtless the cat would have torn to shreds " the 
body of this death" and gone about his business with no more 
handicap than that ineradicable talon in his paw. 

But in their wild and blind melee they overstepped the verge 
of the cliff, and down they went together. The 40-foot fall 
does not seem to have broken their clinch at all. If it did, they 
renewed it. But though no fractures were sustained, the stum- 
ble doubtless stunned the cat ; and there, irretrievably grappled 
in immortal hate, they died together of thirst and loss of blood. 


There at the foot of the clifE they were found ; dessicated b)' 
the furnace airs of the desert, light as mummies, but unbroken ; 
their very eyeballs dried in their sockets; the plumage of the 
owl practically complete, and enough fur of the wildcat's muz- 
zle and paws left by the moths to identify it even to those who 
could not recognize its unequivocal anatomy. 




NTO the life of a Pomo, baskets entered every 
day from his birth to his death. He was 
cradled in a papoose basket, and in it, hung 
b)^ a broad band on his mother's brow, he made 
his early journeys. His home was a great 
thatched basket, his toys were baskets 
modeled after the large ones that he saw. 
He ate from a "da-1^," or fiat basket, and 
drank from around "chi-ma." The seeds from which his meal 
was made were ground in a "mu-chi," or mortar basket, and 
his fish and meat were cooked in large mush bowls or " chi- 
mas," and a large "chi-ma "was his water-bucket. His fish 
was caught in a " biyoc-kow" or fish-net basket, his meal was 
winnowed in winnowing baskets and screened in a " pa-se " or 
sieve basket. When he traveled, his belongings were carried in 
a "bu-gi," the conical burden basket, and these answered for 
every purpose for which we use a wheelbarrow or wagon. If 


^xi#^ .m 



A Cache Ckeek "Man-Basket. 



he g-ardened, his fences were of wickerware, and he trapped birds 
and g-ame in long cylindrical baskets. On Clear Lake the art 
of basketr}^ applied to tules was used in making- canoes. 

Was it wonderful, then, that a people to whom baskets were 
so much should have exhausted their ingenuity in weaves and 
shapes, interwoven their mythology and superstition in the 
meshes, copied nature in the designs, and lavished the richest 
treasures of the chase, together with their precious money 
and the brightest abalone shells from the distant sea shore, on 
those gift-baskets which marked the culmination of their art ? 

Such baskets were the pride of the owner and the envy 
of his friends ; they were given to visitors, or on weddings, as 
the highest possible token of esteem. A woman who was par- 


ticularly adept in their making had more than a local fame ; and 
when their lucky possessor died his priceless baskets were placed 
on the funeral pyre to accompany, as they fancied, his soul to 
the other world. 

In basketry the Pomos found an outlet for the highest con- 
ceptions of art that their race was capable of. Protected by 
their isolation from other tribes, they worked out their ideas un- 
disturbed. With every incentive for excellence they had reached 
a height in basketry when the American first disturbed them 
which has never been equaled — not only by no other Indian tribe 
but by no other people in the world in any age. 

These stolid Indian women have a knowledge of materials 


and their preparation, a delicacy of touch, an artistic conception 
of symmetry of form and design, a versatility in varying- and 
inventing beautiful designs, and an eye for color which place 
their work on a high plane of art. They alone, of all races, 
adorn their baskets with feathers. 

It was long before civilized people came to a realization of 
the beaut}^ of the Indian baskets, and it was only about eighteen 
years ago that collectors began to seek them. The history of 
what some would call " the basket fad" is one of rapidl}^ grow- 
ing interest, and at the beginning of the twentieth century 
prices are willingly paid for the finest creations of fiber and 
feathers which seem fabulous when compared to those of a few 
years ago ; yet which are not an overpayment for the skill and 
indefatigable patience shown in their manufacture. Such 
baskets will never be cheaper, but will rather appreciate in 
value as a greater number of people of taste and means come to 
observe their beauty and seek the best. 

Before beginning to describe the materials used in Pomo 
basketr3% and the shapes, uses and designs of the baskets, I 
would emphasize the fact that by Pomo baskets I mean the 
baskets of all of the thirty or more tribes grouped by Mr. Powers 
under that name ; while all of the words which I use are from 
the dialect of the Ballo Kai Pomo of Potter Valley, Mendocino 

The Pomo of today lives in the valleys occupied b}^ his an- 
cestors, on lands purchased by his tribe or occupied by the per- 
mission of some white friend. He has his mission school and 
his church, owns a horse and wagon and often a buggy, dresses 
like a "dude" in civilized garb on gala days, lives in a cabin 
often neatly built, and has chickens and a garden. He works 
industriously as a day laborer, and often takes a contract to care 
for a crop for his white neighbors. A ride on the railroad is 
not a novelt}" to him. If he is young he often has white blood 
in his veins, and shows it. He is cheerful and happy, and by no 
means improvident. There are no "Ramonas" or "Alessan- 
dros" in his village, but occasionally one who has been sent to 
the Indian training schools in Nevada or Oregon. By the side 
of a neat cabin can be seen a house on the old model where his 
old mother and father live as their ancestors did, surrounded by 
all the aboriginal implements and devices. They are used to 
the new civilization, but prefer the old "savagery." They weave 
from the native fibers, and seek bulbs and plants still for food. 
Their daily bread is of acorns ground in a " Mu-gi." If their 
sons and daughters prefer the white doctor, the medicine man 
is good enough for them. 

The veneer of civilization is thin, and at times all throw 
aside its garb and in scant feathered skirts join in the barbaric 
dances and sing the weird songs of long ago. 


All Pomo baskets are woven on a framework of slender willow 
shoots. Except for the coarsest " Shakans," these shoots are 
peeled and cured carefully. The Pomos call them "bam" and 
from them several baskets are named as " bam-tush " and " bam 



shibu." The willow tree is called "bam kalleh " or "bam 

The bams are the framework ; the thread is obtained from the 
bark of shrubs and the roots of trees and grasses. The most 
important of these fibers is "ka-hum," which is the root of a 
sedge (Carex Mendocinoensis), which g-rows in deep, moist soil 
in most sections of the Pomo country. This sedge has long, 
slender, grass}' leaves and a very long running root which is 
quite tough. The Indian women split these roots with their 
teeth and coil them in bundles which are dried ready for use. 

When cured, "ka-hum" is of a light cream color, but deepens 
with age into the rich, creamy brown so much admired in old 
Pomo baskets. 

Rarest and most valuable of all Pomo basket fibers is " Tsu- 
wish," the root of a Scirpus (S. Maritima), a grass-like plant 
growing among the tules on the border of marshy lands. When 
fresh, the root is a dark brown. The color is usually deepened 
by placing it in a mixture of mud, ashes and charcoal for a 
period of from one to three days. The best is then nearl}' black. 
The deeper the col- 
or the more prized 
the Tsu-wish. As 
the color is in the 
outer covering of the 
root onl}", it has to 
be split accordingly. 
The common brake, 
Pteris aquilina, a 
fern widely scattered 
throughout the north 
temperate zone, has 
a long running root. 
In this root certain 
black fibers are em- 
bedded in a white 
cellular structure. 
These the Pomos call 
"bis" and where 
Tsu-wish is less common, as along the coast region, it is used 
for a dark thread. I found the Washoes of Nevada using the 
same fiber. The best basket-making Pomo tribes never em- 
ploy it. 

I have never known a Pomo to use the maiden-hair fern stems, 
so commonly used from Humbolt county north. 

The rich, reddish brown in the coarser Pomo baskets is the 
bark of the "red-bud," Cercis occidentalis. The red-bud is a 
handsome shrub with large leaves, rather suggestive of the 
grape ; and in the spring, before the leaves are developed, the 
shrubs are solid masses of bloom. The flowers are like those of 
a pea and are magenta in color. Red-bud is very common 
throughout eastern Mendocino and all Lake county. The split, 
peeled stems are also used as basket fiber. The Pomo name is 
"Mille." Other reddish brown barks may be used where Mille 
cannot be had, but the first instance of their employment has 

A Good " Ti.'" Plympton Collection. 


yet to come to my knowledgfe. The red-bud bark is stripped in 
long: bands and coiled to dr^-. 

The staple fiber for the lighter color in coarse baskets is 
obtained by digrgfingf the roots of the dig-ger pine, (P. Sabinana), 
and tearing- them into long strips. These are of rich creamy 
tint, exceedingly tough and pliable and rich in pitch, and are 
an ideal basket fiber. The Pomo name is *'ka-li-she." Where 
the digger pine is not found, the roots of other pines or Douglas 
spruce may be substituted, but these are not as good. 

"Ka-hum," "Tsu-wish," " Mille " and " Ka-li-she," for 
threads, with willow "bams" for framework, are practically the 
only materials used in Pomo baskets. Kach is collected at the 
proper time, and (except the bams) coiled and hung up to dry. 
The smoke and dust of the house begin the process of deepening 
and enriching the color before the material finds its way into 
the baskets. 

Given these materials, a small, very sharp knife, an awl, and 
a dish to hold the water in which the fiber is kept soaking to 
render it pliable as used, and the Indian woman is ready for 
work. The knife was formerly of obsidian or "bottle rock," 
fastened to a handle with sinew, and the awl a small bone from 
the deer's leg. 

The Pomos ornament their finer baskets with " kiah " or 
Indian money, polished bits of abalone shells, and with various 
bird feathers. At an earlj^ date beads were sold to them by 
traders, and very naturally found a use in basket ornamentation. 
The favorite feathers are taken from the red head and )'ellow 
throat of the redheaded woodpecker and the green head of the 
mallard duck. The plumes of the male vallej' quail are also 
held in high esteem. The brilliant feathers of an}' bird are used 
effectively in decoration. 


It must always be remembered that the Indian basket is not 
plaited, as are those of most races, but woven. The willow 
bams are the warp, the thread the woof. The Pomos have in 
common use six distinct methods of weaving, and several more 
are more rarelj' seen. 

Of the six common weaves, four are soft, two hard. In the 
soft weaves the warp or framework is of slender bam ribs 
ascending from a common center at the base like the spokes of a 
wheel. The coarsest of these is the Sha-kan, literally 
SHA-KAN." "fish basket." This is an open wickerware basket. The 

ascending ribs are from a half inch to two inches apart. 
These are crossed at similar intervals b)' two similar willow 
bams which take a single or double twist around each other in 
each space. The sha-kan weave is the nearest approach to 
European wicker-work found among the Pomos, and is much 
used. Baskets of this weave may be placques, round bowls, or 
tall storage baskets. Often conical burden-baskets are so 
woven. The quaint fish-traps and long quail-traps are made in 
this weave, as were the wicker-work fences and frame work for 
the old thatched houses. These are the only baskets made by 
the men. More often, willow bams were unpeeled in Sha-kans, 


but in the finer baskets peeled willows are used and quite a 
pretty basket produced. 

In this weave the ribs are of slender peeled bams as- 
cending- close together. The woof is of two threads " bam-tush. 
passing alternatel}^ over and under the ribs and taking a 
half turn on each other in the spaces. At frequent intervals 
the last courses are pressed closely upon the preceding ones. 
The threads used are split evenly but are not usually trimmed. 
The two threads, which on casual inspection, seem to go around 
the basket, really form a spiral, beginning at the base and ter- 
minating at the top of the basket. When making such a 
basket the Indian woman prepares a number of threads and 
weaves rapidly. To work the design she of tener turns the mille 
thread over, as it is white on one side. Of course as the basket 
widens, the spoke-like ribs get farther apart, and whenever the 
space permits, an additional bam is sharpened and inserted. If 
at the top the basket is narrowed, this process is reversed and 
some of the ribs are cut out. 

As the threads of the woof are used up, new ones are inserted, 
and the loose end is always left on the inside. When completed, 
these loose threads are shaved off so neatly as to leave hardly a 
trace of their insertion, while the ribs are cut ofiE evenly. The 
Pomo never puts a terminal binding on such baskets. A 
basket before it is trimmed makes a very interesting exhibit of 
Indian methods of construction. 

When weaving, the woman sits flat on the ground, often hold- 
ing some of the bams firmly with her toes to steady the basket 
while she works. 

The usual materials used for the " bam-tush " are red-bud 
for designs, "ka-li-she" for light ground, and willow bams. 
In fine pieces " ka-hum " is used for the light ground, and the 
threads carefully evened with the knife. A well made basket 
in the " bam-tush " weave is water-tight and very strong. It is 
the most useful of all Pomo weaves. Shallow placques, mush 
bowls, mortar baskets, cooking baskets, burden baskets and large 
storage baskets are of tenest in this weave. While baskets for use, 
they are often ornamented with beautiful designs carried out in 
"mille." These designs are almost always in circular bands ; 
very seldom in spirals, as is usual in the next weave. 

This is lighter in construction but very similar to the 
" bam-tush " The bams of the frame work are handled "chuskt."' 
exactly the same, but the threads of the woof used, which 
alternately pass over two, and then under two, ribs at a time. 
This method gives the "chu-set" a much smoother outer sur- 
face than the "bam-tush" and seems to make ornamentation 
easier. Bowls and conical burden-baskets, and very rarely 
placques, are made in this weave, and are ornamented with most 
beautiful spiral designs. I consider a fine "chu-set" the most 
beautiful product of Pomo art. In working out the design the 
red-bud is thinner than the light material, and so the design 
shows in relief on the inside of the basket. 

In this weave the basket is started as the "bam-tush" 
is. A short distance up, a bam is laid at right angles "xi." 
to the ascending ribs, and the thread of the woof is 


whipped over this stick, then between the ascending bams. 
The bams are added exactly as in the " bam-tush," and as a ti 
stick is covered it is pieced out in a spiral ending- at the top of 
the basket. When completed, the basket appears as a "bam- 
tush " inside, and shows a spiral outside. 

It would seem very difficult, indeed, to work out a really 'pretty 
design in such a weave, but a skillful worker will execute a very 
beautiful design nevertheless. The effects are particularly soft 
and a fine " ti " is highly prized by both Indian and collector. 
Bowls, placques, mortar baskets and storage baskets are made 
in this weave, and in very many placques or mortar baskets in 
the " bam-tush " weave a few courses in the " ti " are thrown in 
to give stiffness. The light thread is " ka-hum," the red 

This is more properly an ornamental stitch. It is 
used on "bam-tush " baskets by substituting two sets of "shat-six." 

three threads each. The result is a very pretty corded 
appearance. It is rarely used, and a complete basket in it is 
rarer yet. No design can be worked in it, but as a course-band 
on a "bam-tush" it is decidedly effective. 

This ends the list of the "soft weaves," and we may now con- 
sider the "hard weaves." 

[to bk continued.] 



T this date I have no intention to add another 
to the failures that have been made in trying 
to describe the Greatest Thing in the World. 
The Grand Caiion of the Colorado has already 
been pecked at — how ineffectually, doubtless 
all of us know who have tried ; at least, those 
who have tried many times. All one can say, 
after nearly a score of years' acquaintance, is : 
"It is the biggest thing God ever did. Go look at it." But it 
may be worth while to add to the innumerable list a few fresh 
pictures — as incompetent as words are to grasp that incompar- 
able chasm, that Geolog3'-on-Knd, that Alphabetical Index of 
World-Building — and a few lines of cold information. 

The "Santa Pe " railroad now runs (by branch from Will- 
iams) clear to the Grand Caiion. There are a good many of us 
who deem this a pity ; who think anyone too lazy to ride — or 
walk — sixty miles to see the crowning wonder of the world 
doesn't deserve to see it. But the Times hold over us ; and we 
are willing to forgive the unearned sightseers — if only they will 
refrain from squealing, as they stand on the very brink of that 
Painted Abyss, "Oh, ain't it pretty ! " Them, we would con- 
scientiously shove over the rim. 

The view from Bright Angel (where the railroad comes) is 
one of the most noble in the hundreds of miles of the canon — 
and I know it all pretty reasonably. A little camp has sprung 
up ; there are horses to go down the trail to the river — 6,000 feet 

Morning in the Grand Canon. Photo, by Chas. F. Lummts. 

PiNON Tree on Brink of the Grand Canon. Photo, by Chas. F. Lummis. 


below, but looking almost as if one could jump in from the 
Rim — and vehicles for drives along the Rim. And there are 
comfortable accommodations. 

One of the purposes of the visit of Prest. Ripley and Vice- 
Prests. Morton and Kendrick was to select a site for the large 
modern hotel which the railroad is to erect at this point. The 
natural call of the wayfaring Philistine had been for a hotel 
smack on the brink ; and an artist had painted a " plan " with 
the caravansary dominating the canon. But he was too soon. 
It was recognized by the party that in the first place this would 
be an impudence — "You can't slap God Almighty in the face 
like that," as was said in the discussion — and that the element 
of surprise, so potent in literature and art, should not be forgot- 
ten here ; particularly after the lesson taught at the Caiion- 
point reached from Flagstaff. There the rough woodsman 
John Hance had feeling enough to put his camp in a beautiful 
hollow. You came in on the stage and entered the hotel with 
hardly a hint that just beyond was Something different from 
the park-like pineries of the last dozen miles. And from the 
hotel you climbed a little slope for a hundred yards or so — and 
on a sudden, unforeseen as death tomorrow, the earth fell away 
before your feet and you were upon the very brink of the noblest 
scene in the world. 

Very much so it will be at Bright Angel. From the railroad 
there is no hint of the canon ; and the hotel, instead of sniffing 
in the face of Eternity, will rest respectfully among the elo- 
quent pines a little down the hollow. One cannot lie in bed and 
command the showman ; nor sit on the veranda and expectorate 
into the gorge. Anyone who doesn't deem the caiion worth 
walking a few rods to see — needn't see it. 

For this— and as to so much the official decision is fixed — 
every lover of Nature will be grateful. A hotel-site is not ordi- 
narily a magazine text ; but even in a hotel site, this present 
triumph of feeling over commercialism is no trivial thing. 

On the morning of Oct. 28 we saw the sun come up and spill 
over the Rim, and flood that vast subterranean world— of peaks 
taller above their visible base than Mt. Washington above the 
sea, but all below our feet. We had the day to explore the Rim; 
and at 4 p. m. the special pulled out for Williams, and we took 
up our way to California. In just seven days lacking 8 hours 
we had made three trips, any one of which is more interesting 
than any that is open to "Cookies" abroad ; had traveled 600 
miles by rail and nearly 200 by wagon or horseback ; and had 
seen two inhabited pueblos and six prehistoric stone "cities;" 
three different Indian tribes, the most remarkably located town 
and the greatest gorge in the world, the most impressive group 
of ruins in America north of Mexico, and a scenery perhaps as 
beautiful and as varied as any on earth, .nid unquestionably of 
a sort visible nowhere on earth except in our Southwest. And 
though nearly all of us were hardened travelers, we felt that we 
had had our money's worth, and our time's worth, and some- 
thing to boot. C. F. L. 




^EMOCRACY is that form of government which regards 
the common interests of all men, and recognizes with 
Cromwell, "no other source of authority under God save 
the will of the people." It is the only form of government 
which does not perpetuate class distinctions among men. It is 
the only form which can persist in communities in which the 
individual is intelligent and capable. Therefore, a democracy, 
notwithstanding its lack of show of power, is the strongest of 
all forms of government, because it has its roots in the brain 
and will of men trained to be free. 

Kven with the most favored races, democracy has its serious 
problems. The strong will override the weak, even though 
numerically few. To dominate the weak mentally may lead to 
the desire to exploit them financially. The demagogue, or 
people's leader, will rise or tr}^ to rise wherever democracy or 
people's rule exists. The struggles between individualism, 
corporationism and State socialism are inseparable from free 
institutions, and whichever of these tendencies may be in the 
ascendant must give place in turn to the others. To make 
government beneficent is to make it tyrannical, and tyranny 
feeds the reaction in favor of individual freedom. 

Democracy does not necessarily mean good government. As 
a rule the people have not as high ideals of dignity, economy 
and effectiveness as kings or tyrants may have. A despotic ruler 
can call better men to his service than any body of voters can 
nominate and elect. He can also call worse men than any body 
of voters would tolerate. 

Moreover a body of voters will learn by its mistakes. It is a 
very important function of dem- 
ocracy to allow the people 
through their own experience 
to educate themselves. A dem- 
ocracy is a vast training school 
in civics by which in the long 
run popular government be- 
comes free government. Such 
training is possible onl}' where 
those responsible for mistakes 
are themselves sufferers by 

So much for a few of the 
ordinary problems of democ- 
racy. These, democracy is in 
a fair way to solve, at least 
as well as any problem in hu- 
man behavior can be solved by 
the changing millions who in 
turn occupy the stage of life. 
When men have common inter- 
ests and are animated by com- 
mon intelligence the progress Hawahan-born Chinese Childken. 




'^k mJ*» 









A Fisherman. 

of democracy is triumphant. But recent events have opened 
other problems to which our democracy must ffive its atten- 
tion, and in which no form of government has been more than 
temporarily successful. 

What can democracy do with a body of people, permanently 
divided by blood and habits, one in which the component parts 
have few or no interests in common, and in which no training- 
of experience will bring" one class to look on industry, business 
or government with the eyes of the other ? In such case shall 
public affairs be ruled by tradition or by enterprise, by brains 
or by numbers ? 

There are three propositions in reg-ard to the suffrage, which 
are fairly axiomatic : 

1. The ag-greg-ate result is higher than the average of intel- 
ligence, because the competent man exerts more influence than 
the incompetent. 

2. Economic and dignified government is best secured by 
restriction of the suffrage to the provident and the intelligent 
by a property and an educational qualification. In other words 



men who have earned or kept money realize best how to handle 

the funds of the public. 
3. Personal and class jus- 
tice is best secured by uni- 
versal suffrage. In a democ- 
racy, the man without a vote 
is an alien and to some ex- 
tent an outlaw. If the non- 
voting- element stand in a 
race or a class by them- 
selves, they have no hold 
on the attention of others. 
They cannot speak when 
their interests are jeopard- 
ized, and so in the long run 
their interests may be vio- 
lated with impunity. In a 
population of mixed races of 
unequal intelligence and di- 
vergent interests good gov- 
ernment under democracy 
will mean the rule of the 
strongest race. This in turn 
will mean, sooner or later, 
the oppression of the others. 
On the other hand, unre- 
stricted popular goverment 
may mean the rule of the 
; incompetent, and this will 
i be wasteful, destructive to 
enterprise and offensive to 
those of higher intelligence. 
The concrete expression of 
this problem of conciliation 
of good government with 
popular suffrage is now 
found in the Territory of 
Hawaii. Two very differ- 
ent theories of suffrage have 
been lately tried — both under 
democratic forms — the oli- 
garchic rule of intelligence 
under the Republic, the pop- 
ular rule of the ineffective 
masses under the Territory. 
Government which was rela- 
tively "good," but not ide- 
ally just, has been succeeded 
b}' government which is rel- 
atively "just," but not ide- 
ally good. Neither is satis- 
factory, and the problem is 
still presented to us unsolved. 
If a solution is possible, it 
is very important that we 



should find it, for use in our colonial possessions. Of all of 
these, Hawaii is the one most favorable for experiments of this 
sort. Let us look for a moment at the actual conditions in the 

The eight islands constituting the Territory of Hawaii con- 
tain an area of 6,449 square miles. Of this space, relatively 
little is arable, probably not over 2,000 square miles, and this 
small area is very rich, fitted for almost all forms of tropical 
agriculture. As matters are, however, it is most profitably lused 
for the cultivation of sugar cane. 

The population of these islands in 1896 is estimated at 
109,020. Of this number, 39,504 are classed as Hawaiian, 8,485 
of them being of mixed blood ; 21,616 are Chinese ; 24,407 are 

Diamond Head, Oahu. 

Japanese; 15,100 Portuguese; while of the remainder, includ- 
ing Americans, English, and all other nationalities, the number 
is 8,493. The census of 1900 gives a total population of 154,000, 
but I have not at hand its division as to nationalities. It is 
probable that since 1896 the American element has largely^ in- 
creased, but does not exceed 5,000 or 6,000, while of the British 
there are about 2,500 ; of Germans, about 1,000 ; with a few 
French, Norwegians, and about 500 natives of the Gilbert 
Islands. Quite recently a few hundred natives of Porto Rico 
have been added to the population of the islands. 

Practically, the 10,000 Americans, British and Germans, 
with a few of the old native nobility, own all the property of 
the islands. The natives bear no relation to sugar culture, nor 
indeed to any part of the industrial or commercial activity of 
the islands. The Japanese, Chinese, Portuguese (from the 



Azores) and Porto Ricans were brought in to serve as laborers on 
the sugar plantations. They were chosen as the cheapest of 
cheap laborers available, and until 1900 worked under the con- 
tract labor system, which 
differed from ordinary 
slavery mainl}' in not 
being- hereditary. 

The number of planta- 
tion laborers is given in 
1899 as 35,987; Japanese, 
25,644; Chinese, 5,979; 
Portuguese, 2,153; Ha- 
waiians, 1,329 ; others, 
882. The remainder of 
the Japanese, Chinese and 
Portuguese population is 
chiefly gathered in the 
towns of Honolulu and 
Hilo, where all sorts of 
industries are represented. 
Among them, the fisher- 
ies, formerly carried on 

Chinese Carrying Pigs to Market- by the Mawaiians, are 

now almost entirely in 
the hands of the Japanese. The fish stalls are kept chiefly by 
the Chinese, while shops of all sorts and small manufactories 
are managed by men of either race. 

The majority of the Chinese, and especially of the Japanese, 
were originally drawn from the lowest classes at home. Many 
of both races have, however, emancipated themselves, and some 
of the most substantial merchants of Honolulu are among the 
Chinese. Both Chinese and Japanese make use of the public 
schools. In June last, the writer listened to an admirable ora- 
tion on the future of China by a Chinese graduate of the High 
School of Honolulu. 

The fact that the Hawaiians are scarcel}^ represented in in- 
dustrial matters is not due altogether to indolence, but rather 
to the fact that when they feel like working at all they prefer 
to work for themselves. They are largely used in the wharf 
traffic, and it is said that they make good teamsters ; but con- 
tinuous labor is distasteful to them, as is work for any specified 
time. This is due, it is said, to " their native instinct which 
is adverse to subjection, unless to Hawaiians of high standing 
or to white people of authorit5^" In general, the Hawaiian 
will not save money, unless he has inherited it. He is fond of 
pleasure and of giving pleasure, and habits of thrift interfere 
with this. In public estimation the Hawaiian who hoards his 
earnings " is no better than a Haole" (foreigner), and such be- 
havior is regarded as selfish and unworthy. Por this reason 
most of them are generous, lavish and impecunious. 

The Chinese and the Portuguese, originally imported as con- 
tract laborers, have largely drifted off into individual work, as is 
shown by the figures quoted above. The Japanese as laborers 

32 our WEST. 

are on the whole probabl)' best fitted for the needs of the sugfar 

It has been the misfortune of Hawaii that in its need for im- 
migfrants it has sougfht the lowliest and weakest the world can 
afEord. From this fact arise most of the problems of local grov- 
ernment. If these classes are represented in its administration, 
the administration becomes lavish and vacillating^. If their 
needs and their existence are ig:norcd, the administration is 
likely to be t3'rannical and unjust. 

It is possible that the sugfar plantations could have been cul- 
tivated by small farmers of European extraction, if in the 
beginning: they had been divided into homesteads and 
treated as American farms are treated. It is not clear that the 
gfentle and g^enerous climate of these islands would offer in- 
superable obstacles to this. Had such an adjustment taken 
place, these islands migfht have constituted ideal communities, 
self-ruling: and self-sufficient. As matters are, democracy has 
scarcely yet found a foothold, nor can it ever be actually realized 
in any country where the plantation system exists. White 
labor in Hawaii is an actual impossibility, not because of the 
climate, but because of the plantation system. 

The essential features of the " plantation system" are the di- 
vision of land into large tracts owned by individuals or by cor- 
porations, with the employment of laborers in mass, under the 
direction of overseers. The alternative is the individual owner- 
ship of small farms, and the self-direction of labor. 

Stanford University, Cal. 

[to be CONTINUKD.] 


or THEE. 


Is this the house that once was blessed of thee ? 
I know the pattern of the papered walls. 
And how this window opens on the sea ; 

Familiar is the shape of rooms and halls ; 

The latches to my touch yield readily ; 

I know the g:old that from the sunset falls 
Athwart the sunken floor ; and can it be 

I know the bird of storm that shrilly calls 

From yonder crystal-headed wave ? . . Is this 
The porch where, on a perfume-shaken nig:ht. 
We watched the moon rise, lang:uorous and white, 

Thro' purple passion-stars of clematis — 
When first I yielded to love's strong: delig:ht 
And trembled to thy arms, thy breast, thy kiss ? 

New Whatcom, Wash. 





kHINA enjoys the distinction of claiming- the 
oldest newspaper in the world, tradition 
dating- the Peking Gazette from the tenth 
century of the Christian era. This paper, the 
Court Journal, called in China the King Paou 
("Great Report," or otherwise interpreted, 
"the Metropolitan Reporter"), dull, rigidly 
censored and miserably printed from wooden 
blocks on which each character had been labor- 
iously carved, was long without a rival. A 
thicket of superstitions, traditions and 
mystery surrounded the government that 
the people dared not explore, the fate of the 
adventurous offering little inducement to 
followers ; but the vernacular newspapers 
of Shanghai and Hong-Kong have blazed a 
trail over which the progress and liberation of New China will 
pass. The march toward freedom has begun. Though ques- 
tions involving controversy are carefully couched, or more often 
excluded, the affairs in the capital are reported with accuracy 
and promptitude. It is no longer an offense to include the word 
" telegram" in an imperial edict. Telegraphic reports no 
longer cause surprise or comment. Ten years ago there were 
but eleven newspapers in the Empire, one in Canton, one in 
Poo Chow, another in Tien-Tsin, three in Shanghai, and five in 
the English colony of Hong-Kong. There are now more than 
seventy-five magazines and newspapers published in the Chinese 
language in China, though not all of these are avowedly owned 
by natives, as they were transferred, after the coup d'etat, to 
foreign nominal ownership, to evade the powerful wrath of the 
Empress Dowager. The edict to local mandarins was to sup- 
press entirely the native newspapers, and but for the prompt ad- 
option and protection by the Europeans in the Empire, the 
native press would have ceased to exist. 

The land of liberty and free speech seemed to offer advant- 
ages to the Chinese who would be journalist, and who would 
say what he would say. In San Francisco there are four Chinese 
dailies, besides several Iweeklies. It is the only city in the 
United States where there is a Chinese colony strong enough 
to support a Chinese newspaper. One, a weekly, was started 
in New York, and another in Los Angeles, but neither lived. 
The four Chinese dailies are the Chung-Sai-Tat-Po . the Ori- 
ental News, the Commercial News, and the Chinese World. 
The Chung- Sai- Tat- Po was the first daily, changing from a 
weekly to a daily two years ago. Professor John Fryer, who 
holds the chair of Chinese literature in the University of Cali- 
fornia, is on its editorial staff, and the Reverend Ng- Poon 
Chew, of the Presbyterian Chinese Church, is the editor. Mr. 
Ng Poon Chew is ambitious to adopt New World methods in 
journalism, and quite recentl}^ thrilled the conservative by con- 
verting his whole force into a corps of detectives to work up a 

Rev. Ng Poon Chew, Editor of the " Chung-Sai-Yat-Po." Photo, by Miss Tlioinpson- 

Entrance to Office of the '•' Chung-Sai-Yat-Po." Photo, by Miss Thompson. 

An Alley in Chinatown. San Francisco. 

i'koto. A I C. F. L. 


murder case, and his paper jumped, in a day, to modern journ- 
alism, bearing on its front page a picture of the murderer, and 
the "stor3'." Funeral baked meats will no longer be the ex- 
clusive menu of the Chinese journals. 

The Chinese World is the most radical in policy. Its editor 
and proprietor, Mr. Tong K. Chong, is secretary of the Chinese 
Empire Reform Association, to which five thousand of the 
twenty thousand Chinese in San Francisco belong. This society 
is doing all in its power to depose the masculine Manchu dow- 
ager, to return the Emperor-in-leading-strings, Kwang-su, to 
the throne of China, and to suppress the Boxers. In a word, 
to unswathe the tin}'' toddling feet of the crippled empire. The 
columns of the Chinese World are open to articles that further 
this movement. For, according to the editor, it is a campaign 
of education. Circulars are distributed by the Association to 
the public, free lectures have been conducted at the Chinese the- 
aters, and in the year just past, a novel venture was made for 
this same cause. A weekly, edited by the same Mr. Tong K. 
Chong, its editorials, leading articles, as well as its advertise- 
ments, all written in English, was started in San Francisco. 
To reach American sympathizers, and to assure the Califor- 
nians that the Chinese in their midst, and more especially those 
of the Chinese Empire Reform Association, deprecated the re- 
cent Boxer outrages, and would do all in their power to prevent 
future lawlessness, this journal was run for several months, 
though at a distinct monetary loss. 

That weekly, the Oriental and Occidental Press ^ was a unique 
incident in journalism. It was written, edited and managed by 
Chinese, who had had, however, the advantage of a thorough 
English education. Mr. Tong Chong is not yet thirty. Coming 
to San Francisco as a child, he first attended the Occidental 
Mission on Clay street, went later to the public schools, finish- 
ing his education at the Urban Academy, and while carrying 
on his English work in the daytime, pushed on with his 
Chinese studies at night. As translator for the Chinese Co7n- 
mercial N'ezvs he became interested in journalism, and decided 
to make it his profession. When he left that paper he became 
editor, and subsequently proprietor, of the Chinese World. His 
contact with Western freedom, and his derived experience and 
insight, have made him an earnest worker for the advancement 
of New China. 

But that it is no simple matter openly to advocate reform, 
even in the land where libert)^ and free speech are the watch- 
words, Mr. Tong Chong has discovered. He has dared the 
net of tradition and prejudice, and though he has not entangled 
himself, his helpless relatives in China have been the victims. 

Two years ago, Kang-yu-wai, chief adviser to Kuang-su, the 
so-called emperor, sent papers and documents to Mr. Tong 
Chong in San Francisco, asking him to publish them in his daily 
paper. The editor promptly complied, but by so doing incurred 
the displeasure of the Chinese consul, who represents the gov- 
ernment controlled by the powerful Manchu woman. The con- 
sul demanded that the editor of the Chinese World publish a re- 
traction of the seditious articles that had appeared in his journal. 

40 OU7 WEST. 

Mr. Tong Chong refused to turn, as he expressed it, this jour- 
nalistic somersault, and though he was finall)' threatened, he 
stood his ground. 

A year later, the news reached him that his mother, young- 
est brother, a boy of nine, and two grand-uncles, harmless and 
hoary, had been seized in their little village of Leong-Gor, in 
the province of Kuang-Tung, and thrown into the jail of Yin- 
Ping, on the charge of sedition. All his efforts, and those 
of his American sympathizers, to liberate his relatives, have 
been unavailing. The dangers of the new trail are not all 

The headquarters of the Chinese World., as of the other Chinese 
journals, are clean and attractive. Though the presses used 
are of American manufacture, the type was made in China. 
All the men employed are Chinese, a few of them graduates 
from the University of California. There is nothing to sug- 
gest the Orient in the editor's office, except the odd characters 
of the vertically written editorials on his desk. The printing- 
room is more primitive, and the compositors still wear the 
queue, that picturesque adjunct which Reform would sever 
from the heads of the faithful. Before the end of the year 
five thousand queues and over may be sacrificed to freedom in 
San Francisco. 

Typesetting for a Chinese paper is a vastly different matter 
from typesetting for a journal in another language, for there 
are eleven thousand characters in use. When one recalls the 
statement of Chinese sinologues that the sayings of Confucius 
require seven thousand characters, this seems to be a moderate 
estimate. The Chinese language is derived from two hundred 
and fourteen root-words, which expand into the four or five 
thousand words of daily use, and the thirty-odd thousand of the 
dictionary. It requires eleven thousand spaces to hold a font 
of Chinese type. The large cases, or false partitions, are 
ranged about the room, and divided into spaces for each in- 
dividual type, each a word complete in itself. A Chinese 
printer, it is estimated, can arrange four thousand characters 
a day. The work has been carefully systematized, and the 
characters are arranged according to their formation. A sim- 
ple character designates its group, and the elaboration of form 
is the elaboration of its meaning, as our terminatives and 
prefixes elaborate the root. A division is devoted to the simple 
character that stands for "wood," and all of its amplifications. 
In this space or column are to be found "box," "bed," " plum- 
tree," and so on, through a long list of objects pertaining to, 
or made of, wood. Should an unusual word be needed, type is 
cut and delicately patched to make the required character. 
Comparing our combinations of twenty-six letters and ten fig- 
ures, besides common symbols, an idea of the labor of a Chinese 
compositor can be formed. Systematized as it is, it takes eight 
men through a twelve-hour day to set the type for a modest 
four-page daily, and a quaint sight it is to the Occidental to 
watch the long-queued, blue-coated Chinese walk gravely around 
the cased walls and false partitions, solemnly setting the type 
for the next issue. To go directly from this placid and calm 



Oriental '^Occidental Press 


Vol. I. 


No. I. 

Orlgntal^Occidgntal Press :nT„roi^d\^n^'r:b;tVlfr. 

paper of our owu ? especially as the 

•UttCKIirriOH RATI* .. _ !• J . ^ • J 

above mentioned contingent is ready 

SiroLS Copt. ■ . . . to c?au * , .,,. ,, ,., ,, , 

and willing to contribute liberally toward 

OBeVor. ioxlTiDCC. |j.o» .. ., , 

sii Monihi 1.75 *" support. Next, we are not always 

Ti"*' ■ >•» fairly treated by the American press, 

Forriin.i«PMi.ii'oioo ptrrt.r. . ■ ■ iXt ""d, previous to the birth of this publi- 

For all hi ill Mrtri'i«iirr,. lication we Were unable to defend our- 

Enurtd .1 the S.D Francifco r<»i.oace •• McniO *<l^'es before the public. But thanks to 

"'" °""" a wise provision in the fundamental law 

tm iftd« lupiiUrd by ihe sas r»«iici»co K«i»» Co.. of the most liberal government on earth, 

ill Ceiry SL, S P. j ^ »,.. », j . ■ 

we adopt this method to air our wrongs 

Advtrtitfog ram ruroiihrd 00 Application tt Bvtlocia . ... j, ^ , 

oi5«. 535 CAT sm»«T. "°" express our gratitude for the many 

blessings that have accrued to our coun- 

tr)-men who have taken refuge beneath 
BY WAY OF INTRO- that emblem of liberty, old Glory. 


Today the Oribntal and Occi- 
dental Press makes its "kow-tow" to 
the public. It is a weekly publication 
devoted to the interests of the Chinese in 
America and all matters of moment to 
both Chinese and Americans. 

The founders and editors of this little 
journal consider it the most unique ven- 
ture ever known in the history of jour- 
nalism, for allhough it is published in 
the English language, it will be managed 
throughout by Chinese who have had 
the advantage of more than ordinarj» 
English education. Its editors are not 
S3 weak and egotistical as to suppose 
they can escape the severe criticism of 
those who ha\-e been engaged for years 
in the same field of labor; on the con- 
trary, we expect to be roasted, toasted 
and grilled for our audacity, but as we 
are in a financial condition where we 
may continue the publication of this 
little journal for at least two years, des- 
pite all unfavorable comment, and as the 
paper will always be conducted with a 
cleanliness that may prove somewhat 
refreshing, we have reason to hope for 
ultimate success. 

The excuse for this journal was brought 
about by a strange combination of facts 
and conditions. In the first place it has 
occurred to the Chinese of this city that 
there is a community of their country- 
men here numbering at least fifteen 
thousand souls, and that fully one-third 
of that number are readers of the Eng- 
lish language (which is much easier of 
accomplishment than Chinese), all of 

True Story of the Bubonic 

Plague Scare as Seen 

Through Chinese 


The Chinese residents of San Fran- 
cisco feel that they have suffered a great 
wrong through the action of the local 
Board of Health in quarantining China- 
town. Not only have they been made to 
suffer great financial loss, but many of 
the poorer class have felt the pinching 
pangs of hunger as well. The Chinese 
do not understand why they have been 
abused in this serious manner. All 
through this period of supposed epi- 
demic, deaths in . the Chinese quartej 
have been far below the average recorded 
during admitted healthy time.«. Those 
of the Chinese who are able to read the 
English language have found that the 
great public educators, the newspapers, 
have with but one or two exceptions, 
agreed with them that there has been 
nothing in the developments so far 
recorded that could in any way indicate 
the existence of a dangerous epidemic 
in this city. 

They were told in the beginning that, 
all this hue and cry was the result of a 
political job, that the Board of Super- 
visors refused to make an appropriation 
suflScient to satisfy the demands of the 
Board of Health; that in order to econo- 
mize, the Supervisors had concluded to 
leave that very useful branch of the 
municipal government without any visi- 
ble means of support: that inirder to 

force the Supervisors to do the fair thing 
by them, these guardians of public 
health had arranged a plague scare. If 
this be true, or even half true, it is cer- 
tainly a dastardly outrage. 

Of course the Chinese realire that they 
do not suffer alone in this case, for San 
Francisco, and even the whole State of 
California has been equally affected. 
Eastern travel, or rather travel from the 
East has been about ruined for the sea- 
son, and no reasonable person could 
'expect outside markets to purchase Cali- 
fornia fruits under the existing condi- 
tions. But this is not a case where 
misery loves company, and all reasoning 
Americans must surely realize that tbt 
Chinese have too many property interests 
at stake to enjoy this great slump in the 
commerce of the State. 

* ■* * * ' 

There seems to be one point in this 
unfortunate affair that the Board of 
Health and the whole municipal govern- 
ment hv overlooked. They all affect to 
believe that the Chinese would rather 
enjoy an epidemic of plague. They 
should be reminded of the fact no 
people on earth have had more experi- 
ence witli this dread scourge than the 
Chinese themselves; that it is more feared 
by them than by any other people. But 
the Chinese do not believe that the dis- 
ease exists in this city, and they have 
the very best of reasons for so thinking. 
In the first place, they ask, where are 
the results ? It is claimed by the Board 
of Health th*t this awful malady has 
been hibernating in the Chinese quarter 
since the 7th of last March, over three 
months, still, during all that period they 
have succeeded in finding but an insig- 
nificant number of even suspicious cases, 
and what is passing strange, every one 
of these cases had gone over to the 
silent beyond, making it impossible for 
the accused to make personal denial. 
Next they base their reasoning on prece- 
dent. Most of them have seen the effects 
of bubonic plague in China, and they 
remember how deaths occurred by the 
score, not monthly but daily, so they 
naturally conclude that there can be no 
such thing in their midst They even 
go so far as to say that if this is bubonic 
plague and the results are no more seri- 
ous than we have observed, why, then 

Oriental way of getting- out news, into one of our large news- 
paper buildings, with its modern presses, cabled news, and rush 
and whirl of competition, is to step from the Old World into 
the New, that is carrying us so swiftly that we have no time 
to catch our breath and pause to wonder whither we are going. 

8an Francisco, Gal. 

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" When pain finds some ung^uarded gate, 

And joy fails like a broken reed, 

Remember that two strong- arms wait 

To do and dare, when, in your need 

Across the world your eyes shall lead. 

And love shall light me to my fate !" 

— The Challenge. 

[HERE are three well-beaten paths marked out for the 
feet of young- men disappointed in love. The one 
most commonly followed is to marry another girl 
and forget. Next in popularity is to be studiously 
reckless and consume large quantities of spirituous 
liquors — this being generally considered a high 
tribute to the charms of the lady in the case. Third, 
some few remain single and pose as cynics. 

But Dave Kellum never was a well regulated 
person ; so when Helen Dorsey would none of him, 
he went to Hillsboro and got very drunk. And 
when he left there with Tommy Borbonia, he took 
occasion to state that he would kill her before she 
should marry anyone else; saying also other things 
as a guarantee of good faith, which were not neces- 
sarily for publication — and, as a matter of fact, 
were quite unfit for such purpose. Upon which, 
Tommy, with vigor, brevity and candor, expressed 
his profound conviction of Mr. Kellum's exceeding 
un worth. 

That person, being unarmed, reached for his 
rope. So Tommy promptly knocked him off his 
horse with his branding-iron, roped him around the 
neck, and led him, on a gentle trot, to a secluded spot in the 
hills, where he tangled Mr. Kellum in a tree, wrapped him and 
the tree up by the simple process of riding round both a few 
times — and then pulled his arms around the tree behind his back 
and tied his wrists together. 

Then he returned to Hillsboro and summoned Jim Simpson, 
Dinny Morrison and myself as a Committee on Kellum. After 
careful consideration we sentenced him to death ; but he begged 
so hard we commuted the sentence to voluntary exile from New 

To show that we were not arbitrary, we agreed to contribute 
equally to buy Kellum's cattle, so he would have no excuse to re- 
turn ; and played freeze-out to see who should own the brand. 
Tommy won ; and while he and Simpson went back to Hillsboro 
to rustle the money, Dinny and I endeavored to make it plain to 
David that we, jointly and severally, would kill him on sight if 
he returned ; and also tried to instill into his mind the idea that 
in affairs of the heart it is as well to have the consent of the 
party of the second part. 

As Tommy had won the cattle, he was deputed to escort Dave 
to El Paso. To show how little religion Kellum had, I will 


state that thoug-h he swore he had 150 head, and was paid for 
that number, Tommy never got over 80. 

Before I go on to tell what came of our mistaken clemency, I 
want to say that my friends, to whom I have shown this story, 
feel that I am too cold-blooded and say too little in praise of 
Dinny, or in disparagement of Kellum. As for the latter, he 
was all that brave men hate and honest men despise ; and as 
for Dinny — God bless him — I think he is to be envied, not pitied. 
For I was one that married another, and forgot. 

Three years later, about one o'clock in the morning of a 
summer's night, five men were playing poker in the White Ele- 
phant saloon at Lincoln. Dinny Morrison was one of these ; 
and he was quietly qualifying for an inebriate's home. The 
men chatted, as they played, about the recent killing of "Buck" 
Guise, the probable fate of Casey, his slayer, of McKinley's 
nomination, the future of free silver, and whom the Democratic 
Convention was likely to select. Only Dinny said nothing, but 
he played on in moody silence, while the pile of notes and coin 
before him steadily diminished. 

" By the way, Dinny," said Len Brennen, "As I left Roswell 
this morning, I saw an old friend of yours. He was on a high 
lonesome, and as he took the train for El Paso he said if I saw 
you here to tell you he was going to have his name in the papers 
by day after tomorrow." 

" Who was he?" said Dinny. 

"Dave Kellum." 

Dinny sprang to his feet and the flush of liquor died from his 
face as it grew grim and stern. " Almighty God !" he said ; 
and then, quietly, "Boys, there is a girl to be married in Loma 
Parda to night at seven o'clock, and that message means that 
Kellum means to kill her. Oh, what a fool I am! I might have 
known 1 I am going to stop him — and I want this money to 
buy horses on the road. All of it !" 

Good God, man !" said L'^n, "you can't do it. Wh)% it's 
two hundred and thirty miles !" But he handed him the money 
— uncounted — and the rest followed suit. 

" Thank you, boys," said Dinny, " and adiosP' 

They followed him to the door, and, as he untied his horse, 
old Fredericks said, "You have no watch to time yourself with. 
Take mine. It's five minutes past two." 

" Thanks," said Dinny again, as he swung into the saddle and 
clattered up the stony street. 

A cheer rang out behind him ; and the race of flesh and blood 
against steam and steel had begun. 

What shall I say of her here, the brown-eyed maid for whom 
this deed was done ? Naught of her beauty ; though there 
were those for whom earth held no fairer sight. But that, in 
the light of her pure eyes all evil things slunk away ashamed ; 
that the beautiful soul behind the fair face encompassed her 
about with womanly sweetness, with kindly charity and cheer- 
ful hope ; so that more than one man has gone into her presence 
desperate, smarting from undeserved defeat, feeling himself a 
failure, a nonentity, an Ishmaclite, and has left her to proudly 


and patiently "take up the burden of life again, " knowing- him- 
self to be a great-hearted gentleman, incapable of meanness or 
deceit. So it was but fitting that, of the many her life had led 
to honor and fine deeds, this one should do an impossible thing 
to save her. 

The moon was rising behind the Capitan range as he tore 
down the Priest's Hill and splashed through the Bonito. He 
was quite sober now, and counting the distance. "Two hun- 
dred and thirty-two miles — seventeen hours — that's nearly four- 
teen miles an hour, without counting the time lost in changing 

horses. That (he referred to Kellum) will leave El Paso 

on the Santa Fe ; reach Rincon at one, and it's over forty miles 
from there, which he'll have to make horse-back ; but he'll sure 
wait till the ceremony begins." 

Half-past two — and he thundered at Tully's door at Ft. Stan- 
ton. Tully was custodian of the absent post, and had under his 
care a few government horses that were absent without leave 
when the troops departed. 

In a few minutes Dinny saddled one of these and galloped on 
his way, muttering a curse on the government for tearing down 
the old telegraph line. With that he could have warned Rincon 
— and the country would have risen as one man to hunt Kellum 
down. But now, no one knew of the danger but himself ; and a 
failure to change horses, or a single misstep or fall would leave 
her at Kellum's mercy. 

He turned out of the valley of the Bonito and began the forty- 
mile climb to the summit. As he rode down to cross Little Eagle 
Creek to the VV Ranch he looked at the watch and smiled. 
"Three-twenty. Twenty miles in an hour and a quarter, and 
all uphill. Good enough." 

Now the average New Mexico cattleman, being mindful of the 
Golden Rule, offers every assistance to persons traveling in 
haste, and asks no embarrassing questions. So to save tedious 
explanations, Dinny said, when he roused JimEdmunson, "Jim, 
they've got me watering at night. Let me have a horse and 
I'll leave him at the mill. This one is Tully's." 

" All right," said Jim, "I'll let you have my ' private.' " 

On, high up over the pine-clad mesa, on a dim bridle path, 
plunging down into the valley of Eagle Creek ; across the hills 
and down Cedar Creek ; tearing down the wires of the VV pas- 
ture to save a few miles, till he came to the brawling Ruidoso, 
and roused the dogs at Dowlin's Mill. 

;| Hallo! Hallo!" 

"Who is it ? " said Joe Wingfield, coming to the door with a 

"Me, Dinny. I'm traveling for my health — threatened with 
acute throat disease. I want your best horse." 

" Bueno. I'll just tell them I didn't see you." 

From here he took the Apache cut-off, by the Carizo. Up 
through the pines, on the tireless cat-like gallop that no horse 
but those of the Southwest can achieve. Twenty-five miles be- 
fore he could change again. The green velvet turf deadened 


the noise of the flying: feet, and for the first time he began to 
be aware of the witching beauty of the night, and feasted his 
eyes upon the mighty rampart of the White Mountains glorified 
in the moonlight. On, on, through the dim aisles of the forest 
and through open glades where dew lay heavy on blade and 
blossom. An owl hooted to his mate far away ; creatures, 
winged, invisible, hurtled by him ; a deer crashed through the 
underbrush. But, save for these sounds, the whole fair scene 
was hushed and still. 

If any thought came to him, that, far as he was beneath her, 
only the poor, despised, forgotten cowboy could save her now, 
he put by any bitterness as unworthy of him — and her — and 
thanked God that his whole hard life had been training for the 
supreme hour of her need ; that all the cowboy's rough virtues 
— yes, and his very vices — would be needed. For this, he had 
learned every pass and trail in the Southern Tier ; for this, he 
knew every man along the way, who would help and who would 
hinder ; for this, he had passed unscathed through a thousand 
dangers ; and many a weary day and wearier night had gone to 
give him strength and courage and endurance for the fiercest 
ride that ever stars or sun looked down upon. And at the 
thought, the brave true blood leaped swiftly in his veins, as if 
it were a holiday excursion, instead of a lifetime's stress in a 

At last he reached the summit, turned down the thirty-mile 
canon of the Tularosa and urged his weary horse at utmost 
speed down the ten miles that lay between him and the Agency. 

The stars were still shining when sweet Helen awoke to her 
wedding morn, and prayed, with a happy smile on her lips, for 
the home she was leaving, and for the lover that had won her. 
But Dinny's name was not in her prayers. Why should it be ? 
Or how should she know that far away, towards the dawn. Love 
and Death raced fiercely to her feet ? 

At five-thirty-seven he reached Mescalero. The Indian agent, 
a lieutenant of the regular army, was an irascible youth and an 
arbitrary ; so Dinny deemed it a useless formality to disturb his 
slumbers. With considerate noiselessness he picked a horse 
and sped swiftly down the tortuous caiion, escorted most of the 
way by the dogs from the Mexican rancherias. The moonlight 
paled before the day as he rode, and the sun sprang up behind 
the Sacramentos, as he made a hasty bargain for a horse with 
Luis Vigil, at Tularosa. 

The road was level now, leading obliquely to the southwest, 
across the vast gypsum plains, to where, seventy miles away, 
the Organs rose misty and mysterious on the further mar- 
gin. This was the risky part. Seventy miles — and he must 
depend, for a change, on getting a horse at the wells half way, 
or from a chance wagon on the road. He looked longingly 
westward to the nearer range of the San Andreas. If he 
were onl}' certain of finding a change at Hembrillo it would be 
forty miles nearer that way. But it was forty-five miles to 
Hembrillo and no road ; and thirty from there to Aleman, with 


an even chance that he would find no horse at Hembrillo — and 
he dared not chance it. 

He swept the miles behind him, and soon was riding- beside 
the dazzling- hills of the White Sands, but had met no one- 
Twenty — tyventy-five — thirty miles — in the choking dust, with 
the blazing sun ever hotter and hotter in the cloudless sky, and 
the tough little horse began to flag. At last he reached Casi- 
miro's. No one at home, and no horse. With a heavy heart 
Dinny urged his exhausted horse to Luna's wells, two miles 
further on. There was no one at home ; but in the stables he 
found a poor, dejected-looking gray. He hastily drew two 
buckets of water for the faithful little horse that had borne him 
so far ; and then rode on in the quivering heat. At first the 
gray went well enough, but he was feeble, and the pace began 
to tell. Weaker and weaker he grew, and still they met no 
one, and despair came upon Dinny's heart. 

At last he came to the big chalk hill where Col. Fountain had 
been murdered six months before, and saw with joy that a 
wagon was camped for the heat of the day, a half mile down 
the road. It was time. Long since the gallop had turned to a 
trot, the trot to a walk — and now the walk was but a stagger. 
He urged the poor abused creature into a last effort and looked 
at his watch. Eleven o'clock. He had been nearly two hours 
coming eighteen miles. "But, after all," he said, " I'm ahead 
of my work, bad luck and any. I've made a hundred and thirty- 
five miles in nine hours, and I've got eight hours left to make a 

The "nooner," a grizzled old granger from the Presnal, 
looked inquiringly, for with the worn out gray, his face streaked 
with sweat and alkali dust, drawn and pinched with hard 
riding and anxiety, Dinny was a hard-looking lot. 

" Got any water ? " 

*' Sure — right around here." 

Dinny drank his fill and said: 

"Stranger, I want to buy one of your horses — for cash." 

" Can't do it. They're not for sale." 

"Well, then, I want to hire them to go to Parker's Well, 
twelve miles from here on the Cruces road ; you go with me 
and bring them back. I'll give you twenty dollars." 

"Can't get 'em anyway," said the other gruffly. "You've 
done killed some one or been up to some devilment, and I'll 
not help you." 

Quick as a flash Dinny's hand went to his belt. The other 
saw the motion and his hand started beltwards too — but he 
looked into Dinny's six-shooter and over that into Dinny's steady 
eyes, and put up both hands above his head instead. "Now," 
said Dinny, "Unbuckle your belt with your left hand, and let 
it drop." The other sulkily complied. "Now put my saddle 
on that black horse. More lively, please — I've an engagement 

When the horse was saddled, Dinny made the other trot up 
the road with him a hundred yards, and said: " Thank you very 
much for your courtesy. I'll leave the horse at Parker's." 

Swiftl)^ he sped down the road, with a light heart now. He 


left the El Paso road at the lake and turned up the long steep 
slope to the San Agustin pass, where the shod feet rang on the 
granite soil like the clash of hammers on an anvil. 

At Parker's, Bob Burch came to the door at his summons. 

" Why, hello, old man ! Haven't you strayed off your range ? 
Thought you was working for the Blocks. Come in and have 

"Bob, I'm sent for — Life and Death. I want two of your 
best horses — one to ride to the summit and one from there to 
Detroit. And I want you to catch them and saddle one while I 
run to the house and eat a bite." 

" Nuff said. You will find cold bread, coffee, milk, and jerky 
there." And Bob ran down to the corral where a bunch of 
horses were drinking. 

Five minutes later Dinny came out and said as he swung into 
the saddle — 

" Bob, I took that black from an unwilling old crank at Chalk 
Hill ; shouldn't wonder if he was a bit excited. And if I 
shouldn't happen to show up again — I left a noble little bay 
Box X horse at Luna's. Rode him from Tularosa there in 
three hours. You get him and pension him off— don't let any- 
body abuse him. He did mighty well for me and I want to 
set him free." 

"All right," said Bob. ''Adiosr 

Dinny had not gone two hundred yards when a bullet sung 
viciously by him. He looked around and laughed as another 
struck short. The Fresnal rancher was galloping after him, 
shooting as he came. As Dinny spurred up, another struck a 
rock in front of him, "Zip-ping — ping — g," and two more close 
behind him. Then he heard another shot from towards the 
house, looked round, and laughed again. Burch had shot the 
horse, and the granger was just picking himself up. 

At noon Dinn)' stood on the summit and saddled the led 
horse. Below him lay the vast plain of the Jornada del Muerto, 
with the Doiia Ana mountains rising abruptly in the center. 
Far away in the west lay the Sierra Caballo, behind which lay 
his goal ; and beyond the river the Black Range rose, tier on 
tier on the western horizon. Not a breath of air stirred about 
him as he dashed down the long dun ridges ; but the western 
sky was banked with clouds, and threatening thunder-caps 
moved swiftly eastward, driven by some mighty wind. He 
rushed on over the plain to meet it, steering for the square- 
topped hill of San Juan. An hour brought him to the old Ft. 
Selden hay-road at the foot of the Dona Ana hills — and here a 
sight met his eyes that gladdened his heart. Midnight, the pet 
and pride of the Bar Cross caballada, was grazing near the 
road with a bunch of mares. Now it was one of Midnight's 
idiosyncracies that he objected to being driven too fast, and 
manifested his disapproval by stopping and kicking. This 
Dinny knew ; so down came his rope and away went the mares 
with Midnight after them. Dinny crowded him, and up went 
his heels. The circling loop passed fair and true over the 
black head, but it settled too "deep" around his shoulders. As 
the rope touched him, away he went like a flash, turning sharply 


to the left. Dinny tried desperately to turn his wearied horse's 
head toward him, but could not, and when Midnight came to the 
end of the rope, it was at right angles to Dinny's course, and 
both horses were jerked violently down. Midnight scrambled 
to his feet and started for liberty, but the neck of the other 
horse was broken by the fall, the rope was fast to the saddle 
horn — and Dinny lay there white and still. 

O western sun, that once stayed your course for hate, pause 
now for love ! Waken, Dinny ! Rouse, man ! You loved her — 
love her — she is in mortal danger ! And of all the world of 
men, you alone can save her I 

But the minutes sweep relentlessly by and still he lies there 
forgetful of his purpose and his love. 

When at last he raised his head the sun was hidden behind 
black rushing clouds. He rubbed his e3'^es and marveled to note 
that the mountains were staggering. He got to his feet uncer- 
tainly, and laughed. " Seems to me as if I heard a preacher say 
something once about the mountains skipping like rams and the 
hills like young lambs — and now I've caught them at it." And 
then he saw Midnight ; and memory came back to his stunned 
brain with a bitter pang. He looked at his watch. It was 
broken. How long had he lain there ? With trembling fingers 
he saddled Midnight. There was no galloping now, but mad 
flight. He urged the best horse in the Southwest to his ut- 
most speed with rope and spur, while his soul went out in his 
first prayer, repeated over and over again : "O God ! don't let 
me be too late ! Merciful God ! don't let me be too late ! " 

John Yoast looked down the road and saw some one coming 
furiously in a cloud of dust ; and a few minutes later. Mid- 
night, panting, foaming, with bloodshot eyes and nostrils, 
staggered to the gate, and "For God's sake, what time is it ? " 
asked Dinny. 

John looked at his watch. "Three o'clock. What's the matter 
with you ? Where did you get Midnight ? " 

But Dinny ran to the trough and buried his face in the cool 
water, while his heart swelled with joy. He must have lain un- 
conscious an hour; but Midnight's mighty thews had made up 
for much of it. There was yet Time. 

He sat up and spoke to the point. " John, Kellum will be at 
Loma Parda tonight, and unless I get there he will kill Helen 
and Miller. I want your horse and a watch — pronto. I roped 
Midnight at the Dona Anas, and he jerked me down and broke 
my horse's neck." 

"Do you want Bishop or one of the others? They're ofif 
about a quarter, hobbled." 

"Bishop. But uncock him for me if he still pitches. I'm 
awful tired. I left Lincoln at two o'clock this morning." 

"Hell!" said John, by way of comment. Then after a 
moment, " I'll go." 

" You have a family," said Dinny. "I'll go myself." 

In another minute, Bishop, a vicious looking Roman-nosed 
bay, was struggling fiercely to avoid being saddled. 


Reuben, John's youngest boy, came toddling down to the 

" Hello, Untie Dinny, I dot a pitty song ! " 

" Have you, little Dick ? Tune up, let's have it." 

Dick climbed on his knee and sang, 

" Surely the captain can depend on me, 
Though but an armor-bearer I may be," 

while John rode Bishop, bucking violently, twice around the 

" That's very pretty, little Dick White-cotton," said Dinny, 
"Good-by." And when, a week later, I traced back all those 
weary miles, Dick's mother told me, with tears in her kind eyes, 
how Dinny had stooped and kissed the little upturned face. 

The air was electric with the coming storm as the Bishop 
tore madly on his way, frantic at the unaccustomed spurs. The 
relief of finding that he still had time had made a new man of 
Dinny, and his heart sang within him. Little Dick's " pitty 
song " rang in his ears. He rose in his stirrups and flung his 
arm upwards in wild exultation. Surely — surely the Captain 
might depend on him ! 

The big rain drops were beginning to fall when he reached 
Rincon. A saddled horse stood at the rack in front of McClin- 
tock's, and Dinny took him and threw two gold pieces to Lee 
Elliott at the door. "Give that to the man who owns this 
horse. I'll leave him at Myer's." And away he went into the 
teeth of the storm. 

That day will long be remembered in the Southwest — for it 
was the day of the great storm and flood of '96. Through it 
all, Dinny, cursing, praying, crying, struggled desperately on- 
ward. The hail beat on his face, and the mud and water made 
it impossible to move save by beating and spurring every step. 
Every joint and muscle was cramped and aching. Thrice he 
changed horses — at Myer's, McCleod's, and at Agapito Torres's. 
He hoped against hope that the storm might stop Kellura — 
but knowing the desperate character of the man, he did not 
doubt that the game would be played out to the bitter end. 

The night closed round him, thick, black, and impenetrable, 
as he left Torres's for the last stage of the long race, and when 
he reached the crossing it was 6:25. The storm had made him 
take three hours to ride thirty-eight miles from Rincon, with 
three horses. It was still nearly two miles, and a swollen river 
to cross— and thirty-five minutes left. He spurred in over the 
horse's head, where only a few hours before had been dry land. 
The rain had ceased, and the lightning flashes showed him the 
distant shore as the furious waves swept him down. 

Half way across, the wearied horse dragged himself up on a 
sand bar that formed an island, and refused to move another 
foot. Dinny slipped off in despair. He could never swim that 
stream, weary as he was. The chances were a thousand to one 
that he would be attacked with cramps and drown. But he did 
not hesitate for a moment, but threw off boots and hat and 
overshirt, and fastening his revolver securely, plunged desper- 
ately in. The waters tossed him, leaped over him, bore him 


down. He struggled on, ever weaker and weaker — sank — rose 
— and sank again. Then his hands closed on a limb under the 
water. It was an uprooted cotton wood, rolling and twisting in 
the angry flood. He grabbed it with both hands ; it turned 
over and drew him under, with his left arm tangled between two 
branches, and when at last he reached the surf ace, half drowned, 
his arm was broken above the elbow. He clung, gasping, to 
the tree. A lightning flash showed him that the current was 
bearing him close to the other shore. Another flash — and he 
saw an overhanging tree not forty feet below him. Now or 
never I He cast loose, and with a last desperate effort he swam 
as well as he could toward it — a branch struck his cheek and he 
threw up his hand, grasped it and drew himself to the bank, 
more dead than alive. There he lay for five minutes, exhausted. 
Human strength could do no more, without a respite. Then he 
crawled painfully to his feet, and started to run — slowly at first 
— then faster and faster. The thorns pierced his feet, but he 
did not pause ; tornillo and mesquite limbs dragged across his 
face and clutched at his wounded arm, but he did not falter. 
Onward ! onward 1 Por life and love ! And at last he came out 
in the road, and a dull blur of light glowed through the mist 
and darkness. It was Dorsey's. 

Notwithstanding the storm, many of the neighbors had 
gathered under that hospitable roof ; for there was to be a 
dance, and both Helen and Miller were very popular. A fire 
was kindled in the fireplace in the great hall, and at seven 
o'clock they stood up to be wed. But the ceremony had scarcely 
begun when Kellum burst in from a side room, his face in- 
flamed with drink, and insanity in his eye. Before anyone 
could interfere, he leveled a revolver at Helen and burst out into 
a storm of abuse. " The first man that moves, I fire," he 
shouted. As in a dream, I heard Tommy behind me, cursing 
softly because he had no gun ; and some girl praying. Miller, 
like the good man and true that he was, stepped between Helen 
and the danger ; and she — she looked up in her lover's eyes 
and smiled. At this Kellum grew frantic. 

"Yes, smile, my lady ! It'll be the last time. In another 
minute you and your husband will be dead. None of your 
lovers can save you now ! " 

The door by his side flew open as he spoke, and some one 
sprang between him and his victims ; an apparition, hatless, 
barefooted, soaked, mud-spattered, with one arm hanging 
limply by his side ; some one so weak he could hardly stand — 
pale, bleeding, breathless, but alive ; and in his eyes the daunt- 
less courage and indomitable will that had made him respected 
in a land where no man is feared. " Wrong," gasped Dinny, 
" One of them can I " 

"Out of my way, or I'll kill you," shouted Kellum. "Fool! 
you loved her too — do you want her to marry Miller and forget 
you ? " 

" She'll not forget," said Dinny, " She will remember " — his 
hand stole downwards — "and tell her children's children ! " 

A shot — two together — another and another, while the lamps 
went out — and Kellum fell, with a bullet in his heart and 


another in his brain. Dinny turned and looked at Helen, while 
the blood welled upward from two wounds in his breast. 

" O death, where is thy sting ? O grave, where is thy 
victory ? " 

The smoke curled around him ; the firelight played upon the 
steadfast face, now set towards a longer journey yet. So I re- 
member him— so I see him in my dreams. And one and all read 
aright the unspoken message of his eyes : the message of Love 
triumphant over Fate and Death. 

Not lost, O loyal-hearted— not wasted, not thrown away 1 
There is not one of all that company but will walk the better 
and braver all his days for having seen that look. 

A moment he stood thus, and then moved slowly towards 
Helen, with his eyes still fixed on hers. One step — and Miller 
stood aside and left them face to face. Two — and I sprang to 
support him, but he put me by. He would go to the end alone. 
Three — and Lilly Ensley shrieked aloud to see the shadow of 
death darken his face ; and stretched out imploring arms to him 
that he never saw. A single pace la)- between him and Helen, 
but he paused. Oh, he had come so far — could she not come so 
small a way to meet him ? He drew his weary form up proudly 
— then sank slowly to his knees, and would have fallen — but she 
caught him, sank with him to the floor, and pillowed his head 
upon her breast, while her tears fell fast upon his face. And 
so, with her name upon his lips, and her first, last kiss upon 
his brow, his soul passed out from earthly night and storm into 
the hush and peace Beyond. 

Tularosa, N. M. 



My window shows the stretch of pasture land — 

The old wall where a dead vine feebly cling-s ; 
Gaunt trees with bare uplifted arms, that stand 

Dreaming their branches shelter nesting thing* ; 
The drifted snow upon the window ledge ; 

Beyond, the shrouded rosebush, desolate ; 
A snow-bird twittering from the cedar hedge ; 

The frost-bound pump ; the creaking, wind-swung gate. 

We love this land of winter well — and yet, 

The very dreams of us are woven through 
With things of home our hearts cannot forget, 

And all the olden sweetness that we knew ; 
The queenly rose, the bended lily stalk, 

The cactus' perfume heavy on the air, 
The drooping pepper-trees along the walk, 

The beauty and the languor everywhere. 

O far-off California ! our blurred eyes 

Are blind to all the waste of snow today, 
And hold no visions but of tender skies, 

The foothills green against the mountains gray ; 
The wealth of mellow sunshine warmly spread ; 

The ocean reaching out with amorous lips 
To kiss the sky, till both in one are wed. 

Far on the Wue horizon where there dips 
A white sail. To our ear comes not the note 

Of wintry wind's complaining, but we reach 
To catch the music of a linnet's throat 

Or drowsy wash of waves upou the beach. 
BamlUon, O. 


the: runaway freight. 


HE Central Pacific Railroad enters California 
just west of the little town of Verdi, Nevada, 
and climbs tortuously upward to near the limit 
of perpetual snow at Summit Station. Prom 
here, westward, it is all down hill, and only 
enough fire is kept under the boilers to enable 
the man at the throttle to control the engine as 
his train goes whipping around the curves 
down the mountain side, roaring through miles 
upon miles of sinuous snowsheds and darting 
over bridge and trestle spanning rushing streams and yawning 
gorges. Many has been the deed of daring, and many the cal- 
amity on this mountain division that has never found its way into 
the newspapers ; for the railroad ofl&cials have a creed of silence, 
and news of an accident seldom leaks through the Division 
Superintendent's ofl&ce unless it has resulted in serious injury or 
death to trainman or passenger. 

So splendidly has the division been handled that the number 
of serious accidents which have occurred on it is small in- 
deed, but the narrow escapes on the part of trainmen have 
been many and thrilling. This was especially true in the early 
'70's when air-brakes first began to be used on the division and 
engineers were none too familiar with the new invention. 
Stories are told by old trainmen of runaway freights that all 
the power of air and hand-brakes could not stop ; of telegrams 
sent flashing over wires to ditch runaways before they could 
strike passenger trains laden with precious human lives ; of de- 
railing-switches thrown wide open, waiting to send a laden 
freight train down a caiion side with cannon-ball speed ; of 
daring leaps for life, and heroic standing at the post of duty 
until death came or danger passed. 

One such story that never found its way into print, despite 
the acuteness of newspaper men engaged in hunting items at 
division headquarters, was told to the writer by an old engineer 
now doing police duty in an interior California town. 

It was in the 70's that the event occurred. A west-bound 
freight train had left the Summit a little after midnight, and 
was being dropped down the mountain by two engines. Behind 
the tender of the second engine were two flat-cars fitted with 
racks and piled high with cord-wood. Behind the wood-racks 
came a string of empty box cars, and at the far end was a ca- 
boose. The trainmen, who had been doing a double shift during 
the past twenty hours, were tired out, and had lain down in the 

It was close to the little station at Cascade that the engineer 
of the second engine, finding that his air had given out, 
tried to recharge and had failed. The train was then running 
twenty miles an hour, and was rapidly* gathering momentum. 
He at once began whistling for brakes, and the head engine 
supplemented his efforts. Clear above the roar of the train 
dashing through the snow sheds rose the wail of the engines 


shrieking for help, but there was no response and the speed in- 
creased at a startling rate. Openings in the snow-sheds a hun- 
dred feet long seemed mere dashes of semi-light. Bridges were 
crossed as a grayhound leaps a fence, and were only detected 
by a new, swift note in the terrible roar of the train. 

The faster an engine goes, the easier it rides. When it is 
running away down hill at a rate of eighty miles an hour it rides 
with a gently swaying motion like the rocking of a baby's 
cradle. This is conducive to sickness such as one gets at sea, 
but the sickness is not due to the motion, but to the terrible fear 
that it engenders. When a train is running like that on a 
curved track, every moment it remains on the rails is a fresh 
miracle. Every curve seems certain death, and that it does not 
bring death is a renewed agony instead of relief, for the next 
curve is just beyond, and terrors multiply. 

The engineer had some time before pulled the reverse lever and 
the great drive-wheels were going at a tremendous rate in a di- 
rection opposite to that of the train, sending out such a shower 
of sparks from the rails that the canon walls were lighted up as 
with a streak of fire. All thought of attempting to recharge 
the air-brakes had passed. The speed was too great for that. 

The engineer who told this story to the writer, relates how he 
turned to his fireman and asked him to look out for signals at 
Cisco. If there was a signal there showing a clear track, there 
might yet be a chance that the men in the caboose would get to 
the brakes and stop the speed of the runaway train. The sta- 
tion at Cisco was near an opening in the sheds some 200 feet 
long, and was reached just before crossing a high bridge. It 
is here that a runaway train has since left the track and cut the 
station ofl&ce half in two, leaving the station agent asleep in the 
intact half until aroused by one of the survivors of the wreck. 

" When I spoke to my fireman," remarked my narrator, "I 
told him that if he saw a danger signal at Cisco he'd better jump 
when we came to the opening in the sheds, thereby taking the 
one chance in a thousand of landing in a soft place and saving 
his life. I had determined to stay with the engine. 

" A minute later we came to a flash of light, there was the 
shrill note of a bridge under our wheels, and we were again 
rushing through the sheds. We had passed Cisco. 

" I turned to my fireman, who, since I had spoken to him, had 
been gazing fixedly out of the cab window. He was white as 
chalk, but all he said was, ' I did not even see the station.' 

"There was no other opening of any length in the sheds be- 
fore we reached Blue Canon, and the chances were that there 
was more than one freight train on the track between there and 
where we were. There was but one chance and that fireman of 
mine took it. When he told me he was going to try to climb 
over the wood racks and get to the brakes I knew it could not be 
done, but I did not say so. I simply reached out my hand and 
grasped his. Then I watched him. 

"There are no holds on a wood rack. They are not made to 
climb over, and if one ever has to do it he must place his hands 
and feet wherever he can find spaces. This would be hard 
enough were the car standing still, but when it is attached to a 


train going more than eighty miles an hour around curves, and 
the sticks of wood are rolling and pitching about like logs in a 
drive, one knows it is impossible. 

"I watched him crawl over the tender, but when he began to 
ascend the wood rack, I involuntarily closed my eyes. When I 
opened them he was half way up the rack, with his arm hooked 
behind one of the stacks and his legs swinging in the air. The 
next moment he had gained his foot hold and I watched him slip 
and almost fall a dozen times before he reached the top where he 

" It is easier to climb up a dangerous place than to climb down 
it. In climbing up you have your hand-hold, and if you cannot 
get a new foothold you can return your feet where they last 
were. In climbing down you must trust to Providence to find a 
rest for your feet. 

" If you ask me now if I had any hopes that he would be able 
to reach those brakes, I will tell you no. I did not believe such 
a thing in any way possible, for there was another rack behind 
the one he had first climbed, and the speed of the train was in- 
creasing every moment. I did think it possible that news of the 
runaway had been wired to Sacramento, and that there was one 
chance in hundreds that a clear track was ahead of us, but I did 
not believe the train could stay on the rails another minute. 

"I had not left my post at the cab window, and when we 
rushed across trestle 13 I turned to look toward the track below 
Blue Canon off to the right, knowing that it was visible from 
this point. Here I saw what made me resolve to spring from the 
cab the moment we rushed into Blue Canon, which would be 
reached in less than five minutes at the speed we were going. 
What I saw was the head-light of an engine toiling up the 
grade toward us. This meant one of two things ; either word 
had reached Blue Canon in time to have the derailing switch 
thrown just below the station, or else we would plunge into the 
up freight. Either meant being horribly mangled, if not in- 
stantly killed, and there was no rule of God or man that should 
make me longer stay with my engine. I at once stepped to the 
platform and proposed to leap the moment the engine left the 
sheds. As I did so, I became aware that the speed of the train 
was lessening and I knew someone was at the brakes. 

"We came to a standstill in Blue Canon, the pilot of the head 
engine within a hundred feet of the derailing switch which had 
been thrown wide open. A man had been sent ahead to flag the 
up freight so it would not run into our wreck. 

" What became of the crew that went to sleep in the caboose ? 

"The conductor was hit over the head with a monkey wrench 
when he tried to explain matters to the engineer of the head 
engine, and he and the rest of the crew were given their time 
next day at the headquarters. My fireman ? He was found 
scattered along a mile of track. At least, it was supposed 
to be the fireman, for he never has been heard of since. I don't 
believe he ever got over the first wood rack. 

" Yes, the crew stopped the train. They claimed they were 
awake, and declared we did not whistle for brakes until after 
we passed Cisco. " 



Critical Translations from Documents Never Before Published in English. 
California in YTl^. 

P the compact, clear and important report of Don 
Miguel Costanso upon the first expedition to Cali- 
fornia in 1769 an expert translation was printed in 
these paffes in the numbers for June and July, 
1901. It was from an excessively rare print in 
the Ramirez collection, now owned by Edward E. 
Ayer, of Chicago. From a clerical MS. in the 
same volume we present the following accurate 
translation of a letter from Costanso transmitting 
one from the great missionary and diary-keeper Fray Juan 
Crespi at Monterey, and one from the even more famous Fray 
Francisco Palou, the assistant, successor and biographer of 
Fray Junipero Serra, with his own comments. These docu- 
ments gave the world the first sure news of the discovery of San 
Francisco Bay by the P^ranciscans. It was discovered by Vis- 
caino in 1602, but thereafter lost for 170 years. Costanso was 
the civil engineer of the first expedition — that which in 1769 
first explored and settled our California. 
Senor Secretary Don Melchor de Peramas. 

After the adjoined letter was written, there arrived a mail from the new 
Missions of Monte Key ; the Missionary Father Fray Juan Crespi writing 
some information about those conquests. And because the principal [in- 
formation] about them may please His Excellency by the happy news of 
what has [been] discovered, it has seemed [well] to me to send you a copy 
of it, in order that if it seems to you convenient you may communicate it 
to His Excellency. Because there may be delay in his receiving from 
Monterrey the news it treats of, as to what has been explored in the famous 
Port of our Father St. Francis [San Francisco.] 

The said Missionary Father writes me from the new Mission of the Port 
of San Diego, under date of the 21st of May last,* and says to me : 

[Here begins Crespi] 
On the 13th day of the present [month] I arrived at this Mission of San 
Diego. The cause of this new move was none other than the arrival at 
Monterrey of the fatal news that this Mission was about to be given up 
\^desatnpararse\ for lack of provisions. This news reached the Rev. Father 
President Fray Junfpero Serra in his Mission of San Carlos the 25th of 
March. At that time I found myself on an expedition with the Senor 
Capt. Don Pedro Fages in search of the Port of San Francisco [to see] if 
by the arrival of the Vessel there should arrive supplies for the founding 
of the Mission at that Port, which ought to have been founded last year. 
And it was not accomplished [then] because of the obstacle of an estuary 
or arm of Sea which, in the year '69, we had seen to enter inland, when we 
fell upon the roadstead \_cnsenada'\ of the Farallones from Point Reyes; in 
which roadstead, according to the Histories, this Port of San Francisco is 
conceived to be. on the other shore, the Northern, of said roadstead. I found 
myself on the 30th day of March roaming with the said Senor Captain, 
following the said estuary (or arm of the Sea) upward toward the north; 
the which we followed forty-one leagues. And what at the south was salt 
water from the Sea, upstream to the north in the latitude 39 degrees and 
13 minutes the estuary began unfolding into a very great River, which they 
call after Our Seraphic Father St. Francis, of sweet [fresh] wa^er, very 
delicious ; and the River [has] its width a ifourth of a league. And in the 
said latitude north, the said River is divided into three great arms by an 
immense plain. This must be half the circle of the quadrant, 16 points, 

• May 2l8t to Oct. 9, arives an Idea of the remoteness of California in 1771 The " correo" 
[mailj was thus lonar in srettinir from San Dieiro to the City of Mexico. 


from SW to NW. And the three arms giving- different snake-windings 
[culebreadas] flowing toward the North ; and [when they] reunited, the 
river went filtering Ycolandol toward the S. E., toward the inner Sierra, 
through the said immensity of flat land. We conceived that this river 
and the same estuary (or branch of the Sea) to the S.W. and in all direc- 
tions, is of great depth ; and that without doubt ships, though they be of 
Deep Draft, will be able to navigate inland, and not merely be able to pass 
into said Port. Upon the which I have to formulate a diary as soon as I 
can — and I do not know if this can be with the Barque [by which he sends 
this letter]. If not, I will remit it to Your Reverence, that you may send 
it to the College. 

Already I have said that on the 30th day of March we found ourselves on 
said search, when on this same day the mail reached us with the lament- 
able news that this Mission of San Diego was to be abandoned for lack of 
victuals. Wherefore on the very next day we turned back — the said Senor 
Captain and I and the rest of the expeditionary corps — toward the Royal 
Presidio of Monterrey, that the said Senor Captain might take measures 
in this particular. And in six days we retraced seventy-one leagues which 
we had gone from Monterrey. And as soon as we arrived, the Rev. 
Father President [Serra] ordered me to this Mission of San Diego ; the 
Senor Captain sending with me at the same time twenty-two Mules, and 
with them fifteen half-loads of Flour for the succor of this Mission. 

On the 13th day of April I sallied from the Mission of San Carlos, and 
the 13th day of May arrived at this [Mission] of San Diego. I found 
nothing new as to its being abandoned, tho' indeed I found very little vic- 
tuals [consisting] of some six to seven fanegas of corn and a Half-Load of 
Flour. I found only the novelty of finding Father Fray Luis Jayme 
alone ; because Father Dumetz had gone accompanying Father Cambon, 
who was sick [in a tour] through these Missions, and in search of succor 
of victuals to prevent the abandonment of this Mission. With this scant 
succor, and that which the said Father Dumetz may bring us from these 
Missions, we will go on dragging it out so that it may last until the arrival 
of the Barque. 

I passed by way of the Mission of San Gabril [Gabriel] , and found the 
Missionary Fathers without any special news, save only with the same lack 
of victuals, and that for a considerable time, already, they had been using 
the supplies which were on hand to found the Mission of San Buenaven- 
tura ; and that though they have drawn their belts tight \tirando bien la 
cuerdd\ there remains to them [provision] only for two months and a half. 
This Mission of San Gabril is distant from that of this Port [San Diego] 
about 40 leagues. It is located in a Place which — though it was not 
founded where it was marked [to be founded] — is nevertheless the only one 
in all that has been gone over ; and it can be counted for one of the 
Marvels of this World. It is a va[lley] of five to six leagues in length, 
and from three to four in width. It has a very great forest of oaks, fr6m 
which issue something like fifty or more acequias of water, most of them 
on the level of the land. And all the very extended plain is of most shaded 
and fertile land. Outside of the aforesaid, it has another forest, close to 
the Mission, of sufficient extent, with three or four bigarroyos, with much 
Lands, Vines, and infinite Rose-fields, which, with ten or twenty laboring 
peons, could produce much grain or seeds for whatever they may require, 
and could in a short time supply some [other] Missions, 

This Port of San Diego, though His Majesty has put his hand to so 
much new Christianity as is [ here] , what are we to do if there is not wherewith 
we can maintain ourselves ? If the escort for a long time is maintaining 
itself with the sole ration of half a pint of corn, and of only twenty 
ounces of Flour daily ; and the Fathers the same, with a little Milk — how 
are they to be able to endure ? We are without pottage whatever, more 
than the little Corn and Flour aforesaid. And they say that thus they 
have passed the most of the year — without lard, without tallow, and with- 
out one candle of this sort, nor even wine for masses — since only on Sun- 
days and feast-days is Mass said. God grant that Father Dumetz arrive 
promptly with the Succor for these Missions, and that the Barque bring it 
to us. For otherwise we are Lost. 

This Port, tho' it has lands has not waters with which to be able to 
make sowings. The buildings [are] few and bad, nor is there a way to 
make them ; for the few palisades have gone to wrack, wood is very scarce, 
and it is necessary to withdraw for two leagues because all these lands for 


many leagues are bald. To move the Mission apart from the Port is very 
difficult. That is, finding- a place for it — as they say there is in San Luis, 
four leagues distant, which they say has much land, and running water, 
some palisades and a little wood. This necessitated seeing it — the which 
I have not been able to do, being so recently arrived, to l)e able to inform 
Your Reverence. The which for the present I advise you beforehand, that 
as soon as Father Dumetz arrives with Succor, the Mules which came with 
me (and that meantime are recuperating) shall go there. And so. Your 
Reverence, for God's sake and the Virgin's, arrange to have ready provided 
what you can of Succor at the Mission of San Fernando de Vellicatd. 

[ Thus far the said Father Crespi.'] 

When this letter arrived. Father Frai Francisco Dumetz was already at 
the Mission of San Fernando [de Velicati, Lower Cal.], with another com- 
panion, who went in place of him that fell sick ; and the Succor is pro- 
vided, and they will start out shortly for San Diego. And I doubt not that 
they will find already Anchored in the Port [San Diego] the Packet " San 
Carlos," which at the beginning of April sallied from San Bias with Suc- 
cor. Notwithstanding, I will put my hand at once to send from this [Mis- 
sion] of Loreto all the Succor that can be ; which will go by Sea to the 
Bay of San Luis. I give this information to Your Grace in order that if it 
seems well to you, 3'ou may communicate it to His Excellency, in order 
that he may be relieved, and for the gladness it may cause him [to know] 
what is newly discovered in the famous Port of San Francisco. And if it 
does not seem well to you, you will do what you hold t)est ; since I have no 
other end than that you [both] may not be without this information ; for 
the Barques may be delayed in returning to San Bias. 

I desire for Your Grace very abundant health; and I offer you that which 
the Lord grants me — wherewith I pray Him guard your life many years. 
Mission of Our Lady of Loreto of the Californias, and June 15 of 1772. I 
kiss the hand of Your Grace. Your sincere Servant and Chaplain, 

Fray Francisco Palou. 

Most Excellent SeHor: 

I have read with equal attention and gratification the letter written by 
the Vice-Prest. of the Missions of California, the Rev. Father Fray Fran- 
cisco Palou, to the Secretary of Your Excellency's Captaincy-General, Don 
Melchor Peramas, concerning the new discoveries which he mentions as 
having been made in March of the present year by Capt. Don Pedro Fages 
in company with the Father Fray Juan Crespi ; [both] resident in Monter- 
rey, urged on, both of them, by the desire to reconnoiter the Port of San 
Francisco. And the same Don Melchor having intimated to me that it 
would be agreeable to Your Excellency to have me give what information 
occurs to me, I will say what is in my power to satisfy so praiseworthy 

In the voyage which I made by Land from the Port of San Diego with 
the expedition destined to occupy that of Monterrey, after we had passed 
in sight of the latter without recognizing it, we pursued our march, pre- 
suming it must lie further ahead. And having arrived, on the 31st of 
October, of the year 1769, at latitude 37 degrees and 31 minutes, we de- 
scried from the crest of a Hill a very great Bay. From the Northwest side 
of it a point ran considerably out to Sea, apparently trending from north- 
east to southwest. To the South-southwest of said Point were seen seven 
Farallones [small, pointed islands], tall and white. And scanning the 
inside of the Bay, there were discovered to the Northwest, quarter West 
(with respect to the spot in which we were) some White barrancas [bluffs], 
precipitous [taxadas] to the Sea. There was also seen, toward the North, 
another great, precipitous barranca ; and by it entered a copious estuary, 
with two medium-sized Islets in the same mouth ; all in the form shown by 
the adjoined small Plan, whose rough draft I made at that time. 

At sight of these landmarks I consulted a book of sailing-direction* 
which I carried, by one Cabrera, good Pilot,* who was of the Ships of the 
Philippines. And as these [landmarks] agreed with the notices of thi« 
[book], it seemed to me beyond all doubt that what we had before us wa» 
the Port of San Francisco, in which, says the same Cabrera, the vessel 

• So the text— "Un t.-il C.ibrera buen Piloto." But his n.ime was Joseph Oonzales Cabrera 
Bueno. He was a native of Teneiiffe. and Senior Pilot of the Fhilipi>ine trade. In 1734 
his book, " Naveffacion Especulativa, y practlca," was printed ; and it was this work which 
was consulted by the expedition of 1769. 


called the " San Agustin" was lost in the year of 1595,* coming to explore 
the coasts of this continent of America, by order of the Seiior Phillip the 
Second. But some Mariners of its Crew, with the Pilot, saved themselves. 
Who, traversing the immense Country which intervenes between said Port 
and New Biscay, arrived at the end of many days at Sombrerete, a Mining 
Camp of that Government, bordering upon New Galicia.f 

The rest of our expedition then recognized that we had jalready left be- 
hind the Port which was being sought [Monterey]. But having suffered a 
certain error, the scouts who went out to reconnoiter the land each day for 
the morrow, returned at this juncture saying that the Gentile Indians had 
given them clear signs of a Port in which they affirmed that a vessel was 
anchored, with people dressed in clothing the same as ours. All these re- 
ports vanished like smoke a few days later, but were sufficient to oblige us 
to pursue the voyage, and not to take the trip, with a suspicion which made 
strong impression on some ; for that is wont to be easily believed which is 
much desired. 

On the 4th day of November we raised our pompt ; and following the 
eastern Shore or Beach of the Bay (which we already called [that] of San 
Francisco), we entered into a Sierra, heading north ; from the top of it we 
discovered the Estuary, whose mouth I have said we had seen some days 
before. This ran back into the land, turning considerably to the east and 
southeast. We made three marches, coasting along it on our left, and stop- 
ped nearly at its end, at the banks of a rivulet which discharges into it. 

From this spot we sent out the scouts, giving them four days' time to go 
and discover the Port in which they supposed was anchored the vessel of 
which the Indians gave them news. But the fourth day in the evening 
they returned very disconsolate over not having been able to reach the Sea- 
coast, because they were hindered therefrom by another immense estuary, 
which, according to what they said, communicated with the first and en- 
tirely closed their passage. [They] coasted! along it about 20 leagues 
without attaining to see the end of it. As little could they acquire more 
news from the Indians touching the desired vessel and Port. With this it 
was resolved unanimously to take the back track ; and this was done the 
11th day of November. 

I presume. Most Excellent Seiior, that the estuary of which the Rev. 
Father Crespi speaks in the narrative which the Vice President Fray Fran- 
cisco Palou abridges, is none other than the one which our scouts saw. 
And I merely infer from the same narrative that Father Crespi and Don 
Pedro Fages coasted it a longer distance until they discovered the great 
river which disembogues in it by three different arms, freshening the 
waters of this [estuary] with their own, according to the expression of the 
same Father. 

I am induced to believe the same that I have referred to, by seeing that 
the said Seiiores went with the intent to reconnoiter the Port of San Fran- 
cisco, to seek a suitable spot whereon to locate the Mission which has been 
ordered to be established at it [that Port] ; and as to reconnoiter it well 
they would wish to reach Point Reyes, there must have befallen them the 
same as befell our scouts — that is, to find the way to the Sea-coast closed 
by the estuary. And coasting this, with a purpose to reach its head, they 
encountered the copious river which forms its end. 

I submit it to the prudent judgment of Your Excellency to decide if I 
am well founded in what I have put forward. And this is as much as I 
can inform [you] in this matter. 


Mexico, 9th of October of 1772. 

* It was commanded by the pilot Sebastian Rodrigruez de Cermenon, and came from the 

t Sombrerete is near Zacatecas, Mexico, and is one of the historic old bonanzas. It has 
produced over two hundred millions in silver. See The Awakening of a Nation, p. 30. Th« 
tramp of these shipwrecked men from San Francisco to Central Mexico must rank as one 
of the most remarkable journeys ever recorded. 

X Levantamos nro. Boato. The sense is not clear. 

II Coheandolo, prob. error for costeandolo. Cojeandolo would be " limpinff alonir it." 




Out Wbst" it is, then — and grlad of it. Which is the 
chronic disposition of Westerners. They are the people that 
have Moved because they could Do Better. The West is made 
up of volunteers from all over the world ; but nowhere in the 
world is there a colon)^ of Westerners. That is one difference 
between Happening and Selection. For it must alwa3'^s be re- 
membered that the typical Westerner is an Easterner graduated. 
There are noble types of men and women born of this broad 
domain in its swift half-century ; but they are not quite its 
typical folk. The vital Westerner has traveled much, and does 
not live where he was born. He does not "forget the pit he 
was digged out of, nor the rock from which he was hewn" — but 
he has bettered them. Wherever he came from, and wherever 
he dwells, he has made his choice as an intelligent being ; and 
for that reason gets more joy of his home than any person can 
who "never knew the difference. " The advantage of a man 
over a coral "insect" is not so much in the beauty of his legs 
as in the fact that they are good to carry him where he would 
rather be ; not so much in the having a spinal marrow more or 
less troublesomely enlarged at the upper end, as in the fact that 
this swelling is useful, if he will use it, to show him how much 
better he can treat himself than b)' persisting as a submerged 
cellbuilder amid a million other stationary zoophytes. 

And the geographical limitations of Out West — what 
are they ? Well, there is no dead black line on the map 
that can define it. Out West is anywhere that is far 
enough from the East to be Out Prom Under. It begins where- 
ever man can find Elbow Room and Freedom ; wherever he can 
be escaped from the tyranny of crowds and the obsession of 
their strange superstitions ; wherever he has space to stand 
erect, and must stand because he will, and not because he is so 
wedged in that he could not fall down if he tried. It is where 
men can grow — and do grow. It cannot make a wise man of a 
fool, a hero of a cur, a knight of a knave. But every man, ac- 
cording as is the marrow in his bones, it does make bigger. It 
widens his knowledge and his sympathies, it teaches him respon- 
sibility and self reliance, it brings him back face to face with 
the great laws that last forever, and clears his eyes of the 
illusions which dazzle the cleverest when men are so sardined 
together in their own smartness that they forget there is Gravi- 
tation. It increases his respect for the enduring verities, even 
as it relieves him of the necessity of bowing down to a host of 
tinsel idols. It makes him a better citizen by teaching him to 
be a more complete individual. It makes him a larger individual 
by giving him to see his relation to his kind. 



Every traveled student of men has observed this evo- writtrn 
lution in the individual case and in the mass. It is going ^^iACKBOARD. 

on all the time, and on a tremendous scale. We have all 
watched men and women transplanted from the old, stuffy, hud- 
dled hothouses to the open — and how their habit has rounded 
and grown tall. They were not so big, Back Yonder. They 
never could have been so big, or the whole scheme of Nature is 
a lie. 

And it is the great good fortune, not of the West ^ pamiwar 
alone, but of the Nation, that we have now at the diagram. 

Nation's head one of the finest and fairest examples of 
this very thing. Roosevelt is, by much, the best educated man 
that ever came to the Presidential chair. There have been other 
university graduates, others who have added to the sheepskin a 
broad training in men and affairs ; and a few who have, in 
narrower limit, acquired the same outdoor muscle. But the last 
and highest post-graduate course, the most vital schooling in a 
character practically unique in American statecraft, the train- 
ing which, more than any other, stands him in foremost stead 
every hour of every day in his trying position, and more than 
any other one thing has made him loved (not tearfully, but 
confidently)— where did Theodore Roosevelt get that ? He got 
it — and I am rather sure he would say so himself — he got it 
Out West. 

To one who believes in the West and in Roosevelt — good 
not as mere gratifying incidents but as Factors in his ^^° company 

hope for his country — hardly a keener pleasure could be- 
fall than the assurance that this superb young graduate of the 
great Elbow-Room where they make Men is heartily in accord. 
A constant reader of the magazine, and thoroughly in sym- 
pathy with many of the things it is working for, Mr. Roose- 
velt finds the new name and motto and scope more than 
good. The Lion is just Western enough to go his own way for 
all of forty Presidents ; but he frankly likes it when a President 
who has had a chance to know deems that way a good way. 

It was only a fleeting glimpse through an open door; a^nd the 
the back of a Man in a Hurry, and muffled in a huge ^'^'^^Ickbonr. 

ulster at that — but it was enough. The Lion knew that 
back, and leaped up and followed it, though it was more than 
fifteen years since he had last seen it — and in a land where 
ulsters are not worn. Older, broader, heavier ; somehow graver 
for the burdens it has carried ; a bit less swinging — even as the 
face is greyer for the typhoid that came so near to break that 
magnificent physique — but, after all, no stranger. For the 
Leonard Wood who is now Military Governor of Cuba is the 
same Leonard Wood that was post surgeon at Bowie when we 
used to tramp the Arizona hills together — "only more so." For 
even then he was a man " respected in a land where no man is 

One could know the voice still among a thousand. The quiet, 
adequate paw — I hope to be forgiven this scientific term — had 
lost nothing of its convincingness. Nor had the level eye. 

It is well enough known to any who will read these lines that 


the Lion is no roaring: optimist in our recent national impolicies. 
Nor is he a pessimist in anything. In a varied life he never 
found any case too desperate to keep on figfhting: — nor anything 
so perfect there was no hope in trying to better it. But his 
journey, even to the immedicable East, gave him new heart of 
grace. Two men — at least — are in the saddle, of the sort he 
most believes in ; young, masterful, clean ; polished where alone 
polish comes, in the attrition of men ; but backboned where that 
serviceable marrow has its largest development — Out West. It 
has comforted the Lion to talk with Theodore Roosevelt and 
Leonard Wood. You and I are the only persons now extant who 
never make mistakes ; but these two Men will not make the 
same mistake twice. Nor will their blunders be of .22 calibre 
B. B. 
CUBA AND?, \i It was as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land 

°"\oRD. *^ *^1^ with Gen. Wood about Cuba— the Cuba which 
every congenital thief and receiver of stolen goods itches 
to put into our pockets— be he Sugar Trust, petty politician, or 
office editor of a religious weekly. For these gentlemen will 
strike a snag. Cuba is to have fair play. The honor of the 
United States, which pledged her thus much, is in no wobbly 
hands. And after the inevitable fashion of amateurs who try 
to "hold up" the Wrong Person, they who thought to "go 
through " the distressful Isle will unbuckle their own pistol belts 
instead. It was to meet these gentry that Gen. Wood had come 
up. And I think they knew he met them. 

In my opinion," he said to me, " annexation is the final out- 
come. The people of property desire it for security's sake." 
"But"— and he brought down that ponderable fist, with a look 
in his eye no man that ever traveled outdoors would disregard 
— " by heaven, if it is annexation it must be by the free choice 
of Cubal " 

And with the President and Gen. Wood and Secretary Root 
standing elbow to elbow to see that we do not break our faith 
with Cuba, that faith is pretty likely to be kept. It will take 
more Man than there is in the "holdups" to get past these 

^^^ „-.,. -^^ ^^^ ^^^ Philippines, where we have good Eastern 

^^^ men that never had a postgraduate course — let us live 
in hope. We have, indeed, press dispatches that 
"rigorous measures" are to be taken; "a stringent policy of 
starvation " is to be followed ; the Island of Samar is to be so 
desolated that a bird flying over it must carry its own food" — 
and any American who likes to may think that out in all its 
logic. We really were a little hasty in damning Weyler. 

But the President's message is another story. The moment 
he will amplify in a proclamation to the Filipinos what he has 
said of them to the Congress and the People of the United 
States — "You shall have self-government as fast and as far as 
vou show yourselves fit for it" — that moment the war will he. 
'over." Not in the reports of teakettle generals, but in very 
truth. It is the first official ray of light we have had. It is a 
bit different from "We have them and we shall keep them." 
has no family resemblance to "Sovereignty" — it is tutelage. 



And, mirahile dictu, not a voice has yet been raised ag-ainst the 
President for this startling- innovation. Which only goes to 
show that it is not so hard to do business with the American 
People on the lines the world's experience recognizes as honor- 

That we are bound by every obligation of decency to ''^^^ 5j^^^f,f. 


make such tariff arrangements with Cuba as shall enable ^^ oward 

the young republic to live and do business, every man 
knows who can comprehend an obligation at all. For those who 
can not, it is to be remarked that the "political necessity" is 
just as cogent. Bad faith to the island at the behest of a few 
Corporate Appetites would as certainly wreck the Republican 
party as it is certain that a majority of the American people are 
not thieves. After we have forced Cuba to grant this country 
peculiar and rather Over-Lordl}^ rights as against all other 
nations, even to the right of intervention ; after we have in 
effect made this country her only commercial outlet — we cannot 
starve her out. If we apply to her the same tariffs we apply to 
the nations we have not given bond for to civilization, we shall 
be starving her out. 

To such of us as have feared that the piratical interests 
which really (though secretly) brought about the War, would 
triumph ; that having egged us on to a " work of charity and 
necessity " they would manage to pocket the proceeds — it is 
nothing short of inspiring to find that the Men On Top look 
upon the Nation's faith as a thing to be kept. They know at 
least as much of politics as the ward politician, doubtless ; but 
they do not need to fall back on his horizons. 

President Roosevelt in his message "most earnestly asks your 
[Congress's] attention to the wisdom — indeed, to the vital need 
— of providing a substantial reduction on Cuban exports into the 
United States ;" to which " we are bound by every consideration 
of honor and expediency." 

Secretary of War Root in his Report ior 1901 "strongly urges" 
our "duty of the highest obligation" to make "areasonable re- 
duction in our duties upon Cuban sugar and tobacco." Major- 
General Leonard Wood, Military Governor of Cuba, in his 
Report, states the evident truth that "Cuba's prosperity and 
development depend absolutely upon her commercial relations 
with the United States. High duties against Cuban products 
mean that the development will be slow, if at all." These are 
men who know, and who have nothing to gain but the 
honest discharge of high duties. With them on such a question 
are, the Lion believes, an overwhelming majority of the Ameri- 
can people. Against them are the few but moneyed interests 
which do not care to know, but could get richer yet by a policy 

To quote — and with the fullest approval — almost the what 
precise words to the Lion of a high oflS.cial than whom '"^^^ thing 

no man alive has a better right to speak with the au- 
thority both of his knowledge and his character : Cuba's new 
freedom from yellow fever saves the United States in quarantine 
expenses alone at least as much money as could derive from 



the revenues on her sugfar ; to say nothing of the sacrifice of 
life, the business paralysis and consequent financial loss inci- 
dent to yellow fever in our South, so long communicated from 

The United States produces 450,000 tons of sugar a year, and 
consumes 2,300,000 tons. To "protect" the producers of one- 
fifth of the sugar we use, we pay eighty million dollars duty 
annually on the sugar we import. Since we have a surplus 
revenue, why not cut the import duties on an article used by 
every man, woman and child, instead of upon beer or other sug- 
gested articles used by a far smaller proportion of our popula- 
tion ? A reduction of 30 — or even 50 — per cent, on Cuban sugar 
and tobacco will not injure anyone now engaged in either busi- 
ness in the United States. We import annually at least 700,000 
tons of European sugar in excess of sugars produced at home, 
in Puerto Rico, Cuba, Hawaii and the Philippines. This fixes 
the price of the home product. 

Cuba is 90 miles off our coast. Whether we like her or not, 
we must always have her in some sense on our hands. She has 
room for ten million more people than her present population. 
Are we going to crush her present industries and prevent that 
population, or give her a chance to live ? With the enforce- 
ment of reasonable sanitary precautions, the island is perfectly 
healthful. Its trade today is 370,000,000. What other country 
with a million and a half of population has such purchasing 
power ? And what will it become under good business condi- 
tions and the consequent increase of population ? The great 
question is — shall we build up this island as a healthful, pros- 
perous country, to be an element of strength to us ; or shall we 
crush its industries and make it another Santo Domingo — a 
nearer element of weakness, another and far greater menace to 
our republic ? 

PBNANCE— i Summoned East in November, the Lion was fain to 

*^^' Idvancr. remember the Widow Bedott : 

" Can't kalkilate with no precision 
On naught beneath the sky, 
And I've 'bout come to the decision 
That 'taint worth while to try." 

He had fondly imagined never to repeat the dose. Three 
months of Eastern summer seemed to him full penance not only 
for all the sins he could remember to have done in the body, but 
for all he can ever reasonabl}-^ hope to do — now that he has more 
white hairs than brown. But either he is a poor judge of 
values in atonement, or destiny has a hard old age marked out 
for him. 

He struck Chicago July 3 last, at 100° in the shade. A few 
days later, he saw the mercury point to 118° there. December 
3 of the same year of grace, 1901, he reached Chicago in a 
snowstorm. Dec. 14, coming to Chicago from Washington at 9 
p.m., he found it 10° below zero. Next night, when he left, it 
was 16° below. 

NOT THR But this little gamut of 134° Fahrenheit was not 

^°"^* OK IT *^^ wicked worst of it. The cold was no hardship to 

the Lion. He has lived the better years of his life in 

decent climates, but has not lost much stamina. He still wears 


his overcoat in his blood — which is much more convenient. He 
was out an hour and a half in that minus 10° temperature, that 
Saturday nig-ht ; with a thin shirt, no vest, and the window of 
the cab open — and appeared to be the only comfortable person 
outdoors in Chicag-o. The rest had as many overcoats and 
ulsters as they could afford or get on ; red noses, watery eyes, 
and telegraphic teeth. So it is in no spirit of a personal griev- 
ance that these remarks are made. As anyone can understand 
who really likes to learn, this sort of experience is really a • 
pleasure. No mere closet theories of the stupidity of man m 
situ could be half so illuminative as this object lesson in what 
people will put up with — without knowing why. 

But the critical point is not the coldness of a place where thbv 
where, as Mark Twain once said, "they haven't a cli- ^'^'^^oSmate. 

mate, they just have weather." It is that people who 
live there — and as people there must live — cannot keep their 
blood up to its due functions as an ulster. They do not come to 
this meat-ax temperature from a normal life, strong and tough 
— they have to stay with it. And no race that was ever bred 
can stay with that sort of thing permanently, nowadays. In 
old days, strong men came out of the North — but they were not 
fattened on furnaces and steam heat. It is not the outdoor tem- 
perature that kills, but the indoor heat which becomes neces- 
sary to people in that environment of temperature and modern 
"progress." Prom the winter steam-heated buildings in the 
Bast (and now there are many buildings in the urban madhouses 
each of which, for six or seven hours each business day, houses 
10,000 people, steam-stewed in their own mutual — cleanliness) 
one steps in two seconds through the storm doors from 80° or 90° 
plus to 10° or 20° minus. No wonder pneumonia and consumption 
are a little the most active winter industries in the East. No 
wonder they ship trainloads of the pallid to God's country — and 
then abuse us that we have no factory to replace lungs wantonly 
thrown away. 

It was bad enough for a Westerner — and a Calif ornian from 
at that — to suffer the East in summer, when God turns ^^° ^^worse 

on the heat ; but it was a good deal worse when every 
shivering tenderfoot did. And if the Lion may be let down 
easy, now, and excused from further attendance, he will try 
humbly to be a model beast. 

One of the best men the West ever had — one of the mmaamBi^^m^^ 
truest, cleanest, finest of Americans — is gone too soon passing of 
from a stage that needed him. When John J. Valentine ■*■ ^"^^(Pfi^^^^o. 

passed, last month, to whatever reward shall be beyond ^«^^^J^^^^ 
for Nature's noblemen, it was a loss, not to California 
alone, but to his Day. In these congested times, few men of 
high position have it in them to remain single-hearted, gentle, 
unspoiled, serene ; but it was in him. Long-time head of the 
great enterprise whose record as a common-carrier is not only 
the most romantic but the most unblemished in history, he gave 
the lie not alone to the familiar proverb that corporations have 
no souls, but to the less noised but equally accurate proposition 
that they have none too much brains. He won the respect and 


love of every man that ever worked for Wells-Fargo ; he used 
that tremendous corporate influence to make them all better men 
and better citizens ; he made his office an example of what such 
a leverage could do for the commonwealth, for clean politics, 
and clean business — and what "g-ood business" it was to do it. 
Probably more than any other man in the United States in a 
like position, he proved that one may be president of a great 
corporation and still be an ungagged patriot. 

It is true that a pack of them whose god is their belly — 
" business men" who would not recognize the basic principle of 
all business if the)'^ met it on the street, time-servers to every 
Administration and secretly despised by all — tried violently in 
the last few years to punish him for being unlike them. They 
could not embitter, but they did distress, his latter days. To a 
nature like his — and he was no puny sentimentalist or vain 
dreamer ; he conducted a larger and more complicated business, 
and more successfully, than any five of his boy cotters put to- 
gether—it was an actual shock that men could so easil)-^ and so 
wholly wallow for the acorns of the modern Circe. But it never 
swerved him. He did his duty as he saw it — and he saw through 
clear eyes. Neither power nor persecution changed his homely 
fibre. He died as he had lived — and he outlived his enemies, 
for he leaves the inspiring memory of a Man. God rest him 
for the gallant one he was I 

FOUNDING A 'V\iQ. California organization to forward and assist a 



NATioNAi. more tolerable policy as toward the Indians of California 

has taken broader lines. Based upon, and given excuse 
by, the acute need of better conditions for the Mission Indians, 
it will open for business on lines of national width. President 
Roosevelt, Secretary of the Interior Hitchcock, Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs Jones, all found " horse sense" in its plans as 
outlined to them, and all promised cooperation. The foremost 
men and women. East and West, of those who really know 
Indians, have consented to take official hand in the movement. 
Locally, in Southern California, where the crusade is born, 
there are no better and no more influential people than those 
already committed to it. 

As to the Warner's Ranch Indians, we have secured promise 
of all we ask — competent official investigation of the facts and 
then the personal aid of those who stand highest to push 
through Congress the needful relief in the fashion that shall be 
found best. In advance of this official action it would be clearly 
improper to go into details ; but in another month perhaps it 
may be possible to outline the aims of the League and the 
general lines upon which it will work. In the meantime there 
need be no anxiety — and must be no June-bug butting against 
the light. Everything is in trim, and on the right lines. What- 
ever can be done for the Mission Indians is — by the highest 
powers in the land — promised to be done ; and on the only lines 
on which it is possible to do anything. Just now is the time to 
Wait. Later, it will be time to Work. And thc7i we have a 
right to hope for a long pull, a strong pull, and a pull all 


Since we are born with what little brains we have, and ^^^ hazard 
can only supple but not increase them, it is preposterous °^ opinion 

to g-o about timidifying- and beg-ging- pardon for our 
minds. God is to blame for what they are ; we, only for how 
we use them. 

The Lion doesn't know much ; but he thinks he knows the 
difference between a Poem and a Fritter. If not, it is his own 
fault, not Heaven's ; for he was suckled on Homer and the 
Hebrew seers, and bred up on Chaucer and Milton and Shakes- 
pere, and chastened by reading-, for the last seven years, an 
average of over 300 " poems" a month. But if he does, the noble 
stanzas which open this number are of a rare sort. Our Joaquin 
ought to have written their like — but has not since the Ship in 
the Desert. Kipling used — and perhaps still can. But neither 
did — nor either has, in half his productive period. It was left 
for a little round ranch-woman who never has been outside 
Arizona six months in all since she was a child ; who never had 
"schooling" or "social advantages," who has never had a 
teacher more "up" in pedag-ogy and modern hysterics than God 
Almig-hty and the Illimitable Spaces ; a backwoods girl who can 
•still blush at a little compliment and turn white at a big one ; a 
gfirl who milks cows and rides broncos right-side-out, and is 
an Influence Unseeking- in a frontier community, a Means of 
Grace to the amelioration of unlicked cubs from the metropolis 
who cross her quiet orbit — it was left for her to do this Immin- 
ent Thing. 

The Lion may be wrong. He is no more infallible than the 
bigger man now at the head of the Nation. "You know, I 
think you made some mistakes as Governor," said a Well-Meant 
Soul to him. "You think so?" retorted Our Man. "If you 
don't know it, you don't know as much as you might. Por /do." 
But the Lion is quite content to pin his judgment to this poem. 
The arm-chair technicians can pick technical flaws in it — and 
so can he. But if it is not, in breadth and depth and every 
other creature that deals with the Long Count, a greater poem 
than any of them are writing who have had every chance save 
one to surpass this girl of the wilderness — why, he can endure 
being- laughed at. And not only is this the sort of thing he 
expects of the frontier when it shall come to its own — the sort of 
thing this magazine is here to foster and give voice to — the 
precise reason why thisUnadvantaged Young Person could write 
it is the same reason that decided the choice of name for "Out 

That sound American, Louis R. Ehrich, of Colorado caring 
Springs, has fathered a new and laudable idea and a new ^°* ^future 

word to fit it — "Posteritism," which he defines as a 
"sacred regard for the highest welfare of Posterity." That 
is a good regard to have — so good that it would seem absurd to 
commend it, were not the world full of people so nearsighted as 
to agree with the cad's sentiment : " What has Posterity done 
for me ?" As a matter of fact, it has done a great deal. It has 
been and is the magnet of civilization. But for its promise, 
humanity would stop for want of incentive. There is one 
proverbial animal in the world "without pride of ancestry or 


hope of posterity." It progresses only when driven. And it is 
closely related to the humans who can see no duty and no privi- 
lege ahead. 

Mr. Ehrich's formal christening of his idea was a function 
as worthy to be copied for its material as its sentimental 
aspects. At a large public meeting, the people of Colorado 
Springs deposited a ' Century Chest" to be opened in the 
year 2001. This chest contained a great amount of such 
data as the historian a century hence will bless the Coloradans 
for furnishing him ; and the high-minded and patriotic ad- 
dress made by Mr. Ehrich on this occasion will show other 
generations that we of this were not all Men-with-a-Muck- 
Rake. If every city in America would bequeath its Century- 
chest to the future, what a civilizing influence it would have ! 
Not on the future, may be — but on us. 

WHRKK wK If the army and navy are to be run by the newspapers, 

^^^^^ Mo^EY there seems to be no reason why, as a shrewd business 
people, we should go on maintaining costly Departments. 
We are taxed, now, tens of millions a year to pay all sorts of 
officers for trying to do what the $20-a-week reporter would do 
so much better for nothing at all and board himself. Wh}', also, ' 
bother with Courts of Inquiry — or Supreme Courts, or any 
others, for that matter — when all we would need do would be to 
telephone the City Editor ? Indeed, as one looks into the thing, 
our whole government machinery could be dispensed with. 

The Schley case is an example of our wasteful habit. The 
court has found its verdict on the law and evidence ; the Secre- 
tar}' of the Navy — of course with the concurrence of the Presi- 
dent — has approved that finding. Mr. Dooley's "Cousin George" 
— with something of the boyish glee in which he remarked, at a 
historical time, that it "must be easy enough to be President" 
— has rendered a minority "report," which, as it had nothing 
whatever to do with the law of the case or with the matter be- 
fore the court, naturally and precisely commended itself to the 
"reportorial " mind. And the newspapers have done the rest. 

NO* The Lion has no remarks to offer concerning Admiral 

QUESTION Schley. Probably no one doubts his courage, his genial- 
ity, his unsophisticated senescence. Those who remember 
his exploit in Chile — as students will— may presume he knew no 
better and never would ; and at any rate he was not on trial for 
that. Doubtless even in the theatrical play of the present case 
he has been less to blame than his fool friends — and some others 
who are neither friends nor just that sort of fools. For it must 
be remembered that the goodnatured old salt has managed to 
sell a great many million newspapers. 

But whatever one's prejudices for or against the individual, it 
does not seem as if it should require a terrific exertion of mind 
to perceive what all this emotional riot means. The plain, un- 
veiled belief is "whooped up" — it is impossible to use a 
more dignified word — that the "old hero," the " man who was 
in the fight," is being "persecuted," "hounded," "conspired 
against," by some rather vague but wholly dreadful Navy Ring. 
Sho, now I That is bad ! But not half so bad as when you 



stop to think who these "hounds," and "conspirators" and 
"Ring-sters" are. They are, of course, all who approve the 
iniquitous verdict which went by the law and evidence instead 
of by the newsboys. But that includes not only nearly every 
officer in the navy ; it includes Secretary Long- ; it includes 
President Roosevelt. Really, it is the most unanimous and high- 
reaching " conspiracy" on record ! Anyone who needs further 
diagram as to the superb idiocy of this newspaper war is com- 
mended not to try. He should not fight against Pate. 

The navy is still composed of human, and therefore wherb 
non-perfect, being-s; but it is not overwhelming:ly officered '^^^ ^stands 

by cads and assassins. It is still mostly of men who 
know their business and try to keep it clean. It requires more 
training than to be a newspaper reporter, and develops perhaps 
as strict a sense of honor. Perhaps it can be quite as safely 
trusted with the honor of the nation. It has been kept freer 
from politics than the army has; and is, in fact, the cleanest 
and most perfect branch of our public service. And now there 
is an intention — where an intention counts — that both army and 
navy shall be lifted still further above politics ; that discipline 
such as every rational person knows to be indispensable shall be 
observed ; that the modern habit, under which it was hard to 
tell by listening- whether a general was a g-eneral or stump- 
orator, would be more honored in the breach than in the observ- 
ance. And it is high time. If a man prefers to be a newspaper 
orator, there is no law to compel him to remain a general ; but 
he ought to choose one or the other. The justice of this is best 
shown by the fact that there is no earthly doubt which he will 
choose. For while he is glad to help the reporter make him 
" famous," he is quite aware that he has the better job and the 
more respected. Now all that is asked of him is that he shall 
keep it respectable. 

The Lion has no inside information, official or prophetic, on 
these points; but he has his eyes. And he will stake his habitual 
hat against a resident ownership of New York city — which he 
counts big- odds — that within two years there will be better 
discipline in army and navy than there has been since the latter 
end of the Civil War, when use perfected it of necessity. And 
Discipline in men sworn to it, is no "Goo-goo" fine-hairedness. 
It means simply doing- one's duty as an honest and intelligent 

By the way — the Tutuilans will have to struggle along- as best 
they can toward "complete civilization" without more of the 
ennobling influence of B. P. Tilley. The United States has 
paid something- like $100,000 for a court martial to clear him of 
a crime which cannot even be hinted in type ; but he has been 

Chas. p. Lummis. 






If one may pardonably feel down- 
cast after a general survey of the rab- 
bitry of Literature as she is now littered ; 

"^^|»iNi ''•* upon noticing how acute the disease has become even 

within a decade ; how there are many times as many publishers where 
too many were before, and all more or less daft with the new hallu- 
cination that everything which might possibly sell ought to be printed ; 
how writers are grown epidemic until they are as the sands of the 
sea for multitude, and average about as high for worth ; how books 
are become merely a polite patter — there is nevertheless a certain reas- 
surance and assuagement in observing that the Enduring Book had never 
before so good a chance. If a thousand times more trash is printed than 
ever before — or, counting the newspapers and the magazines, a million 
times — perhaps a larger number of worthy books is printed today than 
ever ; and beyond question these books reach a far larger audience. It is 
irritating enough, truly, to note what so many people read, how they read 
it, and what dent it makes on their complacent ignorance ; but, after all, 
these are merely a new set of readers. They are not the old reading-body 
gone wrong, but raw recruits not yet habituated to go right. 

Nor is it fair to forget that while the arena buzzes with publishers un- 
predestined either by morals or by brains for such responsibility, and while 
their elders and betters are a good deal stampeded by the rush of compe- 
tition, the printing press is not yet wholly surrendered to the instant 
market, Probably there was never before so large and sure circulation for 
honest books as right now. Probably there was never before so large a 
class numerically of authors and publishers desirous to put them forth — 
though in both cases it is only in numbers and not in proportion that we 
can afford comparison with the past. Only a few years ago, people wrote 
only because they had something to say ; whereas nowadays they write be- 
cause they feel it incumbent to say something. It is the age of "ticklers." 

But "there are others." Various departments of the national govern- 
ment (like the Bureau of Ethnology, etc.) set a handsome example of 
solidity, though unfortunately in the shocking Philistine form invented 
and persisted in by the Government Printing Office ; a little the cheapest 
and sorriest form given to any books in this age. But while the paper is 
shoddy, the form studiedly inconvenient and the makeup unredeemed by 
one ray of artistic taste, there is a mine of lasting matter in these vol- 
umes ; and one may be proud of the work we are officially doing for scholar- 

Besides this, there are more than a few publishing houses in America 
which cultivate books worth while. Probably the Burrows Bros. Co. of 
Cleveland lead the list thus far, with the monumental 73-volume edition of 
the Jesuit Relations ; and Francis P. Harper, N. Y., with his dignified edi- 
tions of Dr. Coues's great works on Western history, may come next. And 
there are many more, on a smaller scale, steadily or incidentally issuing 
books which leave the reader rather less ignorant than they found him. 


And now the great house of McClurg-, Chicago — the largest publishers 
west of New York, and the heaviest handlers of books in the world — pur- 
poses to go deeply into the publication of works which will be as valued a 
hundred years hence as today. That is the test by which not one-tenth of 
one per cent, of the books of the day could aflFord to be judged. Ten years 
from date probably no novel that sells 100,000 copies this year will be 
known even by name, except to the bookworm. These are of the things 
done in a hurry, to be read in a hurry, and in a hurry forgotten — or, rather, 
never remembered at all after the next Pink Tea following the date they 
are first heard of by the Ladies. livery book that has outlasted a century 
had in its time a smaller sale than any publisher would take for a guaran- 
tee now. 

This may not be much of an argument to use to publishers to whom 
letters are what a trough is to some others — but it may have some mean- 
ing to some of those who desire to write, but at the same time retain a cer- 
tain capacity to think. And if the rewards of lasting work are not so in- 
stantly glittering, they wear better. As a cold business proposition the 
least crowded path to success as an author nowadays is to know something 
worth knowing and tell it reasonably. 

C. F. Iv. 

The Washingtonians is by no means the most ambitious of last A novri, 
year's crop of American novels, nor was its publication heralded or oF uncommon 

accompanied by the brass-band-and -circus-poster methods now wont powbr . 

to be used for hawking literary wares. None the less it must be counted 
among the most important, instructive and well-constructed of recent 
works of fiction — if indeed " fiction" is the proper style for a book dealing 
so candidly with political and social incidents well within the memory of 
men not yet old, and veiling its personages most transparently, if at all. 
Even of those who were too young in 1864 to take much notice of contem- 
porary events, few will fail to recognize the brilliant, beautiful, but ill- 
starred Kate Chase Sprague, her millionaire soldier-husband, her father — 
jurist and statesman of the first rank, — Horace Greeley, and the eloquent, 
unscrupulous Senator from Kansas, " Secret Circular" Pomeroy. The 
action of the story is mainly concerned with the efforts of "Mrs. Mat- 
thews" to further the Presidential ambitions of her father, " Secretary 
West," by methods as little to the taste of that haughtily honorable gen- 
tleman, as to that of blunt, loyal, intemperate "General Matthews." 
Now this is dangerous ground for the novelist, with the mire of deadly 
dullness threatening on one side and a tempting alternative of glittering 
but worthless sensation-dust on the other. This author swerves never so 
slightly in either direction, but tells her tale in such simple, straightfor- 
ward and convincing fashion that one cannot choose but be fascinated and 

But even this is not the best of the book. There is an insight into char- 
acter of unusual clarity, and an equally rare power of depicting it with 
the lightest touches. Witness the delightfully sympathetic scene in the 
President's box at the theatre. And for portrait-painting in words, take 
the first view of "Greenleaf, editor of the New York Chronicle'' whose 
"fringe of whiskers framed a smooth -shaven face of almost infantile 
blandness. This impression was almost immediately dispelled, however, 
by a direct glance from his spectacled eyes, which had the shrewd, blue, 
merry, innocent look of the immortal boy." 

It adds to the pleasure of a California reviewer in noting such a book as 
this that it may be fairly credited to the State. Pauline Bradford Mackie 
(Mrs. Herbert Miiller Hopkins) is and will remain loyal Californian at 
heart, though her husband's acceptance of a call to the chair of Latin at 
Trinity College has removed her bodily presence to Connecticut. L. C. 
Page & Co., Boston. - $1.50. 

Grace MacGowan Cooke and Annie Booth McKinney have in Thb 
joined forces to produce Mistress Joy, "a tale of Natchez in oi,dkr 

1798." Joyce Valentine, the heroine, is daughter of a Methodist sotrXH. 

minister, and herself plans to become a preacher, but takes one long 


draught of the joys of the " world " at New Orleans. Aaron Burr strides 
through the story and the Due d'Orleans appears long enough to lead 
the sword-minuet with Mistress Joy at her first and only ball. The Cen- 
tury Co., New York. $1.50. 

AH,'s WKLiv Given a stern and scheming' father, a young and charming 

THAT daughter, and a susceptible, available and unattached youth whom 

ENDS WEI.!.. the father has already injured and plans to ruin, and you have 
the groundwork of many a good story. Helen Churchill Camden uses 
these materials and others in An Oklahoma Romance. The lover's 
fortunes look sufficiently gloomy through twenty-four chapters, but 
emerge triumphantly in the twenty-fifth. The Century Co., New York. 

THR Probably Solomon did not have Marion Crawford in mind when 

FBKTiivB he complained t)ecause "of making of books there is no end." 

CRAWFORD. Mr. Crawford's most recent publication — unless others have ap- 
peared between the writing of this note and the printing of it — is Mari- 
etta, A Maiden of Venice. Interwoven with the story, which is partly 
historical and of course entertaining, is some minute and interesting 
detail concerning the Venetian glass-blowing guild and industry in the 
fifteenth century. The Macmillan Co., New York. $1.50. 

EASY Would you like to get a thousand dollars in return for a paltry 

MONKV — dollar and a half ? 

PKRHAPS. Twelve distinguished American story writers have joined hands 

with a publishing firm to assist some one in that laudable ambition. All 
you will have to do is to name correctly the author of each of the stories 
in A House Party. The publishers say the volume " will appeal not only 
to every person of literary taste, but to every lover of good stories." To 
the crude and irreverent Western mind, this irresistibly suggests the late 
lamented "Soapy" Smith and his devices for encouraging cleanly habits 
— and, incidentally, profanity. These included sundry greenbacks of 
tempting denomination and numerous two-inch squares of soap. The 
soap was sold at three packages for a dollar, and the purchaser might find 
one of the bills included. Mr. Smith was wont to dilate at length on the 
merits of the soap. The money spoke for itself. Small, Maynard & Co., 
•Boston. $1.50. 

Ai.i< THAT There is only one Scotchman in S. R. Crockett's latest story, 

STOPPED The Firebrand, but how he does tower above the poor Span- 

HiM. iards \<\\o give him opportunity to display his valor, wit, dis- 
cretion and constancy ! One wonders that at the end of a few years — 
and 510 pages — he is no more than Duke, "hatted grandee of Spain," and 
Governor of Valencia. Surely his methods of putting down rebellion 
" with jovial good humor, breaking their heads afi"ectionately with his 
staff when they rioted," should have won him a dictatorship at least, in 
a hundred more pages. McClure, Phillips & Co., New York. $1.50. 

THE PROPER The mighty Napoleon cuts but a sorry figure in Margaret L,. 

KNGUSH '^ooA^s Sons of the Sword. Her English heroine flouts him, fools 

MAIDEN. him, scorns his ofl'ered caresses, and generally treats him as a 
self-respecting English maiden ought to deal with the French Emperor. 
And the gallant French officer who dares his Emperor's displeasure for 
her sake fares but little better. For though he wins her reluctant consent 
to stand as bride with him at the altar, he is killed on the battlefield before 
ever he enters upon possession of his marital kingdom. McClure, Phillips 
& Co., New York. $1.50. 

FOLKSTOKiES No more interesting addition to the available volumes of popu- 

I'ROM lar folk-stories has been recently made than the Zanzihar Tales 

ZANZIBAR. which George W. Bateman has gathered from natives of the East 
Coast of Africa, and translated from the original Swahili. It will be a 
curious child, indeed, who is not fascinated with these stories, and the 
serious student of such matters cannot afford to neglect them. One 
might wish that the " translation " followed more closely the original 
forms of speech, and showed less effort for smart phrasing. The illus- 
trations by Walter Babbitt are delightful, if sometimes reminiscent, and 
the book as a whole is one of which its publishers may be proud. A. C. Mc- 
Clurg & Co., Chicago. 



Utterly remote from the din and scuffle and dust of every day saintly 
life are the paths along which A. C. Farquharson leads us in St. 
Nazarius. The book is mainly the study of a few rare and beau- 
tiful character types, with barely enough plot and incident to justify one 
in calling it a story at all. Such work can never be " popular," but the 
man who can do it does not need nor care for the approval of the crowd. 
The Macmillan Co., New York. $1.50. 

John Kendrick Bangs's particular brand of humor retains its old 
special tang through any number of successive vintages. The wtnE in 

latest bottling is labeled Mr. Munchausen, and is a veracious nbw boTTlBS. 

account of certain recent adventures of the celebrated Baron, as reported 
by one Ananias for the Gehenna Gazette. Peter Newell's illustrations 
confirm the text. Noyes, Piatt & Co., Boston. $1.50. 

Itself as unpretentious in form as in title, Charles Wagner's A Parisian 
The Simple Lije deserves no lesser qualification than "inspiring." prophet of 

These earnest, direct and searching essays form a powerful plea SIMPLICITY* 

for simplicity in living — a simplicity, be it understood, of the spirit, and 
quite as attainable in a palace as in a hermit's cell. " Do not waste your 
life" is the burden of this Parisian clergyman's discourse. "Make it 
bear fruit ; learn how to give it, in order that it may not consume itself !" 
This has been said often before, true enough, but so have most things that 
are worth saving — and the text is this time driven home with unusual force. 
McClure, Phillips & Co., New York. $1.25. 

A bright twelve-year-old, who had abstracted Lady Lee and "ouT OE 
Other Animal Stories from the reviewer's table, declared, after THE MOUTHS 

emerging from its fascinations, "If I had to write about that OF babes." 

book, I should tell them it was a fine one." With due allowance for youth- 
ful enthusiasm, the judgment may stand as approved. An introductory 
memoir of the author, Hermon Lee Ensign, by that kindly and discrimi- 
nating critic, Francis Fisher Browne, adds to the weight of the volume. 
A. C. McClurg «& Co., Chicago. $2. 

A welcome addition to the "Tales from Foreign L/ands" series a dainty 
is Nanna. translated by Francis Fisher Browne from the Danish Danish 

of Holger Drachmann. The name of the scholarly editor of the LOVE-TALB. 

Dial is sufficient assurance of the quality of the translation, while the 
story is not unworthy its original title, Paul and Virginia of a Northern 
Zo?ie. A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. $1. 

The experiences of a scholarly and earnest young clergyman " Tales OE 
coming fresh from the Seminary to a "way-back" and case- A COUNTRY 

hardened country village furnish the material for Kverett Tom- parish." 

linson's Elder Boise. It offers close character-drawing, a reliable brand of 
humor — though some of the fun is lugged in by the ears — a dialect with 
remarkable features, and an undercurrent of sound and helpful thought. 
Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. C. C. Parker, Los Angeles. $1.50, 

Under the title George Washington, Norman Hapgood has more or less 
gathered together a somewhat amazing variety of wholly undi- PERTAINING 

gested material — historical, biographical, critical and gossipy. TO WASHINGTON. 

Charles Lamb's opinion of Major Andr^, " Smyth's Journal's " opinion of 
Hamilton, Napoleon Bonaparte's opinion of Lafayette, and Mr. Hapgood's 
opinion of " the wise and patient constancy with which recent English 
statesmen have endured our insolence " are doubtless all of importance and 
interest. Yet one could spare them — and much more as little germane to 
the subject — from a volume offering itself as a biography of Washington. 
The publishers have done their part handsomely, and the book will be an 
attractively appearing addition to library shelf or table. The Macmillan 
Co., 66 Fifth Ave., New York. $1.75. 

Joseph Grinnell (of the Land of Sunshine staff) spent the larger hunting gold 
part of 1898-9 in Alaska, with a company of gold-seekers, though and birds 

his personal attention was largely given to ornithological study. in alassca. 

For the sake of the "folks at home " he kept quite a full diary, which has 
been published, after some editing by his mother, Elizabeth Grinnell. 
Fortunately the diary was written without any idea that it would ever be 
put into print. Gold Hunters in Alaska is, therefore, an entirely frank 
record of the observations and experiences of an exceedingly keen-eyed and 


good-tempered young scientist. It is wholly readable, and more informed 
and informiii^r than some more pretentious works. David C. Cook Pub- 
lishing Co., Chicago. 

Doubtless girls and boys both will follow with delight the adventures 
of Marmot, as told by Millicent E. Mann. Daughter of the Huguenot 
shoemaker to the court of Louis XIV, separated from her parents during 
the flight to America to escape the effects of the revocation of the E^ict 
of Nantes, beguiled and held in captivity by Indians of remarkable 
names and characteristics, she is finally rescued, and all ends well. A. C. 
McClurg «& Co., Chicago. $1.00 tut. 

Mary E. Mannix gives the first glimpse at the beautiful and devoted 
heroine of A Life's Labyrinth in a bandit's cavern in Greece ; the last, in 
the chapel of her ancestral home in England. The occasion of her pres- 
ence among the outlaws is the rescue from their clutches of the English 
nobleman, with whom she stands at the altar in the final scene. The Ave 
Maria, Notre Dame, Ind. $1.25. 

Kev. Magee Pratt, of Hartford, Conn., believes that nearly all modem 
churches are "swayed by worldliness" and " morally decadent." Hia 
Orthodox Preacher and Nancy is a strong and tragic story designed to 
enforce that theme. The book is marred by abominable proof-readiag. 
Connecticut Magazine Co., Hartford. 

One of the handsomest of recent '* nature books" is Nature Biof^raphies, 
by Clarence Moores Ward. It deals entertainingly with the life history of 
certain common butterflies, moths, grasshoppers and flies, and is beauti- 
fully illustrated by photographic reproductions. Doubleday, Page & Co., 
New York. C. C. Parker, Los Angeles. $1.50, net. 

In Alexander Hatnilton, James Schouler has made a creditable addition 
to the satisfying little " Beacon Biographies." Closely pruned, of neces- 
sity, it gives a more vivid and correct picture of the man of whom it 
treats than some far bulkier efforts. Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. 

75 cents, tiet. 

Part II. of the valuable Education Hand Work Manuals deals with Paper 
and Card Board Construction. Arthur H. Chamberlain, of the faculty of 
Throop Polytechnic Institute, Pasadena, is the author of the very practical 
little treatise. Whitaker & Ray Co., San Francisco. 75 cents, net. 

Granting that Wallace Irwin's Love Sonnets of a Hoodluyn are well done, 
it seems a pity that anyone should have thought it worth while to do them. 
Gelett Burgess's introduction is an admirable bit of solemn foolery. Elder 
& Shepard, San Francisco. 25 cents. 

In the latest story of the " Young Kentuckian's Series," Byron A. Dunn 
carries his youthful soldier-heroes From Atlanta to the Sea, with a suffi- 
cient number of thrilling adventures and hair-breadth escapes. A. C. 
McClurg & Co., Chicago. $1.25. 

Whisky, machine politics and newspaper work form a combination 
that might get through even a tough and hardened old hide. What 
they did to a young college graduate, Kev. C. M. Sheldon tells in The 
Wheels of the Machine. Advance Pub. Co., Chicago. 10c. 

Devout, sincere and sunny are the verses by L. Adda Nichols, collected 
under the title of Delphine and Other Poems. Whitaker & Ray Co., San 
Francisco. $1. 

Jane Pentzer Myers' Stories of Enchantment is a charming volume. 
Well-told tales, beautifully printed, daintily illustrated, in a tasteful bind- 
ing, make a combination that should be satisfying to the child clientage 
for which the book is intended. A. C. McClurg &. Co., Chicago. 

The California Floriculturist promises to be a useful and interesting 
magazine in its special field. Its editor, Ernest Braunton, is competent 
and enthusiastic, and is assured of the cooperation of other experts in 
the same line. Los Angeles. Monthly. $1 a year. 

C. A. M. 


Conducted by WILLIAM E. SMYTHE. 

The President of the United States is for irrigation ! But that is onlj 
half the glorious truth. He is for irrigation on lines of wisdom and 
everlasting justice. In dealing with the delicate relations of State and 
Nation — of the vested rights of capital, on one hand, and the vested rights 
of humanity, on the other — he has plucked the flower Safety, from the 
nettle Danger. No President of our time has dealt with a grave question 
surrounded by complicated interests, public and private, and brought forth 
suggestions so lucid, so comprehensive, so thoroughly sane and workable, 
as Theodore Roosevelt has done in dealing with the stupendous Problem 
of the West. He has not merely submitted recommendations to Congress, 
but has framed a platform upon which the friends of true progress can 
march to victory in every State and Territory. As an evidence of the use- 
fulness of his message in this respect, let the reader turn to the resolu- 
tions adopted by T;he recent Water and Forest convention in San Fran- 
cisco, published elsewhere in these pages. The cause that knew not where 
to look for a powerful friend has at last found him in the White House. 




Roosevelt's service to irrigation bids fair to parallel Lincoln's 
service to the cause of abolition. Lincoln was not one of the 
fathers of the anti-slavery movement. Other men challenged the 
wrong in the days of its arrogance and fought it in the days of its 
strength. But when the hour arrived to strike the monster down to the 
dust, Lincoln's hand held the sledge-hammer. Roosevelt was not among 
the first to discover and declare the iniquity inherent in making merchan- 
dise of the melting snow and the running brook. But he finds himself in 
power at the time when the question rises into national prominence. When 
he wrote into his message the flaming sGni^ncG,^* Private ownership of 
water apart from land cannot prevail without causing enduring wrong,^^ he 
signed an Emancipation Proclamation which differs from Lincoln's chiefly 
in the fact that it liberates men of another race and color. Edward 
Everett Hale, in announcing his conversion to the same doctrine some 
years ago, referred to his experience as an abolitionist, and said : " I have 
come to the conclusion that freedom for white men is just as important as 
freedom for blacks." And where one man owns the water which is essen- 
tial to another's existence, he virtually owns the land, and, in a very 
vicious sense, he owns the man as well, since he may levy tribute upon 
him and his descendants to the remotest generation. In declaring that 
storage works ought to be built and owned by the public, and that water 
and land must be inseparably united, the President has given an indelible 
impress to public thought "in the pregnant years when institutions are 

This brings me to the discussion of a letter which is interesting a plea 
and important, both because of its matter and of the high stand- AGAINST 

ing of its author. A gentleman who has long been identified 


76 our WEST. 

with the irrig^ation movement, rendering it valuable aervice in public and 
private capacities, writes me as follows : 

I have read with much interest your editorials in the last number of the 
Land ok Sunshink. I would like, however, to call your attention to two 
facts. First, you say : "These reforms must precede national works, and 
Congress will fall short of its duty if it fails to make the performance of 
these an imperative condition of the construction of reservoirs in any State 
or Territory." Reformation of State laws will require a term of years, 
quite likely extending beyond the limits of this administration. This 
would lose a golden opportunity of taking advantage of the present favor- 
able public sentiment towards irrigation problems. 

Second, while it doubtless would be admitted by all that there are many 
streams in the arid regions where serious complications would exist in case 
storage reservoirs were constructed for impounding the floodwaters, and 
wht-re such an adjudication is necessary, nevertheless it is equally true 
that on nutnerous other streams these complications would not exist. This 
being the case, it seems to me that it would he. entirely feasible to build 
works without complications, on many streams. It should not be neces- 
sary to delay all work until all these rights are adjudicated. Such a posi- 
tion would so dampen the ardor of the present movement that it might in- 
definitely postpone its success, which now seems almost in sight. Such a 
delay as I understand you to advise, would, in my judgment, be a serious 
blow to the movement. 

(Signed) J. B. Lippincott, 

In justice to Mr. Lippincott it should be said that, as an ofiBcial of the 
Geological Survey, he is not seeking to influence public sentiment in 
regard to the national policy, but rather to serve as a useful representative 
of a bureau of information which has accumulated many valuable data on 
the subject. In this spirit he calls attention to a point which he deems 
of much importance in connection with tl.e quoted editorial. 
THB The brief and decisive answer to Mr. Lippincott's question is 

PRKSIDKNT s tQ say that no one can possibly object to the immediate con- 

YARDSTICK . l- ^ j 

struction of storage reservoirs by the government wherever con- 
ditions will permit the use of water in the manner proposed by the Presi- 
dent's message. The President calls attention to the " lax and uncertain 
laws" which in many States "have made it possible to establish rights to 
water in excess of actual uses or necessities." He also says: "With a 
few creditable exceptions, the arid States have failed to provide for the 
certain and just divisions of streams in times of scarcity." But far more 
important than all else, he declares that " the only right to water which 
should be recognized is that of use," and that "in irrigation this right 
should attach to the land reclaimed and be inseparable therefrom." 
Finally, he writes the forever memorable and epoch-making sentence : 
" Private ownership of water apart from land cannot prevail without 
causing enduring wrong." 

Now, then, wherever the water may be turned into the stream without 
encountering complications over existing rights, and wherever the lawa 
orovide for attaching the ownership of water rights to the soil, instead 
of leaving them open to speculative control by those who prefer farming 
the farmer to farming the land, there is no objection to the immediate 
construction of reservoirs. Personally, I am using what little influence I 
have in favor of the immediate appropriation of several million dollars to 
be applied at once to the construction of reservoirs by the government. 
But in order to have this done safely and wisely the appropriation should 
be made subject to a certain condition. That condition should provide for 
expenditure of money under the act only in such localities as shall 
guarantee protection of the rights of future settlers on the public domain. 
Surely no honest man would be satisfied with less than this, while anjr 


man who demands more would be fairly open to the suspicion of seeking 
to delay action in order to serve private ends, or for the purpose of defeat- 
ing the national irrigation policy. In other words, the President's message 
is a yardstick by which the situation may be measured in various localities. 
Wherever there is a demand for the nation to store the waters and mingle 
them with the common flood of the streams, leaving their distribution to 
be accomplished under the laws of the States, let the case be considered in 
the light of the principles laid down by the message. If the circumstances 
square with those principles, then it is perfectly safe to proceed without a 
moment's delay. In this connection, it is worth while to consider Section 
11 of the bill presented by Congressman Newlands in the last Congress. 
It was in part as follows : 

This act shall not be construed as affecting, or intending to affect, or in 
any way interfere with the laws of any State relating to the rights of water 
or its distribution for irrigation, and in the selection of locations for the 
construction of reservoirs under this act, the Secretary of the Interior shall 
select localities where, in his judgment, the provisions of this act can be 
carried into effect without any conflict or interference with the laws of any 
State relating to irrigation, and the Secretary of the Interior may decline 
to let any contract for the construction of any proposed reservoir or irri- 
gation works in any State, until, under the laws of such State, the right to 
use the water from such reservoir or irrigation works, in accordance with 
the provisions of this act, shall be assured under the laws of such State. 

Now, then, if the provisions of the act require the interested State to 
show that there are no complications on the streams involved which shall 
prevent the delivery of the stored water to the public lands, and that the 
water right shall belong to the settler and not to some person or corpora- 
tion desiring to exploit the settler, the great end of national irrigation is 
accomplished. I think it would be much wiser, however, to vest the power 
of deciding these questions elsewhere than in the Secretary of the Interior, 
who is already a sadly overworked official. Why not create a National Ir- 
rigation Commission, composed of one representative each of the Agricul- 
tural, War, and Interior Departments ? Let Congress make its appropria- 
tions and indicate in what general localities they shall be expended, then 
leave the administration of the work to this Commission of skilled, prac- 
tical men, who will have time to ascertain the facts and act intelligently. 

Mr. Ivippincott's letter serves a Useful purpose in enabling those i<KT us 
who are fighting for the reform of State laws to define their posi- ^^^ PUi,i, 

tion clearly in regard to national irrigation. But that is not the 
end of its usefulness. It furnishes an opportunity for the friends of State 
Reform to appeal to the business men throughout the West who are so gen- 
erally interested in the early inauguration of the new national policy. 
How long must we cry out to deaf ears that the State and national policies 
are '* one and inseparable" — part and parcel of the same great struggle for 
the reclamation of Arid America and the founding of millions of homes 
on a basis of justice and security ? The President of the United States 
has learned this great fact and placed it on record in his first message to 
Congress. " The policy of the national government should be to aid irri- 
gation in the several States and Territories," he says, " in such manner as 
will enable the people in the local communities to help themselves, and as 
will stimulate needed reforms in the State laws and regulations governing 
irrigation." And the last words of his message on this subject are as fol- 
lows: "Ultimately, it will probably be necessary for the nation to cooper- 
ate with the several arid States in proportion as these States, by their 
legislation and administration, show themselves fit to receive it^ Do you 


realize the sig-nificance of those words, gentlemen of the Chambers of 
Commerce from St. Paul to Los Angeles ? If so, you must see that while 
it is the duty of all friends of the West to use every influence they possess 
to secure appropriations at Washington, it is equally their duty to work fo"" 
the local reforms essential to the great result. Wherever there are prepos- 
terous and unjust claims to water, wherever grave complications over ex- 
isting rights prevail, such claims and rights must be adjudicated and such 
complications straightened out. Wherever the laws permit water to be 
owned apart from land and peddled out to needy settlers by merchants 
dealing in melting- snows, the question of water ownership must be settled 
upon the only basis that can make our future millions free men. Must the 
whole splendid national program halt until this is accomplished ? By no 
means. There are places, so Mr. Lippincott says, where such complica- 
tions do not exist. There are States whose laws assert the public owner- 
ship of the streams, and States which, in granting their bounty to private 
individuals, recognize only the right which inheres in use and vests owner- 
ship in the soil. Better yet, the States which now have bad laws are going- 
to have good laws at an early day. That day can be tremendously hast- 
ened if we all work tog-ether in good faith. For instance, let us consider 
what the year may bring forth in California. 

cauforkia's Two years ago the Agricultural Department informed certain 

COMING citizens of California that it would lend its machinery to a thor- 


ough investigation of water laws and irrigation customs in this 
State, and would defray a part of the expense of the work if the State 
would pay the balance. The Water and Forest Association went out 
among the business men of San Francisco and raised $10,000 in four daj's. 
Local associations in the Sacramento, San Joaquin and Salinas Valleys 
supplemented the fund with further contributions. Eight experts were en- 
gaged under the direction of Elwood Mead. Each expert had a little staff 
of assistants. Studies were begun upon eight representative streams, typi- 
cal of conditions prevailing on the Eastern slope of the Sierras, in the 
great valleys of the interior, in the coast region, and in Southern Cali- 
fornia. Streams and ditches were measured, records of appropriations 
were scrutinized, the history of litigation was brought under review. The 
result of all this work is seen in the magnificent volume entitled " Report 
on Irrigation Investigations in California," just issued by the Department 
of Agriculture. That volume contains a detailed statement of conditions 
existing in all parts of the State and a unanimous recommendation as to 
the needed reforms. The report of the United States Commission is the 
first step in the great battle which will make the State election year of 
1902 one of the most memorable in California history ; for it is only by the 
prudent use of the ballot that the people can be sure that their wishes will 
be respected by Legislature and Executive. 

SHAPING The second step in the battle for reform has now been taken. 

THE NEW The California Water and Forest Association, at its third annual 

^^^* convention held at San Francisco, December 20 last, assumed the 
responsibility of creating an unpaid commission for the purpose of framing 
a new irrigation law for California. While the members of this important 
body will receive no salaries, several thousand dollars will be required to meet 
their necessary expenses. These expenses will include the employment of 
lawyers to search the decisions and study world-wide precedents touching 
irrigation law ; for it is important that the new code shall be the wisest 
that can be framed, and that it shall be constitutional. The Water and 


Forest Association will not wait a year to ask the State to appropriate the 
money necessary for the purpose, but will undertake to raise it at once by 
popular subscription. Seven of the nine members of the Commission 
have already been designated, as follows: 

Hon. William H. Beatty, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Hon. John D. Works, Ex-Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Hon. N. P. Chipman, Commissioner of the Supreme Court. 

Dr. David Starr Jordan, President of Stanford University. 

Dr. Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California. 

Prof. Charles D. Marx, of the Engineering- Department of Stanford 

Prof. Frank Soule, of the Engineering Department of the University 
of California. 

The two other members will be chosen, respectively, from the Agricul- 
tural Department and the Interior Department. They will probably be 
El wood Mead or J. M. Wilson, for the former, and Frederick H. Newell or 
J. B. Eippincott, for the latter. And is not that a Commission worthy to 
command public confidence ? Is it likely that any Governor would name a 
better one ? At any rate, the Commission has been created, and will soon 
enter upon its great task. If the California Water and Forest Association 
should accomplish nothing more than it has already done in securing the 
exhaustive government reports and creating this Commission, it would be 
worthy of remembrance among the best popular movements that ever 
sprang into life in this State. But what has been done represents but a 
part of the struggle for better conditions. 

Every believer in national irrigation should join in the work of THE 
State Reform for which the Water and Forest Association stands. way of 

The quotations already made from the President's message show victory. 

how absolutely vital these reforms are to the success of the national cause. 
Eet me now call the attention of all supporters of the national movement 
— and I am proud to remind them that I was one of the earliest in their 
ranks — to another fact which they ought to take into consideration. That 
fact is that the State movement has now committed itself to the President's 
policy in unequivocal terms. Read the resolutions adopted at San Fran- 
cisco and you cannot doubt the utter sincerity of the support there given 
to the national movement. The Water and Forest Association stands 
shoulder to shoulder with the National Irrigation Association in support of 
the policies advocated by the President of the United States. Moreover, 
it accepts his policies as the model on which it would build a State policy 
to do those things which admittedly lie beyond the scope of the national 
plan. You wanted the support of the State movement at Washington. 
You have got it with enthusiastic unanimity and without any reservations 
whatever. We want your support for the program of State Reforms, 
which is essential to the best and highest success of national irrigation. 
Can we have it ? Shall we stand together in unbroken ranks fighting for 
the reformation of State laws at Sacramento ? Shall we march to victory 
under a banner inscribed, " State and Nationai, Irrigation — Now 
AND Forever — One and Inseparable" ? If we can unite on these lines 
success is certain, failure impossible. And the millions of the future will 
be glad that we lived and labored and did our duty like men. 

With the first issue of the New Year this magazine begins the i^ET's 
discussion in detail of the " Program for California," outlined in Tai<k IT 

general terms last month. The plan of the discussion will be to vbk. 

state the proposed policies in simplest and plainest terms, then to invite 


criticism and suggestion. No other method could possibly produce a vain- 
able result. What our readers want to know is not what one man thinks, 
but what everybody thinks. I can sit in my library and prepare what 
seems to me like a complete presentation of the subject. But the first man 
I meet on the street asks a question, or offers an objection, which opens up 
an entirely new lirje of thought. Wisdom is not of the cloister, but of 
wide-open spaces where men move among their fellows and toil at hard 
tasks. Thus my part in the discussion is to suggest certain thoughts, 
state them in words as plain and few as I may, and then wait to hear from 
the people. When they are heard from, it will be both a duty and a pleasure 
to discuss their views and do what I can to uphold my cause. 

RBFORMS The irrigation policy, State and national, which forms a leading 

THAT wii,i, feature of the suggested " Program," is quite fully set forth in 

the resolutions prepared for the annual meeting of ihe California 
Water and Forest Association. These resolutions should be read in con- 
nection with the conclusions of the government experts, published in this 
department in December. The specific recommendations in their report 
cover the reforms which will be asked in the present water code. Beyond 
this, the essence of the irrigation proposition is that all the large works to 
be hereafter created for the reclamation of private estates in California 
should be built and owned by the public under practically the same plan 
that the President suggests for the reclamation of the public domain. 
Whatever else may be said of these resolutions, they do meet all the re- 
quirements of the water and forest situation as it now exists in California. 
Perhaps they do not meet these requirements in the best and wisest way — 
it is for the public to say as to that — but they have failed to take account of 
nothing of importance under this head. Furthermore, they blend harmo- 
niously into the proposed national policies. 

NOT Those who want to study New Zealand institutions, and coopera- 

^®**® tion in Europe, must sit at the feet of Henry Demarest Lloyd, 

THEORY -f ^ J 1 

author of "Newest England," "A Country without Strikes," 
"lyabor Co-partnership," "Wealth against Commonwealth," and other 
luminous works dealing with a class of reforms which have been carried 
into successful practice. Mr. Lloyd's work in this field has been entirely 
unique. Instead of sitting down and spinning theories, he has chosen to 
go out, notebook in hand, and study the actual operation of new institu- 
tions. Thus in one book he made the first comprehensive study of the 
trust and its possibilities. That was years before the public understood 
the drift in the direction of consolidated industries. Then he went to Europe 
and studied the great forces of cooperation in the life of the common 
people of England, Ireland, and the Low Countries. Next, he visited New 
Zealand and gave us, *' Newest England : Notes of a Democratic Traveler 
in New Zealand and Australia." Of all his books the latter is most fasci- 
nating, and, for California, most suggestive. Every reader of Out WbsT 
who is interested in our "Program for California" should become a stu- 
dent of " Newest England" in any event, and of " Labor Co-partnership," 
if especially interested in the cooperative feature. Of Mr. Lloyd, his 
books, and his work for the people much will be said in these pages. 
HOW TO This Department hopes its thousands of readers will have a 

MAKE IT genuinely Happy New Year. The wish is expressed in no per- 

functory sense, but with a heartiness which springs from deep 
convictions. For the only way to have a Happy New Year is, after all, to 
make it such. How shall we make the year count for California and the 
West ? We may do so only by exerting our effort and influence in favor 


of measures that shall make life better worth living for average folks. 
We can have as good institutions as we are fit for. I believe we are fit for 
something far better than we have at present. L/et us work together to 
realize some of our ideals, and so make happy not only our own brief day, 
but the long years that shall come and bring their millions to tread the 
paths we made. Thus shall the bells that toll out the dying year in the 
last hour of another December 

Ring in the nobler modes of life, 
With sweeter manners, purer laws. 


^gJrtHE questions involved in the making of the Twentieth Century 
^-^1 West will be discussed by a variety of writers in this Department 
^ during the next few months. In each case men peculiarly fitted 
by experience and ability to deal with the subject have been chosen. 

For instance, it will be very interesting to know what the practical irri- 
gators of an old-settled community like Riverside think of the sweeping 
reforms in the California water code suggested by the United States Com- 
mission. No one is better able to answer the question than John G. North, 
son of the founder of the colony, formerly connected with the management 
of the principal water company, and now one of the foremost lawyers of 
Southern California. He will consider the proposed reforms in their rela- 
tion to Riverside and similar communities, where the irrigation question 
has been pretty well settled after years of strife and daring enterprise. 

The series of papers recently published in these pages under the general 
title, " How to Colonize the Pacific Coast," aroused wide discussion. How 
do those plans appeal to men now actively engaged in land enterprises ? 
This question will be answered, among others, by Arthur R. Briggs, of 
Fresno, one of the prominent citizens of the San Joaquin Valley, and a 
man who has ideas and is never afraid to defend them. 

There are several different views of the relations that ought to exist 
between the advocates of State and National policies concerning irrigation. 
George H. Maxwell, Executive Chairman of the National Association, has 
consented to write a candid statement of his view of the situation. He 
lives in the very heart of the movement, and is himself largely the in- 
spiration of it. 

The New Zealand ideas touching land and labor reforms will be con- 
sidered by a number of men of prominence in public life and labor circles. 
We shall also have the assistance of Henry Demarest Lloyd, of Boston, 
author of " Newest England," who is naturally deeply interested in the 
progress of Western thought along these lines. 

The series of papers on New Zealand institutions will be profusely illus- 
trated with portraits of leading statesmen of that remarkable country and 
scenes selected from localities which are being developed in response to 
their land policy. 

Perhaps one of the most important features of the year will be the series 
of papers entitled, " Ivooking California in the Face." These articles will 
present a truthful account of various localities considered from the stand- 
point of the policies embodied in "A Program for California." 

To put it briefly, this Department of OuT WEST will aim to go to the 
very bottom of things social and economic, and expects to be accompanied 
in its excursion by some of the strongest and brightest minds in the Union. 




•|CI5>EW ZEALAND democracy is the talk of the world to- 
^l^ day," says Henry Demarest Lloyd. "It has made itself 
^"^ the policeman and partner of industry to an extent un- 

known elsewhere. It is the ' experimental station' of advanced 
legfislation. Reforms that others have only been talking: about, 
New Zealand has done, and it has anticipated the others in 
some they had not even begun to talk about." 

We are going- to see a great deal of New Zealand institutions 
in these pages during the current year. And why not ? New 
Zealand, like the States of the Far West and the Pacific Coast, 
is a new country with a small population dwelling in the midst 
of enormous natural resources. Like them, New Zealand offers 
an open door to the surplus men of old and crowded communi- 
ties. Like them, too, New Zealand is dominated by men of 
Saxon breed and English speech. The problems and the people 
of New Zealand being like the problems and the people 
of our own West, why should we not turn to that far island of 
the Antipodes for inspiration, at least, and possibly even for a 
few practical hints as to the methods which might be adopted 
in constructing our civilization ? 

At the beginning of our study of the subject, our debt to Mr. 
Lloyd should be fully acknowledged. He is the explorer who 
went upon a voyage of discovery far more important and inter- 
esting than those of Nansen and Peary to the North Pole. He 
has written the story of his observations in two books which 
have all the interest of a popular novel and a thousand times 
the practical value. These books are "Newest England" and 
" A Country Without Strikes." Upon these works we shall find 
it necessary to make liberal drafts in presenting the outline of 
New Zealand Institutions to the readers of Out West. And 
we hope this will lead thousands of Western men and women to 
possess themselves of these fascinating and useful volumes. 
The discussion in these pages is not, however, intended to be 
purely academic. New Zealand progress has been won through 
the ballot. We can talk and talk, but we shall never build Cali- 
fornia and the West until we vote and vote. The object of this 
Department is not merely to entertain and instruct its readers, 
but to do all it can to bring' things to pass. This can onl)' be 
done by inducing the great political parties to drop their squab- 
bles over the offices and take up measures which will benefit the 

Many people ask how it happens that New Zealand has given 
so many new ideas to the world. Mr. Lloyd throws some light 
on the question in the following extracts from "Newest Eng- 

There is nothing' really new or sensational about the New Zealand 
democracj'. Its political novelties prove upon inspection not to be novelties 
at all, but merely, like most American and Australian slang-, old English 
in a new place. The word of the day has been reform, not radicalism '^ 
resistance, not reconstruction. The New Zealanders are not in any sense 


extraordinary. There is only one remarkable thing- about them, and that 
is an accident. They are the most compact and homog-enous, the most 
equal and manageable democracy in the world. This is luck — not intention 
but circumstance. The country was too far away from Europe and from 
the thousand-year-old stream of westward mig^ration to become New 
Europe, as the United States has done. It became only Newest England — 
what the Puritans and Pilgrims planned ; the kind of country those Eng-- 
lishmen — "Washington, Jefferson and Adams — expected would carry on 
their constitution. 

In New Zealand the best stock of civilization — ours — was isolated by 
destiny for the culture of reform, as the bacteriologist isolates his culture 
of g-erms. New Zealand has discovered the antitoxin of revolution, the 
cure of monopoly by monopoly. New Zealand, because united, was able 
to lead ; because she has led, others can follow. 


The great San Francisco strike is so fresh in public remem- 
brance that the New Zealand method of rendering such things 
impossible claims first interest at this time. 

The Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act was the work 
of William Pember Reeves, who was Minister of Labor at the 
time of its adoption in 1894. Before presenting the measure to 
Parliament, Mr. Reeves studied his subject for years and ex- 
hausted the history of all legislative efforts to establish peace 
between capital and labor. He came to the conclusion that 
voluntary arbitration was a failure, and that some means must 
be found to compel the settlement of strikes and then to enforce 
the decrees of the tribunal which should pass upon them. When 
his opponents sought to defeat the measure on the ground that 
it was experimental, Mr. Reeves replied: " In Heaven's name, 
if we are not to deal with it in an experimental way, how are 
we to deal with it at all ?" He went on to declare that every 
good and great change in the world has been an experiment in 
the beginning. 

It may be remarked, in passing, that the new Board of Arbi- 
tration recently formed in New York, as the result of Bishop 
Potter's patriotic efforts to abolish industrial warfare, has the 
same fatal weakness that all similar undertakings have had in 
the past. That is to say, no one can be compelled to seek its 
assistance or to accept its decrees. It will probabl}' accomplish 
some good, but it falls short of a scientific solution of the 
problem if Mr. Reeves' deductions from the world's experience 
are correct. 


The scenes which marked the progress of the recent San 
Francisco strike are too well remembered to require repetition. 
They represented nothing but the appeal to brute force. The 
employer's weapon was Starvation ; the striker's, the Good 
Right Arm. Traffic stopped, mobs assembled in the streets, 
extra police patrolled the thoroughfares, and there was a time 
when it looked as if martial law might be declared. From that 
scene turn to another which Mr. Lloyd beheld upon his arrival 
at Christchurch. 

We approached an interesting- Gothic building- which did not look like a 
factory or trades-union hall, and passed into a long, open room, with vaulted 
ceilings, galleries, stained g-lass windows, all familiar to anyone who has 
been in the Parliament building's at Westminster. It was a New Zealand 


miniature of the House of Commons — the Hall of the Provincial Assembly 
of Canterbury. 

A table ran along- the center of the hall ; on each side of it sat three or 
four men, the brij,'hter toilets and the better grooming- of those on one 
side showing them to belong to a different class from those on the other, 
whose plain clothing and furrowed faces bespoke them to be working-men. 
They were busy in controversj', and between them, at 'the head of the 
table, in the white wig of an English chief-justice, was a judge of the 
Supreme Court of New Zealand. On benches under the windows were 
newspaper reporters and a number of spectators belonging evidently to 
the same classes of society as the men sitting beside each other at the side 
of the table. 

" For five years," said my New Zealand friend, *' there has not been a 
strike or a lockout in New Zealand that has not been held in a court-room." 

While this interesting: scene was in progress, the factories in- 
volved in the dispute were running as usual. The employers 
were not losing- orders and sacrificing profits. The workmen 
were not drawing down their accounts in the savings banks or 
asking their wives and children to get along with less food and 
clothing. Contrast that scene with those in San Francisco and 
then answer the question : Which represents civilization, and 
which stands for barbarism ? 


As a means of preparing the way for the application of the 
law, the Governor-General of New Zealand divides the country 
into Industrial Districts of convenient size and geographical 

The law provides for two classes of tribunals. One is called 
the Board of Conciliation, the other the Board of Arbitration. 
These correspond in a general way to Superior and Supreme 
Courts in California. 

The Boards of Conciliation have four to six members and are 
chosen every three years in each district by elections held separ- 
ately by the associations of employers and the association of 
employes, under procedure carefully arranged by law, and under 
the supervision of a government officer called the Clerk of 
Awards. The boards upon organization elect as chairman an 
outsider, who must be "some impartial person," and "willing 
to act." The chairman votes only in case of a tie. 

The Court of Arbitration consists of three persons who hold 
office for three years. They are all appointed by the Governor- 
General. One of them must be chosen from men nominated by 
the workingmen and one from men nominated by the capital- 
ists. The third is a Judge of the Supreme Court. 

The first element essential to a just settlement of any dispute 
is a complete knowledge of all the facts. These tribunals make 
sure of such knowledge by having both sides represented in 
their membership. The law permits the calling of experts, and 
even the addition of two for each side to the court itself, under 
certain circumstances. Lawyers are also allowed to appear, but 
only on condition that their presence is agreeable to both sides. 
This almost never happens, and the result is that the legal fra- 
ternity is conspicuously absent from these labor courts. It is 
really surprising to observe how well they manage to get on 
without the lawyers. 

The proceedings before the board and the court are very 


simple, informal, cheap, and expeditious. The board is required 
to make its decisions within two months, and the court within 
one month after the investij^ation begins. 

The Boards of Conciliation have no other powers than those 
of investij^ation, visitation, and intermediation. They can 
make decisions, but the decisions are not binding-. It is the 
Court of Arbitration which is the real business end of the sys- 
tem. This court makes decisions that decide and issues decrees 
that must be obeyed as much as the decisions of any other tri- 
bunal in any land on earth. 


The law applies only to industries in which there are trade- 
unions. This fact does not, however, operate as a discrimina- 
tion ag^ainst unorganized labor, since the law permits any seven 
workmen to form a union and claim their full rights under its 
provisions. The truth is that strikes always come from the 
ranks of organized labor, so that there is no possibility of in- 
justice in this feature of the plan. 

Conciliation is exhausted by the State before it resorts to ar- 
bitration. In the meantime, there is nothing in the system 
which prevents private conciliation or even private arbitration. 

If conciliation is unsuccessful, the disputants must arbitrate 
if either side demands it. The case is analogous to civil liti- 
gation in the United States. The parties have a difference 
which they cannot settle themselves. Either can bring the 
other into court and demand a settlement there according to the 
law and the precedents. 

The decree of the court must be obeyed. Pines ranging up 
to $2,500 may be exacted from the employer or from the trade- 
unions for each act of violation. If the trade-union is not 
financially responsible, a fine of $50 may be collected from each 
of the individual members. Failure to pay fines may be pun- 
ished by imprisonment. 

The compulsion of the law is threefold : compulsory publicity, 
compulsory reference to a disinterested arbiter, compulsory 
obedience to the Board. 

It is important to note that the initiative rests with the 
parties to the dispute, rather than with the State. Many be- 
lieve the latter plan would be much more in accord with the 
interests of society, but Minister Reeves thought public senti- 
ment was not ripe for the method at the time the law was 
adopted. As a matter of fact, the weaker side will almost al- 
ways appeal to the courts. The statement that there has not 
been a single strike in New Zealand, in the American sense of 
the term, since the law has been in operation, shows that there 
is no difficulty in leaving the initiative to the parties immedi- 
ately interested. 

A most important feature of the system is the fact that the 
courts must take the interests of the whole trade into considera- 
tion in making its decisions. It cannot decree that one em- 
ployer shall pay wages which will put him at a disadvantage in 
competing with other employers in the same business. On the 
other hand, it can raise the level of all wages in that industry 


in order to meet the needs of workmen and protect the interests 
of employers at the same time. 

Neither employers nor workmen can exempt themselves from 
the operations of the law by refusing to form associations. The 
law cannot be defeated by "going on strike" or locking-out 
employes before a case has been instituted in the courts. De- 
crees cannot be nullified by refusal to work or to conduct busi- 
ness in accordance therewith, unless it can be shown that the 
object of such a course is not merely to defy the law. 

The truth is that nothing is so unprofitable to labor, so de- 
moralizing to business, so injurious to society, as the constant 
recurrence of strikes and their settlement by the barbarity of 
force, whether that force take the form of the starvation of 
workers or the commercial ruin of employers. Is it not worth 
while to incur some financial risk in the effort to abolish these 
evils by applying the power of government in this department 
of society as it has been applied in other departments ? So the 
New Zealanders thought, and so California may well think. 


The writer has before him a fat little volume of 471 pages, 
bound in the traditional blue of the British government service, 
bearing this title: " Awards, Recommendations, Agreements, 
etc., made under the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration 
Act, New Zealand, from August, 1894, to June 30, 1900." 
Nothing short of a thorough study of all the hundreds of de- 
cisions contained in this volume would throw any valuable light 
upon the workings of the law. The six years of its operation 
happened to fall in a time of abounding prosperity when the 
worldwide tendency of wages and prices was upwards. It is 
not strange, therefore, that the trend of decisions was favorable 
to the labor side of the disputes. 

How the system would stand the test of hard times remains 
to be seen, but there is no good reason to doubt that it would 
be equally strong under those conditions. It clearly appeals to 
the sense of justice which is inherent in every civilized com- 
munity. It must be remembered also, in this connection, that 
the dominant influence in New Zealand politics is not the trade- 
union vote, but the farmer vote. What the farmer wants is a 
stable home market for his products. He does not desire to see 
factories closed as a result of the unreasonable demands of 
workmen or employers. He will always favor such an adminis- 
tration of the law as shall keep the factories running and his 
customers — the townspeople— in a condition to buy the products 
of the farm. 

It will be interesting to American readers to see the form of 
one or two decisions of the court. Two very brief examples 
are chosen for the purpose : 

In the Court of Arbitration of New Zealand.— In the matter of an indus- 
trial dispute between the Consolidated Goldtields of New Zealand 
(Limited) and the Itian^'ahua Miners' Industrial Union of Workers, 
referred to the said Court utider Section 46 of '* The Industrial Concili- 
tion and Arbitration Act, 1894." 
The Court, after hearing the parties to the said reference by their agents 
and representatives, doth hereby award that, on and from Monday next. 


the 28th day of September instant, up to and including- the 30th day of 
June, 1897, the rate of wages to be paid by the Consolidated Goldfields of 
New Zealand (Limited) shall be as follows, that is to say : Miners, 9s. 6d. 
per day ; truckers, battery-feeders, and surface-feeders, 8s. per day. 

And this Court doth further award that during the aforesaid period 
wages at the above rates shall be accepted by the Inangahua Miners' In- 
dustrial Union of Workers. And this Court doth further order that a 
duplicate of this award be filed in the Supreme Court Office at Hokitika. 

In witness whereof the seal of the said Court is hereunto affixed, and the 
President of the said Court has hereunto set his hand, this 23rd day of 
September, 18%. 

(ly.S.) Joshua Strangb Wii,i.iams, President. 

In the Court of Arbitration of New Zealand, Westland District— In the 

matter of "The Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act, 1894," 

and the amendments thereto, and in the matter of a dispute between 

the Inangahua Miners' Industrial Union of Workers (registered No. 

82) and the Consolidated Goldfields of New Zealand (Limited) ; and in 

the matter of an award of this Court, dated the 30th of September, 

1897, whereby it was directed, inter alia, by Clause 10 of the said award, 

" Men working rock-drills, per shift, 10s.," and by Clause 11, " Bngine- 

drivers and wheelmen, per shift, lis. 8d." ; and in the matter of an 

application for enforcement of such award, upon the grounds, " That 

the said company have failed to pay men working rock-drills 10s. per 

shift, and also failed to pay engine-drivers lis. 8d. per shift." 

The above application was heard by this Court on the 1st day of April, 

1899, at the Magistrate's Courthouse at Reefton, and the said Court found 

and ordered as follows: 

"The Court finds both breaches of the award alleged to be proved, and 
imposes upon the company, in respect of the first breach alleged, a penalty 
of £,2S sterling, and orders that penalty to be paid by the company to the 
union. In respect of the second breach alleged, the Court imposes upon 
the company the penalty of £\ sterling, and orders that penalty to be paid 
by the company to the union. No costs." 
Dated at Hokitika, this 19th July, 1899. 

O. A. Barton, Clerk of Arbitration Court. 

Most of the decisions contain much more elaborate details, 
but these two exhibit the general form and the manner of their 


The manufacturing industries of New Zealand have prospered 
under compulsory arbitration. How could it be otherwise when 
they enjoy complete immunity from labor troubles and have the 
assurance of a stable wage-scale for some time in advance ? 
The workmen have been contented, while the storekeepers have 
enjoyed a steady trade and the farmers a good home market. 
Under such conditions capital does not hesitate to invest in new 
enterprises. The following figures show the number of hands 
employed during the first five years in which the new law was 
in operation : 


1895 2^879 4,028 

1896 32,387 2,508 

1897 36,918 4,531 

1898 39,672 2,754 

1899 45,305 5,633 

. Would New Zealand compulsory arbitration be a good thing 
for the West, particularly for California ? Would it enhance 
the prosperity of manufacturers, of workingmen, and of the 
various elements of the community who depend upon them ? 
And if not, why not ? What are the practical difficulties in the 
way of its application ? 


Some of the largest employers and some of tlie ablest leaders 
of labor organizations will be invited to answer these questions 
in the pages of Out West during the next few months. If the 
answers are favorable, the next question will be propounded to 
the leaders of political parties and it will be this : Why don't 
you learn the lesson from the Schoolmasters of the Antipodes 
and proceed to abolish disastrous strikes forever ? 

PUBLIC worhs of irrigation. 

Xhe UnmistaKable Declaration of tKe 'Water and Forest 

The resolutions adopted by the California Water and Forest 
Association at its recent convention in San Francisco are very 
clear and definite. The influence of the President's message 
on Western thought is already plainly seen. The following- 
declaration speaks for itself. 

The California Water and Forest Association, assembled in 
third annual convention, makes the following declarations : 

In accordance with the suggestion of President William 
Thomas of this Association, we congratulate President Roose- 
velt upon his espousal of the cause of forest preservation and 
irrigation development and gratefully endorse the sentiment 
contained in his recent message : 

" The forest atid water problems are perhaps the most vital internal 
questions of the United States." 

We congratulate California and the West upon the Presi- 
dent's vigorous championship of a cause which will give to the 
country more homes and wealth, and bring to the American 
name more power and renown, than any other economic move- 
ment now before the people. We recognize in the President's 
message something more than the formal endorsement of a 
popular cause which, though wholly non-political, had the sup- 
port of both great parties in the last Presidential campaign. 
He has outlined a program of action which is comprehensive, 
statesmanlike, and equally suited to the needs of the nation 
and of the several States. We, therefore, gladly accept his 
leadership in our dual effort to foster national progress and 
State improvement by a policy of cooperation between the 
government at Washington and the government at Sacramento. 


We specifically endorse the following extracts from the mes- 
sage relating to forestry : 

"Forest protection is not an end of itself ; it is a means to increase and 
sustain the resources of our country and the industries which depend upon 
them. The preservation of our forests is an imperative business neces- 

" The present diffusion of responsibility (between the General Land 
Office, the Geological Survey, and the Bureau of Forestry) is bad from 
every standpoint. It prevents that effective cooperation between the ffov- 
erument and the men who utilize the resources of the reserves, without 


which the interests of both must suffer. The scientific bureaus generally 
should be put under the Department of Agriculture. 

" The forest reserves will inevitably be of still greater use in the future 
than in the past. Additions should be made to them whenever practicable, 
and their usefulness should be increased by a thoroughly business-like 

" The forest reserves should be set apart forever for the use and benefit 
of our people as a whole, and not sacrificed to the shortsighted greed of a 

Applying- the logic of these recommendations to our local 
situation, we would urge upon the President the following ad- 
ministrative acts in the interest of California : 

1. That the forest reservations in this State be increased as 
speedily as possible, especially at the headwaters of our prin- 
cipal streams. 

2. That the Chief Forester of the United States be instructed 
to investigate and report upon the expediency of State legisla- 
tion in the interest of the preservation of the forested areas of 
California by the application of scientific principles to the re- 
moval of ripened timber and the preservation of growing tim- 
ber. Furthermore, that he shall advise as to whether it may 
become necessary for the State to purchase and replant denuded 
areas as a means of protecting watersheds already impaired by 
wasteful lumbering. 

We request our Senators and our Representatives in Congress 
to urge the enactment of such legislation as will result in the 
immediate reservation of all Government forest lands within 
the State of California. 

We also declare that the public interest imperatively requires 
the enactment of such legislation as will compel all persons 
cutting timber upon lands of this State, whether held in private 
ownership or not, to adopt every reasonable and practicable pre- 
caution for preventing the outbreak and spread of fires which 
will destroy or endanger the young growth of forest trees upon 
such lands. 

We further declare that it is a matter of pressing importance 
to determine how far it may be expedient to apply in this State 
the experience gained in older countries in the systematic and 
scientific selection of ripened timber only for cutting, while pre- 
serving young and growing trees from indiscriminate waste and 


The President's recommendations in favor of national con- 
struction of storage reservoirs and of large main canals as a 
means of reclaiming and opening to settlement the arid public 
domain meet with our hearty approval. We agree with him 
when he says : 

" Great storage works are necessary to equalize the flow of streams and 
to save the floodwaters. Their construction has been conclusively shown 
to be an undertaking too vast for private effort." 

And we further agree with the statement contained in his let- 
ter to the Irrigation Congress of 1900 : 

" It is not possible, and, if it were possible, it would not be wise, to have 
this storage work done merely through private ownership." 

90 our IVES T. 

We hail with satisfaction these declarations by the President 
of the United States that works of irrigation are essentially 
public utilities and ought to be constructed, owned, and admin- 
istered by the people and for the people. 


With e(iual heartiness we commend the following quotations 
from the message showing the President's familiarity with 
conditions in the West and his conclusions based thereon : 

" The distribution of the water, the division of the streams among irri- 
gators, should be left to the settlers themselves, in conformity with the 
State laws and without interference with those laws or with vested rights. 
The policy of the national government should be to aid irrigation in the 
several States and Territories in such manner as will enable the people in 
the local communities to help themselves, and as will stimulate needed re- 
forms in the State laws and regulations governing irrigation. 

" Whoever controls a stream practically controls the land it renders pro- 
ductive, and the doctrine of private ownership of water apart frotn land 
cannot prevail without causing enduring wrong. The recognition of 
such ownership, which has been permitted to grow up in the arid regions, 
should give way to a more enlightened and larger recognition of the rights 
of the public in the control and disposal of the public water supplies. 

" In the arid States the only right to water which should be recognized 
is that of use. In irrigation this right should attach to the land reclaimed 
and be inseparable therefrom. Granting perpetual water right to others 
than users, without compensation to the public, is open to all the objec- 
tions which apply to giving away perpetual franchises to the public utili- 
ties of cities. 

" We are dealing with a new and momentous question in the pregnant 
years while institutions are forming, and what we do will affect not only 
the present but future generations. 

" Our aim should be not simply to reclaim the largest area of land and 
provide homes for the largest number of people, but to create for this new 
industry the best possible social and industrial conditions. 

" Ultimately it will probably be necessary for the nation to cooperate 
with the several arid States in proportion as these States by their legisla- 
tion and administration show themselves fit to receive it." 

If it be unwise to permit private capital to construct storage 
works for the reclamation of lands now publicly owned, but here- 
after to pass into the proprietorship of millions of American 
citizens, it follows with unerring logic that it is equally unwise 
for private capital to build storage works in the great interior 
valleys of California, in the coast region and in the South, for 
the reclamation of lands already owned and occupied by private 
individuals, but destined to be subdivided and disposed of to 
thousands of new citizens when irrigation is supplied. 

This Association neither asks nor expects national aid in the 
reclamation of the private estates of California. It believes, on 
the other hand, that this is a problem which must be solved by 
the commonwealth itself, and to the solution of which the 
genius of the commonwealth is entirely eciual. 

If it be true, as the President says, that on the public lands 
" the doctrine of private ownership of water apart from land 
cannot prevail without causing ciidnrinfr wrong^''^ it is equally 
true that '^ e/ic/urif/g 7crofig^' would follow the application of 
that dangerous doctrine to private lands which must look for 
irrigation to a source beyond their own control. Hence, it fol- 
lows that " the recognition of such ownership should give way 


to a more enlightened and larger recognition of the rights of 
the public." 

As a means of carrying out the recommendations of the 
President, and of shaping the laws and institutions of Cali- 
fornia in conformity with those which his administration pro- 
poses for all the arid States of the West, we favor the following 
course of action : 


1. The water laws of California should be reformed by the 
next legislature. It would be impracticable for the legislature 
itself, in a single session, to frame, and enact a measure of 
this far-reaching importance. We repeat our declaration 
of a year ago in favor of the creation of a commission 
by this Association itself, charged with the duty of formu- 
lating a new law in accordance with the precise recommenda- 
tions of the government experts, said Commission to consist of 
the following persons : One expert to be chosen from the De- 
partment of Agriculture ; one expert from the United States 
Geological Survey ; the Presidents of the University of Cali- 
fornia and of Leland Stanford Junior University ; one professor 
of engineering from each of said Universities ; and three prac- 
ticed lawyers, preferably men of high judicial experience, to be 
named by the President of this Association. 

2. We commend to the earnest consideration of said commis- 
sion the report of the United States Irrigation Commission, en- 
tited "Irrigation Investigations in California," recently issued 
by the Department of Agriculture. 

3. The money necessary to meet the expenses of this unpaid 
commission shall be raised by the Executive Committee and 
Advisory Council by an appeal to the members of this Associa- 
tion and to the commercial interests of the State which are 
vitally interested in the wise solution of the irrigation question. 

4. The measures framed by this commission shall, after 
being passed upon by the annual meeting of this Association 
in December, 1902, be presented to the legislature and urged for 
immediate passage. 


5. We reiterate our former demand for a generous appropria- 
tion by the State to be expended in collaboration with the United 
States Geological Survey and Irrigation Investigations of the 
Department of Agriculture, and we shall renew our efforts to 
secure the enactment into law of the bill having that end in 
view which was passed by the last legislature, but, unfortu- 
nately, did not receive the signature of the executive. But we 
favor this appropriation only upon the express condition that 
all reservoir sites and artesian basins discovered on public 
land shall be held for public works to be hereafter constructed 
by State or Nation, rather than turned over to private indi- 
viduals or corporations. 


6. We are opposed to any attempt to store the flood waters of 
the State by means of private enterprise, because such a policy 


would foster and entrench the system of private water monopoly 
which, in the language of President Roosevelt, "cannot pre- 
vail without causing enduring wrong." We believe all such 
storage works, together with large main canals should be con- 
structed, maintained and managed under State administration. 

The policy is practically identical with that proposed by 
the President for public lands, under which the nation pro- 
vides the capital and management necessary for the creation of 
works, while " the cost of construction should as far as possible 
be repaid by the land reclaimed." 

7. The construction of large storage works under any plan, 
on streams already in active use, will unavoidably conflict to 
some extent with existing canals. While we declare our un- 
alterable conviction that in all such cases the public interests 
must be treated as paramount, we nevertheless favor the fullest 
protection of vested rights now recognized by our laws and 
judicial decisions. 


The thanks of this Association are hereby tendered to the 
United States Geological Survey and to the irrigation investi- 
gations of the Department of Agriculture for the efficient work 
done and the admirable and instructive reports issued by them, 
respectively, and for what has been accomplished in collabora- 
tion with this Association during the year 1901. Our thanks 
are also extended to the Secretaries of the Interior and of Ag- 
riculture who made such collaboration possible. We hereby 
pledge our support to any further work which maj' be un- 
dertaken by the two departments of the Federal government 
above referred to in the State of California. 

We favor the creation of a Bureau of Irrigation, fully equipped 
and supported with appropriations adequate to its importance, 
said bureau to be under the Department of Agriculture. 

We join with others of our fellow citizens in the expression 
of an earnest desire that the President of the United States 
ma)^ soon be able to visit California, and thus furnish us with 
an opportunity to show our deep appreciation of his great ser- 
vice to California and the West. 



^rtHIS may be no longer referred to as a cry coming from 
\ the wilderness — from the sparsely settled sections of the 
Pacific Coast, from the dwellers along the borders of 
that vast territory, labeled on earlier maps as the great Amer- 
ican Desert, who know of its vast possibilities. From the busy 
marts of trade in the great Middle West, from the overcrowded 
centers of the older East comes now the earnest cry, " Annex 
Arid America for the People." 

With this voice from the people comes the problem to the law- 
maker, " How shall it be done ?" 

• Chairman of the Southern California Section of the National Irrigation Association. 


From a movement small in numbers and impotent in strengfth, 
a growth of many years, the embodiment of painstaking re- 
search and study from the standpoint of every interest involved, 
the National Irrigation Association comes forward to lead the 
way toward the solution of the problem. Upon its banner is 
inscribed its first platform, "Save the forests and store the 

It is perhaps too much to expect in a work of the magnitude 
of this, that while there may be a general agreement as to the 
main issue, there will • not be a considerable divergence of 
opinion as to the details. The friends of this movement will 
generally be able to determine whether the plans proposed be 
the offspring of selfish motives or the earnest desire to obtain 
equitable and beneficial results in the interests of the people. 
From actual and reliable surveys, it is now definitely known 
that certain great works can be built on the basis of immediate 
profit to the government. Formal reports have been made by 
the Geological Survey on several propositions, notably on the 
Gila river in Arizona, on the tributaries of the Truckee and 
Carson rivers in California and Nevada, and the Milk river in 

The Secretary of the Interior, in his last annual report to the 
President, recommended that steps should be taken looking 
toward the construction of these works. A united and earnest 
effort by the friends of irrigation, in favor of a definite and 
particular plan is all that is necessary to carry this great 
national policy into actual operation. 

In works of magnitude, as well as matters of lesser import- 
ance, experience has its value in teaching what not to do as 
well as indicating the lines upon which it will be safe to 

It is to be expected that among the plans presented, there 
will inevitably be ideas that are impracticable which will be 
urged with as much insistence as those which are of the high- 
est practicability. It will be the work of the legislators to 
weed out the impractical ideas and harmonize those which seem 
to be feasible. 

Suggestions which may be perfectly practicable from a single 
standpoint, that is, applicable to a certain section, may be found 
impracticable in other sections where conditions are different. 
The small diversified farming which is possible in the South- 
west, and the higher altitudes in the Rocky Mountains where a 
different class of productions are raised, readily suggest them- 
selves as illustrations of this statement. 

The question of vested rights suggests many possibilities for 
difference of opinion, but The National Irrigation Association 
suggests what would seem to be the natural and easy solution 
of this matter in a single sentence. "It is not proposed to 
take or disturb vested rights." Again, it is, from some 
quarters, made to appear that the laws of most of the Western 
States in their relation to irrigation are defective, and perhaps 
so much so as to prohibit the carrying into effect of suitable legis- 
lation by Congress. Undoubtedly many of the laws affecting 
irrigation are more or less imperfect, but so far as their relation 



to national irrigfation is concerned, it is not very apparent that 
there will be any serious damage done if the work proposed is 
commenced at once as the laws now stand. On the contrary, I 
have the highest authority for stating that an examination of 
the laws now in force in California, so far as they relate to 
national irrigation, shows they are sufficient, and appropria- 
tions may be made, as proposed by the National Irrigation As- 
sociation, without the least necessity for a modification of its 
laws. If any great movement was to be made to stand still 
until the laws of all the States affected were adjusted to meet 
the views of theoretical law-makers, progress would come to a 
decided halt. 


^rtWENTY years ago two "old timers," thoroughly well 

\ posted on the resources of Southern California as then 

known, were riding from Santa Ana to Elsinore over one 

of the oldest roads in the State. One of them was a Southern 

Pacific R. R. Co. land surveyor and knew every foot of accessible 

Matkkial kok PiPK Link at Camp Arthur S. Bent. 

land in the county. At a point about half way in the journey 
their eyes fell upon a magnificent sweep of unbroken land 
stretching away for miles in a uniform slope to the Santa Ana 
mountains. "What a splendid body of land!" said one of 
them. "Yes," replied the surveyor, "but absolutely worthless. 
There isn't a drop of water anywhere in the country, and the 
land is as dry and sterile as a desert." 

To the traveler who today steps off the train at Corona and 
looks across the same sweeping slope, now covered with thou- 
sands of acres of bearing orange orchards, the miracle is not 
lessened by the knowledge that the surveyor was right and that 



no water has ever been found in the region. And the history 
of this miracle would be an excellent epitome of the history of 
the universal miracle of Southern California, the bringing- of 
land and water together, and the marvelous results arising 
therefrom. It is the purpose here, however, to speak only of 
the last enterprise of this colony, the great water conduit from 
Ferris to Temescal, built by them this summer. It is only a 
further development of an already costly and elaborate system 
of water supply, and yet is an achievement remarkable for its 

proportions and swiftness 
of execution. 

It might well seem that 
the previous investment 
by a colony of less than 
2,000 souls, of some $200,- 
000 for water development 
would be considered "all 
the traffic would bear," 
but when the prop- 
osition came be- 
fore the 
people to 

buy water-bear- 
ing land 40 miles 
distant, sink 
wells, install pumps 
and engines suffici- 
ent to produce 800 
miner's inches of 
water, and secure rights 
of way and construct a 
29-mile line of pipe and 
ditch conduit to bring 
down the water, it was quick- 
ly carried by popular vote 
and the enterprise put under 
way at once. It was about 
the first of March that the 
vote was taken. Five months 
later the water was running from the 
lower end of the completed line. 
Between these dates lay some "strenuous life" for a number of 
people. The proposition had to be " financed," the entire route 
surveyed, the rights of way through private property secured 
and the contracts let, before the actual work was started at all. 
Any one of these preliminaries usually consumes more time 
than the whole took here. 

The conduit as constructed is a gravity line about 29 miles long, 
and traverses the narrow and rough San Jacinto Cation, follow- 
ing the Santa Fe R. R. from the wells in Ferris Valley to Elsi- 

Making Till-; i>H>E. 

SbowinoIPlow in Open Ditch at thk End of thk Thirty-Milk System. 

Showing How Mr. Bent Met Topographical Conditions. 



nore, a distance of 17 miles. From Elsinore it turns into the 
Temescal Canon, climbs the low hills, and finall}- discharges its 
precious freijfht at Temescal into the head of the old 30-inch ce- 
ment pipe line built several j'ears ago, through which it travels ten 
miles farther to its destination. The new line is about one-half 
cement-plastered open ditch with an eight-foot perimeter. The 
other half is 26-inch, 28-inch and 30-inch cement pipe. Where 
it dips below grade in inverted siphons, or traverses particularly 
rocky hillsides, redwood pipe banded with iron was used. The 
cement pipe was manufactured on the ground by the contrac- 
tors in "camps" where the proper sand and gravel could be ob- 
tained, and as fast as sufficiently seasoned it was hauled to the 
trench, laid, and covered up. Our illustrations show a few por- 
tions of the line where the pipe was laid on fills and could not 
be covered. Some tunneling and some deep cutting through 
hard material was necessary, and much rocky and difficult 
country traversed, but a large force of engineers supplemented 
the efforts of the contractors and the actual construction was 
entirely performed within the incredibly short time of three 
months. It is believed that this is a record hardly equaled 
heretofore under similar conditions. 

Simultaneously with the construction of the line, the work of 
putting down the wells, setting the big centrifugal pumps and 
installing the electric-power machiner)' to operate them was 
being pushed with great energy. By the time the conduit was 
ready, it reijuired but the throwing of a switch to lift a great 
flood into the big measuring-box at the head and start the life- 
giving stream on its fort3'-mile slide without a stop to the 
thirsty orange orchards of Corona. The actual cost of the im- 
provement was about $224,000, which amount was paid in cash 
on completion of the work. The money was raised by the issu- 
ing of corporation bonds which were sold to a Los Angeles 
bank, the ready sale being a striking evidence of the confidence 
of local capital in legitimate water enterprises. 

A Quiet Road near Pkescott, Arizona. 




Gf F this " Mountain City," as it is sometimes called, should ever desire a 
I coat of arms comprehending- its whole history, the design thereon 
^ would be a pick and shovel and a gold pan. Prescott was born in a 
gold pan and cradled in the firsfrude rocker with which the shining golden 
grains were sifted out of what are now its streets and thoroughfares. It 

grew step by step with " Long 
Toms" and sluice boxes, tail- 
ing dumps and arastras, 
through the childhood of a 
prosperous camp up to the dig- 
nity of the largest and most 
important mining town in 
Arizona. Long before there 
were any attempts at perma- 
nent settlement, daring pros- 
pectors penetrating its circling chain of mountains returned to the world 
outside with romantic stories supported by buckskin pouches of compel- 
ling hue and heaviness. 

When in 1863 Arizona received its name and entered upon its territorial 
existence, practically nothing was known of the country lying north of the 
Gila and south of the San Francisco mountains, except rumors which as- 
signed to it the richest placer-grounds in the Southwest. Under Mexican 
rule the settlements clung along what is now the southern border, leaving 
the whole mountainous region northward to the Indians, the few attempts 
to explore it being in every instance inspired by the hope of gathering 

Pkescott in 1864. 

The Ikon Way to Prescott. 

nuggets in fabulous quantities. After it passed into the hands of the 
United States, the chief value of the whole region was reckoned in these 
same gold fields, though in the mountains farther south valuable veins of 
copper, silver, and gold-bearing quartz were being worked so far as cir- 
circumstances would permit. 

In the original draft of the act creating the new territory, Tucson, the 

All photos by T. H. Bate, Prescott, Arizona. 



Pkescott in 1901. 

oldest and much the larg-est town within its borders, was named as the seat 
of government; but, when the bill finally passed, this clause was stricken 
out and the executive-to-be left free to locate his capital by proclamation, 
selecting- such location as he deemed most suitable. 
There were, beyond a doubt, many political reasons 
weighing against any point in the south, but there 
can be no question that a golden magnet drew the 
official party northward and that the newly discov- 
ered placer mines influenced them to designate as 
the seat of government the cluster of log cabins on 
Granite Creek within hearing of tiie bugles of Ft. 
Whipple. The fort itself had come into existence 
as the guardian of the miners, and following its 
wards, as so many western military posts have 
done, had just moved from its original site in 

"^v^ A 

.^ A\. 

A NBAnmii Vrsw 



From a Distance. 

Chino valley to be nearer the immensely rich Walker district in which 
population was hastily centering-. 

The new town was named Prescott, a fitting tribute from a land of ro- 
mance to thg greatest of the romantic school of historians. But in spite 
of official preference, it did not hold the right to the capital undisputed. 
Tucson rose in her wrath, and supported by her sister towns of the south 
swung the pendulum back and forth through many years in which an atlas 
would have helped little in determining the capital of Arizona. At last 
the long-disputed prize fell to neither of the older claimants, but to a 
newer and more centrally located aspirant, Phoenix. 

More and more with every year the history of Prescott became the his- 
tory of the mining development of the country. When the first legislature 
blocked the new territory off into four huge counties, Prescott was made 
the county seat of the largest, Yavapai, which included within its borders 
the richest placer mines of the territory. 

It will never ba known with perfect certainty how much gold was taken 


Arizona Mining Scrnrs. 


out of these early working's, but the richest, Walker Creek (or Lynx Creek 
as it is now called) and the Weaver district are reckoned to have produced 
over a million dollars each in dust and nuggets. In the year 1873, scant 
ten years from the date of discovery, the gold output of Yavapai county 
was $103,600. Most of this passed in some way through Prescott and con- 
tributed to the upbuilding of the place. 

The protection which the nearness of government troops afforded prob- 
ably did much to foster thorough and continuous prospecting in the sur- 
rounding mountains, though weather-worn crosses and head-boards in the 
old citizens' graveyard still record that more than one venturesome searcher 
for gold staked his last claim to the ping of Apache bullets. Many of the 
men in government employ were by turn scouts and prospectors, and every 
expedition against the Indians added something to the knowledge of the 
country. All this time, more or less mining in quartz had been going on 
and rich leads of gold, copper and silver uncovered. Slowly the placers 
were exhausted or their development rendered temporarily unprofitable by 
drouth — and all the while the star of silver was rising to the ascendency. 

Less extensive than those of Nevada, the early Arizona silver mines 
were still immensely profitable, and the silver boom was scarcely less in- 
toxicating while it lasted than the placer boom which preceded it. For- 
tunes were made in a day. Almost at the grass roots, veins were dis- 
covered out of which the pure metal could be cut with a knife. In 1880 
Yavapai county produced $265,000 in silver ; three years later it had jumped 
to $800,000— with bigger things ahead. 

There were no railroads, and freight rates were tremendous. The first 
crude smelters and mills came overland from San Francisco or Kansas 
City by ox or mule wagons, and cost something like their weight in silver 
if not in gold. Yet many of the mines met all this enormous expense and 
netted fortunes to the men who owned them. 

Then was born in the mind of the average Arizonian a magnificent con- 
tempt for small things ; a genuine resentment against any property that 
asked a preliminary investment of capital. He had seen princely sums 
taken out of holes less than a hundred feet deep, and to sink five times that 
far on the chance that a small lead might grow bigger or a low-grade one 
richer struck him as preposterous. Having given so much, there was no 
reason why the land should not give more. It was this feeling that for a 
time led to the preference for silver rather than gold mines ; since many 
of the richest gold ores were of a character that demanded more compli- 
cated treatment than the primitive methods of the country afforded. And 
the same feeling doubtless inspired the temporary belief that Arizona 
mines would not " go down" — that their value was all on the surface and 
if not found there could not be found by sinking. As a matter of fact no 
country in the world has shown a larger proportion of rich mines at shallow 
depth, but every year adds evidence that none will more surely repay deep 
and extended development. 

With the depreciation of silver and the consequent abandonment of the 
silver workings, and the low price of copper which made the great copper 
leads unprofitable, more and more attention was turned to the gold-bearing 
ores — and just here entered a new and most potent factor in the growth 
of the country. 

It offers food for reflection to those watching the carloads of ore and 
concentrates going out to the smelters and works of Pueblo, Silver City, 
and El Paso to remember that the first ore smelted from Arizona went 
down! the Colorado river and around the Horn in sailing vessels and so to 



Approaching Point ok Rocks. 

the smelters of Swansea, Wales ; something like twenty thousand miles 
from mine to furnace. 

Throughout the development of the "West mining and railroad interests 
have been inextricably interwoven. The railroads have sought the mines, 
and the mines have dated their larger prosperity from the day when the 
whistle of the locomotive mingled with the clang of drill and the roar of 
exploding " giant." If it has not been an unselfish alliance it has been a 
necessary one ; each has grown by the other, and it is the centering of the 
two interests within her limits that have made Prescott what she is today 
— a city through which passes at a low estimate six times the volume of 
business of any place of like size in the East. 

The greatest development of city and country may be said to lie within 
the past ten years, increasing yearly up to the present time, and most 
notably in the two years just past. Today Prescott is connected with two 

In Point ok Kocks. 


transcontinental railway lines ; reaching the Santa F^ Pacific to the 
north by the Santa F^, Prescott & Phoenix ; and the Southern Pacific by 
the same line to Phoenix, and thence by connecting lines to Tucson and 

From Prescott also the Prescott & Eastern, a branch of the S. F. P. & P., 
extends to Mayer, giving outlet to one of the richest mining sections in 
the Territory. A spur of the same road building up Big Bug creek to the 
Poland mine will open the rich and well-known Big Bug and Lynx Creek 
districts, and the main line is expected to push on very shortly into the 
Bradshaws and reach the famous Crown King properties. 

Prescott is also connected by rail with Jerome — the richest mine in the 
United States and one of the great mines of the world — and with Congress, 
which has been Arizona's leading gold-producer for many years. 

According to the shipping statistics of the S. F. P. & P., one thousand 
tons of ore a month go out from Prescott, and the tonnage is constantly 
increasing. One of the interesting facts connected with this ore output is 













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t-'^BH^' ^v** 


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1 — ; SL 




A Road in the Pines. 

that while new mines are entering the list weekly, much of it comes from 
mines whose names were famous in early days and that were later under 
the ban of the mistaken idea that Arizona ledges would not bear the test 
of depth. The Mudhole, located more than thirty years ago, Groom Creek, 
one of the oldest districts, the Great Octave, once Rich Hill, have been 
part of mining history since the beginning ; so everywhere depth and 
development are proving the old bonanzas true. 

One of the greatest enterprises contributary to Prescott and most inter- 
esting to expert and novice alike is the 8,000-foot tunnel projected to pierce 
the dividing range between Big Bug and Lynx Creek from the Poland 
mine inward. Though such tunnels are not unknown in Colorado this is 
the first to be driven in Arizona. It is expected to cut many ore veins 
which may be traced on the surface, permitting their development at 
vastly greater depth than would be possible by means of vertical shafts, 
and when completed it will be large enough to accommodate an electric 
car line designed to bring the ores of the Lynx Creek district to the ter- 
minus of the Big Bug railway, and so by the P. & F. to Prescott. 

108 UUr WEST. 

If much has been said so far of the country and conditions surrounding- 
Prescott, and little of the city itself, it is only that the character of its 
present and prospects of its future may be the more readily understood. 
If the spirit of beauty rather than the spirit of gold had presided over the 
selection the location of Prescott could hardly have been more satisfac- 
tory. The dark, pine-covered Sierra Prieta range circles like the broad 
rim of a sheltering basin around the terraced natural park over which the 
town has spread till it climbs the hillsides in its eager growth. Great 
pines linger along the quieter streets, reminiscent of the noble forest that 
sheltered the first comers and still forms the peculiar charm of certain 
residence portions of the town. 

Thumb Butte, crouched sphinx-like, a dark, forest-fringed, sky-touching 
peak ; Granite Mountain, a ragged, rugged, blue bulk against the north ; 
and the far, dim, snow-covered dome of distant San Francisco, the king of 
Arizona mountains, break the darker outline of the circling Sierra Prietas, 
and make up a view seldom excelled in varied beauty. 

A Mountain Gold Mine. 

Though hedged on all sides by cloud-reaching hills, Prescott might 
almost be said to stand on a mountain top, for it has an altitude of 5,500 
feet and the rare climate of higher mountain levels in the southwest. 
Never hot, never sultry— from early spring to midwinter the dry, sweet, 
pine-scented air lures one outdoors in forgetfulness that wraps and colds 
are part of the scheme of civilization. It has gone abroad that no spot on 
earth is more favored as to health, and, indeed, Ft. Whipple, next door, 
held through all its occupation by government troops the record of being 
the healthiest post in the United States, and is now spoken of as a recruit- 
ing station for homing Philippine regiments. 

Like most mountain climates, the range of temperature is greater than 
at lower levels, and with less unpleasant effect on the human organism. 
A midsummer noon may touch 100°; a midwinter daybreak fall a dozen 
degrees below the freezing-point ; but nobody is likely to know it without 
consulting the thermometer. Christmas may occasionally bring a snow- 
storm, and once in many years there may be a white Thanksgiving quickly 
passed, but the winters average mild and dry, with weeks of such sparkling 
sunshine and crisp, clear air as tnoister lands never know. 



Senator Koad. 

The beautiful nig-hts of this region are one of its greatest charms ; 
nights, even in winter, of caressing softness, with deep, purple skies and 
stars like " the wonderful Indian stars which are not all pricked out on 
one plane, but preserving an orderly perspective draw the eye through the 
velvet darkness of the void up to the barred doors of heaven itself." 

Nor has the growth of the city shamed the beauty of its surroundings. 
Even in its earlier days, when distance from railways made the cost of 
construction a serious consideration (there is a tradition that nails were once 
a hundred dollars a keg, and the sheathing of one room in the old Gov- 
ernor's Mansion with very 
ordinary planed pine boards 
cost a thousand dollars), the 
tendency was toward 
buildings worthy of 

Later, every year 
has seen beautiful 
homes and substantial 
business blocks added 
to the city, till it is 
doubtful if any town 
of its size in the 
West can show a 
similar proportion 
of fine buildings. 

And when, a year 
and a half ago, al- 
most the entire bus- 
iness portion of the 
city was laid in ash- 
es in a single night, 
workmen were upon 
the ground while 
the embers were 
still smoking. And 

The Pkospectors' Friend. 



before the charred bricks and beams were cold, they were being^ removed 
to clear the ground for handsomer and more expensive buildings than 
had stood there the day before. Two-thirds of the business men of the 
city lost their entire stock, but in in lieu of houses for temporary occu- 
pancy, tents were set up on the plaza, and in a few days the immediate 
needs of the community were met as usual. While as fast as architects 
could prepare plans, materials for the new buildings were hurried in and 
their completion pushed at utmost speed. 

Perhaps nothing could inore clearly indicate the business strength of the 
city than the fact that most of the rebuilding was done with home capital, 
and that much of what interest is being paid because of it goes to resident 
lenders. In this, her greatest crisis, Prescott proved herself what she has 
always been — supremely a business town, a center of wealth and enterprise. 

Schools, churches, and water supply, the homes and the average culture 

Thk LaKK at (iRAMTB DkLLS. 



and intelligence of the people are questions most pertinent to the home- 
seeker. The public schools of Prescott have always maintained the high- 
est standard ; two large brick buildings are now in use and a much larger 
and finer one is to be erected before the next school term. There is also 
the Academy of the Sisters of St. Joseph, a very successful private school 
under the auspices of the Catholic sisters. Seven religious denominations 
are represented, with six church buildings. 

The present water supply is drawn by a recently completed pipe line 
from large springs at Chino Valley, twenty miles away. Its purity was 
favorably reported upon by the U. S. military inspector, with reference to 
relocating troops at Whipple. The quantity is sufficient for a city ten 
times the size of Prescott. 

In the quality of her people, Prescott need not fear comparison with any 
American city of her size. Her citizens represent the best development of 
the East and the Old World. Arizona does not encourage the drone or the 
incompetent. Her atmosphere is not one in which narrowness or stupidity 

A Summer Camp at Iron Springs. 

persists. Some of her people perhaps may have missed college degrees, but 
they have taken a broader course in the bigger school of Do Something. 

Of her homes Prescott may well be proud. Comfort is the rule, beauty 
almost as much so ; and the man who does not own the house in which he 
lives is decidedly in the minority. All of which says much for the town 
socially and financially. 

The city has many fine stores, and two banks that would do credit to a 
place of double size — the Bank of Arizona, the oldest in the place, recently 
established in a beautiful new building, and the Prescott National Bank, 
which in a few weeks will be settled in one of the handsomest business 
buildings in the Southwest. Adjoining this, two other blocks of similar 
architecture are to be built in a few months, which will make the most 
beautiful street in the city. When it is remembered that the population of 
Prescott is probably not above five thousand, yet the yearly deposits in the 
two banks average over a million dollars, some idea of the business of the 
place may be gained. 


Prescott has two large first-class hotels, the Burke and the Prescott 
House, with a surprising number of smaller houses conducted in a manner 
which is an index to the immense travel that passes through the place in 
a year. 

The fame of the climate, especially for tubercular patients, brings every 
year a summer colony tenting in the pines, but as yet no attempt at accom- 
modations exclusively for invalids has been made, though it would doubt- 
less pay. But beside the public hospital the Catholic sisters have a large 
and beautifully situated hospital in the pines of West Prescott. 

So thorough a business center has yet not forgotten pleasui'e ; there are 
several fraternity halls and an opera house of comfortable capacity. In 
summer, Iron Springs and Granite Dells, two open-air resorts within easy 
reach by train or driving, are popular with outdoor pleasure-seekers. Iron 
Springs is said to have entertained a camping colony of six hundred 
during the past summer ; ibeing the favorite resort of people from the 
southern towns. 

Prescott lost the nucleus of her public library in the fire, but already 
plans are out for one of larger size, homed in its own btxilding. 

The three newspapers of the city, two daily with a weekly edition, and 
one weekly, have naturally devoted themselves closely to the mining inter- 
ests. The Journal-Miner was, as the Arizona Miner, the oldest newspaper 
in the Territory, and has been closely allied with the growth of the city 
from its infancy, the first number being issued in Chino Valley in 1864 — 
before the present town site was chosen. The Prescott Courier has also 
grown up with the town, and represents the large democratic constituency 
of the country. The Prospect is distinctly the organ of the mines. 

There was a time when stock raising was near to leading in Yavapai 
county, but dry years drifted the big herds elsewhere and the glory of the 
cowboy departed, never to return. 

Agriculture has never been more than an incident ; yet the time is coming 
when irrigation will write another" story for the busy miners to read. 
Yavapai apples have won prizes whenever exhibited, and need take on no 
added blushes when lined up with old Missouri. And if the peaches that 
grow deep-rooted in auriferous gravel and silt of centuries along the foot- 
hill streams can be matched for color and flavor outside of Paradise, the 
taster is lucky. Pears, too, and plums and grapes — all the fruits of a 
temperate zone leaning to warmer — find here a perfection that must mean 
something more than bullion and concentrates in the future of the country. 

Yet over all that may be, Prescott is distinctly the representative of a 
mining country that counts its growth by drifts and shafts and tonnage ; 
by smelters and stamp mills— a lusty young giant of the West whose pedi- 
gree is a mint certificate. 

There is perhaps no other country left quite like this ; where romance 
and civilization so jostle elbows ; where the old strong soul of the West, in 
which manhood was more than dollars, touches hands so amiably with the 
bustling commercialism of the new. It is a land that inspires to big 
things — big ventures, big hopes ; a land which in its wild beauty so pos- 
sesses the hearts of its dwellers that there is a local proverb that a man 
who leaves it is never happy till he returns. 






Photo, by Pi/Uhkry. 

3 S 

o 2 
,5-' w 


S ? 













Sequoia Gigantea (of the Mariposa Big- Tree Grove, near Wawoaa, Cal.) Photo, by Litpincott. 

Tnil.KKS (IK 11II-; Dki-.p. (Kciloiiilo, v;il. 


A Trinity Upon "WKicH Education at TKroop PolytecHnic 

Institute is Based. 

Throop Polytechnic Institute at Pasadena, Cal., is very success- 
fully fulfilling its mission of educating young people of both sexes 
upon the broad basis implied in the above head-line. The school 
had a larger enrollment for the first term of this year than any in 
its history of ten years, and its new $20,000 building gives none 
too much room for its work. 

Throop Institute, as the only school of its kind in California, 
or, indeed, on the Pacific Coast, supplies an education of which 
manual training is an important factor. Its grammar school pupils, 
including those from the fourth to the eighth grades, have their 
usual book studies supplemented by daily work in the Sloyd shops, 
where the use of tools is applied to the making of articles in wood, 
designed to develop the pupil's accuracy in measurement, his man- 
ual expertness, his perception of form, his love of the exact and 
beautiful, his patience, his industry, his aptitude for doing some- 
thing creditable with his own hands. 

This principle of developing the student's self-helpfulness is 
carried throughout his future manual work. In the first j'ear of 
the Institute's Academy courses (equivalent in a general way to 
High School courses), he spends the major part of his time in the 
study of Mathematics, English, the Modern Languages, Latin, 
Chemistry, Physics, Zoology, Botany, Physiography, Pree-hand 
and Mechanical Drawing. But these branches of learning are 
applied by daily practice (under careful personal instruction) in 
Carpentry, Wood -turning, Wood- carving. Forging, Pattern- 
making, Machine Shop Exercises, Cooking, Sewing, and Cla}'- 
modelling. Chemistry is experimentally taught with the aid of 
two expensively equipped laboratories ; and much attention is 
bestowed upon the practical study of physics and the natural 
sciences in laboratories furnished with latest apparatus and 

In addition to these departments, Throop Institute has College 
courses of study, in which Electrical Engineering is prominent ; 
a Normal department, embracing advanced courses in Manual 
Training, Domestic Economy and Art ; and a Commercial, or 
Business, department, thoroughly equipped for instruction in 
Book-keeping, Stenography, Typewriting, etc. 

There is but one price for tuition in any of these departments, 
namely, $75 a year. Gymnastics is regularly taught without 
extra charge ; while basket-ball, tennis, foot-ball and base-ball 
clubs flourish among students of both sexes. The Institute build- 
ings are of brick ; the shops are equipped with modern machinery. 

The second term of the school year, 1901-1902, opens January 
6. Send to the Secretary for catalogue. 










A Suggestion to Basket Collectors. 

Few basket collectors have time enough at their disposal to visit 
in person all the different Indian reservations and make their own 
selection of baskets. And even were the time at their disposal, such 
a plan is scarcely feasible or possible. For, in many instances, one 
might visit, at considerable expenditure of time, energy and money, 
a certain Indian reservation or camp, there expecting and antici- 
pating the pleasure of seeing the basket weavers at work, looking 
at a variety of baskets of different shapes, styles and weaves, and. 
after careful inspection, making a selection. This is the theory of 
basket collecting some people hold, but, were they to seek to put 
it into operation, how contrary to fact would they find it to be. 
They might not find a single weaver at work, nor a completed speci- 
men on hand, and to wait for the finished baskets might require weeks 
or months of time. Hence, the collector who desires fine and rare 
specimens will commit the duty of selecting them to one who makes 
a business of it, and yet employs for the work only those who intelli- 
gently comprehend the subject, and who are capable of giving accu- 
rate information as to every specimen that passes through their 

Such a dealer is Mr. E. Mehesy, Jr., of the Curio Store, opposite 
the Van Nuys Hotel, corner Fourth and Main Streets, Los Angeles, 
Cal., and the Knutsford, Salt Lake City, Utah. For many years he 
has made the intelligent collecting of Indian baskets and other curios 
an important branch of his large and increasing business. His as- 
sistants in the field are well versed in Indian lore. They understand 
the various methods of weave, and can wisely discriminate in the 
purchase of all baskets, whether new or old, submitted to them. 
They are purchasing in every field named by Carl Purdy and Mr. 
George Wharton James, and there are but few specimens there 
depicted that Mr. Mehesy cannot duplicate at any time, either 
from his large and varied stock, or from the collections now and 
again placed at his disposal, or, in the case of new baskets, by 
special manufacture. He is prepared, therefore, to make complete 
collections for his patrons, either by direct order, at his own selection, 
or under the direction of any well-informed basket connoisseur. Bas- 
kets will be sent on approval to responsible parties. 


Office of Publication! 

121^ SoutH Broad-way 
L.08 Angeles, California 

PuBLisHKi) Monthly bv 



RoBT. A. Thompson. Manaifpr San Francisco Office -3K 

Pine Street. 
Shaklot M. Hall, Manairer Arizona Office— Prescott. 
John H. Hamlin, Manatrer Nevada Office -Reno. 

Entered at the Luk Amreles Postoffice as Recond-claHK matter. 

W.C.Patterson, President; Chas. F. Lummis, Vice-Pres.; P. A. Patteb, Secretary; Char. Cassat Davis, At- 
torney; Cyrus M. Davis, Treasurer. 

Chas. Foreman, D. Freeman, F. W. Braun, John F. Francis, E. W. Jones, (;eo. H. Bonebrake estate, F, K. Rnl' 
Andrew Mullen estate, I. B. Newton, S. H. Mott, Alfred P. Griffith, E. E. Bostwick, H. E. Brook, C. M. Davis Co., I. 
Replojrle. J. C. Perry, F. A. Schnell, G. H. Paine, Louisa C. Bacon. For additional list, see Contents paare.) 

Address all MSS. to the editor with return postatre. All other business to the re8i)ective departments. 
SUBSCRIPTION RATES— $1 a year in the United States, Canada and Mexico. $1.50 a year to other countries. 



Fijfueroa street will soon be srraccd by anotlier beautiful building' of which Los An^'eles may well be proud. 

Address CutnnocK ScHool of Expression, 301-303 BlancHard Building. Three department> 
-Elocution, Entrlish, Physical Culture. Full course includes Dramatic Art and Interpretaiioa. Gesture. Analysis and 
Readinir, Voice Buildintr (as applied to the speakingr voice), Rhetoric, Literature, Parliamentary Law and Debate. 
Physical Culture, Anatomy, Physiology and Hyiriene. A.DDIE MURPHY GRIGG. Director. 



Sonoma County, Cal. 



Abundant Rainfall 
No Irrigation 
No Failures of Crops 
Near San Francisco 
Cheap Freights 

Send stamp for ** THE LAND REGISTER," giving accurate description, with price, of 
Fruit Farms, Dairies, Grain and Hay Farms, Potato, Berry and Chicken Ranches, Timt>er 
Lands, Stock Ranches, etc. ^..^ ^.,., ^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ,. . ,» o i 

THE GUY E. OROSSE CO., Santa Rosa, Cal. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST, 


You can make your har- 
Desa as soft aa a gluve 
and aa tough as wire by 
using EUREKA Har- 
ness Oil. You can 
lengthen its life— make it 
last twice OS long as it 
ordinarily would. 


Harness Oil 

makes a poor looking har- 
ness like new. Made of 
pure, heavy bodied oil, es- 
pecially prepared to with. 
Stand the weather. 

Sold everywhere 
in cans— all sizes. 







Buy at Headquarters 
and take no chances. 

•^S-page photo-illustrated cata- 
logue, 15 cents, which may be 
deducted from first order. 

WILL develop or reduce any 
part of the body 

A Perfect Complexion Beautifiier and 

Remover of Wrinkles 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' 


Electric Massage Roller 

(Patented United States, Europe, 

"Its work is not confined to the fact alone, but will do 
srood to any part of the body to which it is applied, de- 
velopingr or reducinjr as desired. It is a very pretty addi- 
tion to the toilet-table." — Chicai^o Tribune. 

"This delicate Electric Beautifier removes all facial 
blemishes. It is the only positive remover of wrinkles and 
crow's-feet. It never fails to perform all that is expected." 
^Chicago Times- Herald. 

" The Electric Roller is certainly productive of good re- 
sults. I believe it is the best of any appliances. It is safe 
and effective." Harriet Hubbard Ayer, New York World. 


An Electric Roller in all the term implies. The invention 
of a physician and electrician know throug-hout this coun- 
trj' and Europe. A most perfect complexion beautifier. 
Will remove wrinkles," crow's-feet" (premature or from 
ag-e), and all facial blemishes —POSITIVE. Whenever 
electricity is to be used for massaging or curative pur- 
poses, it has no equal. No charging. It will last forever. 
Always ready for use on ALL PARTS OF THE BODY. 
for all diseases. For Rheumatism, Sciatica, Neuralgia, 
Nervous and Circulatory Diseases, a specific. The pro- 
fessional standing of the inventor (you are referred to the 
public press for the past fifteen years), with the approval 
of this country and Europe, is a perfect guarantee. PRICE: 
Gold, S4.00. Silver, $3.00. By mail, or at office of Gibbs' 
Company, 1370 Broadway, New York. Circular free. 

The Only Electric Boiler. Al 1 others are fraudu- 
lent imitations. 


'Can take a pound a day off a patient, or put it on." — 
Ne-w Tork Stin, ^ne.ia.WiX. Send for lecture on " Great 
Subject of Fat." no dieting. ■ no hard work. 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' Obesity Cure 

For the Permanent Reduction and Cure of Obesity. 

Purely Vegetable. Harmless and Positive. NO FAIL- 
URE. Your reduction is assured — reduced to stay. One 
month's treatment $5.00. Mail, or office, 1370 Broadway, 
N. Y. "On obesity, Dr. Gibbs is a recognized authority." 

~^^" T^ork Press. \Wi. reduction GUARANTEED. 

The cure is based on Nature's laws.— iWrw Tork Her- 
ald.'^ July 9, 1899. 

SEEDS "w*oVo- 

Send for our large, beautifully illus- 
trated Seed and Plant Catalogue. 


326-330 S. MAIN ST. 

Oldest and IMost Reliable Seed House in So. California 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 









Are ihe 




"The Fox" 

In the Middle States and in the 
East where " The Fox " is bet- 
ter known, it is " The Ivcader." 
and EASY ACTION have 
made it the STANDARD. : : : 




p 104 Front Street 











Want a 
ment ? 

It is our aim to handle musical in- 
struments in such a way that they 
will be within reach of all. Whether 
you want a Violin, Guitar, Mandolin, 
Music Box, Horn, Drum, Accordion or 
any other instrument, you can buy it 
here on such easy terms that you can 
well afford to have it. Might as well 
have the use of the instrument while 
you are paying for it. You will find 
here the largest assortment to be found 
in the Southwest. 


Southern California 
Music Co. 

216-218 W. Third St. 
Bradbury Buildlnj; 

Los Angeles 


time links business and 
easure the world around 
makes travel safe and every 
engagement possible. 

An Elgin Watch always 
has the word "Elgin" 
engraved on the works. 

Sold by every jeweler in the land. 
Booklet free. 

Elgin National Watch Company, 
Elgin, Illinois. 

^•nEn'cnUars & Cuffs |//><^- 
f^H°Rv WestTroy. NY. ^^£Ll^ 

San Francisco Coast Agents 

$300,000,000.00 A YEAR 

and you may have part of it if you work 
for us. Uncle Sam's poultry product pays 
that sum. Send lOc for samples and partic- 
ulars. We furnish capital to start you ia 
business. Draper Publishin!!Co.,Chicasro.lli. 



10c. A niG I>A(KAIiEofUKAUTI£S25o. 1 poslCOMIO 
or 60 lACE VAI-KNTINF.S, to De»ler» 60c. We piy poBtajo. 
VALENTINE MFG. CO., ClIntoiiTlIle. Conn. 



_0R^ 5A|;^Tg^QlER^ 





Please Mention that You Saw it In OUT WEST. 

g= The name •• SILVERWOOD" on an ^ 
^^ an article means the same as the ^ 
^ "STERLINO" mark on silver. I3 


Our reputation and 
full guarantee stand 
bacl( of every hat 
we tell. If you can- 
not get a SILVER- 
WOOD HAT in your 
city send us your 
height and size of 
hat wo'h; sta'e 
color and If a stiff 
or soft hat is wan'- 
ed, and we'll send 
you the latest shape 
express prepaid 

$3.00 1 

^— You certainly iret as much style, as much — ^ 

^p- wear, as much satisfaction, out of a Silverwood — ^ 

^- Hat at three dollars— then why pay five? -^ 


^ 221 S. Spring St. LOS ANGELES, CAL. ^ 


Staub's for 
rine footwear 

The most select line of foot- 
wear on this Coast is displayed 
in our store, and all the desir- 
able new things as shown in 
the leading stores of the 
metropolis are included. The 
correct swell shoes for every 
occasion — golf, outing, street, 
walking, dress, house and 
fancy dancing slippers. 
Mail orders are given our best 
personal attenlion. 

C. M. Staub Shoe Co. 



^ 3C. 3E^ 3C 3& 3CJ5K3C~«5&J3C-J3CJS& 3K 3CJ3C-^^ 

The interior 
fittings determine the 
coziness of the home. 
Rich carpets, handsome rugs, 
inviting draperies, portieres 
and curtains. Come in and 
take advantage of our ex- 
perience in fitting up 

...flttractlve Homes 



like Cut 


24-inch - • S5.B0 

These suit cases are guaranteed 
to be genuine cowhide. OLIVE, 
ors. Made on a steel frame ; 
brass trimmings. 
We sell the genuine at the same 
price as others sell imitations. 
Ask for Whitney's Genuine Cow- 
hide Case of your dealers, or 
send for Illustrated Catalogue. 


343-345 S. SPRING ST. lOS ANOEIIS. CAl. 




Help— All Kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co., 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



San Joaquin bounty 

Is the Place for You 

I Fruit, Vineyard, Alfalfa, Vegetable and Grain Land for sale at prices 
^ so low you will scarcely believe it possible. 

I Wc have the BEST BARGAINS in Farm Lands to be found in the 
I United States. 

i San Joaquin County is the center of agricultural California. Nothing 
I can stop it from becoming the center of the States* population. | 


I n. C. NORRIS & Co., 247 Wilcox Block, Los Angeles 

§ Or write to our Correspondents, EATON & BUCKLEY, Stockton, Cal. 

riartindell & Home 

Real Estate and 
Jb Insurance Jk 




Fine fruit and dairy land. Plenty of water for irrig'ation 
within thirty feet of surface. Soil very deep and rich. 
Santa Fe R. R. groes through the tract, which is in every 
way suitable for a colony. Price $35 per Acre on 
easy terms. JOHN P. FISK, REDLANDS, CAL. 

There is lved.1 wOmtOrt from collars and 
cuifs that have been ironed by our patented machine : 


No matter how frayed or sharp-edged the goods, this 
machine finishes them more smoothly and comfortable than 
when the goods were new. 

Our place is convenient of access, modernly equipped, 
and courtesy and business methods prevail. 

If you cannot call, phone. 


Phone Main 635 


Satisfaction Guaranteed 




Until you try BONITA CATSUP you don't know what the best Sauce and Appetizer Is. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


H016I ?\mmm 



Situated in a pleasant part of the city. Very con- 
venient to all the theaters, churches and principal stores. 
', Two lines of cable cars pass the hotel. Sutter Street 
I line direct from the Ferries to the hotel and to Golden 
Gate Park and other points of interest. Elegantly fur- 
nished rooms, single or en suite, with or without private 
bath. All modern improvements for the comfort and 
safety of the guests. The excellence of the cuisine and 
V service are leading features, and there is an atmosphere 
<jf home comfort rarely met with in a hotel. 

Rates on the American plan, from $2-50 to $5.00 per day for one 
person. Special terms by the week and to families. 

''"■"^^turb^7;comodated"*''°"' Q. M. BRENNAN. Proprietor. 



A Monthly Magazine of Photographic Information. Supp. Illustrated. 



>*?5rI«paloma Toilet5?ap 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


17 Hniipc LOS ANGELES 




Pacific Coast Steamsliip Co. 


^ Leave San Francisco : SANTA ROSA Sundays, 9.00, a.m. 

^ STATK OF CAL Wednesdays, " " 


fe Leave Los Angeles : SANTA ROSA Wednesdays, 9.00, a.m. 

|g STATE OF CAL Saturdays, '' " 

1^ Operate Steamers to and from Mexico, Humboldt Bay, British 

1^ Columbia, Seattle and Alaska 


fi 328 S. Spring St. GENERAL AGENTS 


Hummel Bros. & Co. furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

I am teaching intelligent men, brainwork- 
ers, the ideal principles of attaining and pre- 
serving perfect health. It is not a problem- 
atical theory, but a system of physio- 
logical exercise, based upon absolutely 
correct scientific facts. 

If you will follow my instructions 
for a few weeks I will promise you 
such a superb muscular development 
and such a degree of vigorous health 
as to forever convince you that intel- 
ligent direction of muscular effort is 
just as essential to success in life as intelligent mental 
effort. No pupil of mine will need to digest his food 
with pepsin nor assist Nature with a dose of physic. I 
will give you an appetite and a strong stomach to take 
care of it ; a digestive system that will fill your veins 
with rich blood ; a strong heart that will regulate 
circulation and improve assimilation ; a pair of lungs 
that will purify your blood ; a liver that will work as 
Nature designed it should ; a set of nerves that will 
keep you up to the standard of physical and mental energy. I will increase 
your nervous force and capacity for mental labor, making your daily work a 
pleasure. You will sleep as a man ought to sleep. You will start the day as a 

mental worker must who would get 
the best of which his brain is capa- 
ble. In a few words, this system 
absolutely cures Constipation, Indi- 
gestion, Sleeplessness, Nervous Ex- 
haustion, and revitalizes the whole 
body. I can promise you all of this 
because it is common sense, rational 
and just as logical as that study im- 
proves the intellect. 

My system is taught by mail only, 
and with perfect success, requires no 
apparatus whatever and but a few 
minutes' time in your own room just 
before retiring. 

By this condensed system more 
exercise and benefit can be obtained 
in ten minutes than by any other in 
two hours, and it is the only one that 
does not overtax the heart. It is the 
only natural, easy and speedy method 
for obtaining perfect health, physical development and elasticity of mind and body. 
Pupils are both sexes, ranging in age from fifteen to eighty-six, and all re- 
commend the system. Since no two people are in the same physical condition, 
individual instructions arc given in each case. Write at once, mentioning Out 
West, lor full information and convincing endorsements from many of America's 
leading citizens. 

378 Western Book BIdg., CHICAGO 

An appreciative testimonial from the Con- 
tracting Freight Agent of the Chicago, Rock 
Island and Pacific Railway Company. 

Kansas City, Mo., December 22, 1900. 
Mr. Alois P. Swoboda, Chicatro, 111. 

My Dear Mr. Swoboda :—Althou8rh it is less than 
two months since I first commenced work at your sys- 
systemof physioloR-ical exercise, I am most thoroughly 
convinced that your system is a decided success. A 
comparative statement of my measurements will show 
you what I have accomplished in the short period of 
less than two months. 


At beniniiing 

Chest normal 33 

" contracted 31 K 

" expanded TAVi 

Waist 29 .... 

Neck \2,V^.... 

Biceps lOK 

Forearms .. 9H — 

Weight 137 .... 

Heitrht S %%.... 

In addition to this larsre increased muscular develop- 
ment, my Reneral health is decidedly improved. 
ThankinsT you for what you have done for me, and 
with best wishes for your continued success, I am, 

Very sincerely, T. O. Jknninos, Contar. F^t. Agt. 

In to days 
... 385^ 
... 3lK 
... 3951 
... 29 
... 13K 
... lOK 


J ,,^_„, ,-^ r-^ r^-KM /^ r~% r-^ M t^ r— T-, For Pancake Griddles, llread. Biscuit. C.nke and I'i« 
Little LjEM LrHEASE^fx pans. Metal and wood combined. Everlastinir K itt lica 
necessity. Postpaid to you for 14 cents. HOUSEHOLD SPECIALTY CO., Los Anoblbs, Cal. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

MANY writing machines break down 
in their youth, but Remingtons 
have tough constitutions and, no mat- 
ter how hard the work they do, they 
are sure to reach a hale and vigorous 
old age. 

Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, 327 Broadway, New York 113 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 





Altitude 5250 feet 

Drink pure water from the fountains of the mountains. Tents 
and cottag^es to rent. Excellent store, meat market and dairy. 
First-class hotel, electric light, complete sewer system, mountain 
spring water piped throughout all buildings. Seven hundred and 
thirty-four thousand acres of pine forests for hunting and moun- 
tain climbing. Golf links, lawn tennis, croquet and billiards. 

Round Trip Tickets on Santa Fe, Los Angeles to 
San Jacinto, good on Tuesdays, Thursdays and 
Saturdays— FIVE DOLLARS. 

Daily stage meets all trains at San Jacinto. Sunset telephone 
for guests. Call up "Idyllwild." For particulars address: 


1414 South Hope Street, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

John A. Smith, Burnt Wood Novelties, Hardwood Floors, Grille-work. 456 S. Broadway. 


Please Mention that You Saw it In OUT WEST. 





THE COLLEGE. Faculty of 16. Ample equipment. Students 
may pass from any class to the State University or any 
ill the KiaKt. 

THE PREPARATORY SCHOOL. As "Chaffey" stood amonjr the 
highi-st accredited schools in the State. Utmost pains taken 
with physical development, manners and character, as 
well as with the intellect. 

University Station. 

Dean Wm. T. Randall, A. M. 



New Building's. Gymnasium. Special care of health. 
Entire chargre taken of pupils during school year and 
summer vacation. Certificate admits to Eastern Col leges. 
European teachers in art and music. 12th year began 
Oct., 1901. 

Occidental College 


Three Courftes : classical. Literary, Scientific, 
leading to degrees of A. B., B. L., and B. S. Thoronffh 
Preparatory Department and School of Music. 

First semester begins Septemt>er 25, 1901. 

Address the President, 

Rev. any W. 'Wadsworth. 

Pomona College 


Courses leading to degrees of B. A.. B. S., and B. L. It« 
degrees are recognized by University of California, Stan- 
ford University, and all the Eastern Universities. 

Also Preparatory School, fitting for all CoUeees, and a 
School of Music of high grade. Address, 

Dr. Geo. A. Gate*, President. 

Formerly Casa de Kosas. 

Girls' Collegiate School 

Adama and Hoover 8ts., 
Lob Angelea, Cal. 

ALICE K. Passons, B.A., 



EIGHTH YEAH, 1901—1902. 

A select Boarding and Day School. Pre- 
pares for colleges, government • schools, 
technical schools and business. Faculty 
large, competent, experienced ; all depart- 
ments thoroughly equipped; location near 
all city advantages, yet sufficiently iso- 
lated to be beyond demoralizing influence 
and dangers. 

Before deciding upon a school investi- 
gate the advantages we offer. Special rates 
during vacation. Illustrated catalogue upon 

Telephone Main 1556. 




(Graduate Vienna Military Academy.) 

The Harvard School 



An English Classical Boardingand Day School for Boys. 

Head Master. 

Reference : Chas. W. Elliot, LL. D., President Harvard 
Hon. Wm. P. Frye, Pres't pro tem. U. S. Sienate. 


fINE ARTS («P (», 

At Beautiful 




Circulars oh application. 

Los ^D^e/e6 

'2.\'2. Aa^EST third ST. 

Is the oldest established, has the larg-est attendance, and is the best equipped business collc(^ 
on the Pacific Coast. Catalogue and circulars free. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


Farmers and Merchants Bank 


Capital (paid up) . - $500,000.00 

Surplus ... - $1,000,000.00 

Deposits - . . - $5,500,000.00 


I. W. Hellman. Prest. H. W. Htllman, V.-Prest. 

Charles Seyler, Cashier. 
GUSTAV Heiman, Assistant Cashier. 

W. H. Perry 
O.W. Childs 
C. E. Thorn 


J. F. Francis 
I.W. Hellman, Jr. 
H. W. Hellman 

J. A. Graves 
I.N. VanNuys 
I.W. Hellman 

Special Collection Department. Correspondence invited. 
Safety Deposit Boxes for rent. 

W. C. Patterson. Prest. P. M. Green. Vice Pres. 

Frank P. Flint. Second Vice- Prest. 

W. D. Woolwine. Cashier 
E. W CoE. Assistant Cashier 
D. J. WlGDAL " 

lie [OS Alleles NotliKil But 

Cor. First and Spring Streets 

Capital Stock 

Surplus and Profits over 


This bank has the best location of any bank in Los 
Angreles. It has the larg'est capital of any National bank 
in Southern California, and is the only UNITED STATES 
DEPOSITARY in Southern California. 




Noah fARNHAM Morrison 

Genealogies and 
General Literature 

Wo. 893 Broad Street, = Newark, N. J. 

Libraries and small collections of books pur- 
chased from executors and others. 
Refers by permission to the editor. 

Write to H. H. TIMBY, Book Hunter 


We hold ten and a quarter sections of promising- Oil 
Lands in what will soon be an active field. If you wish 
to buy Oil Lands call and investig-ate. 

ROOM T F. A. PatTEE, Secretary 

\2M/i Soutn Broadway L0» ANGbcES, CAL. 



Largest National Bank in Soutliern Caiifornla. 

Capital Stock $ 400,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 350,000 

Deposits 3,775,000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest. W. G. Kerckhoff. V.-Prest. 

J. C. Drake, Second V.-Prest. 

W. T S. Hammond, Assistant Cashier 


J. D. Bicknell H. Jevne W. G. Kerckhoff 

J. M. Elliott F. Q. Story J. D. Hooker 

J. C Drake 

All Dppartments cf a Mudern Banking Business Conducted 



We have for sale all or part of 
four sections of land havinsr 
promising- oil indications. It lies from four to ten 
miles from the S. P. Ry.,and has easy down grrade 
adapted to pipe line. Development is progressing in 
the vicinity, and as soon as oil is actually struck 
and the territory thus proved, values will g-reatly 
increase. Now is the time to buy, if you are inter- 


F. A. Pattee, Secretary, 
Room 5, No. 121'A S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 


Maier & Zobeiein \ 
Brewery t 




For Family use and Export a specialty. 

A pure, wholesome beverage, recommended by 
prominent physicians. 


Tel. Main 91 


prevents early wrinkles. It is not a freckle coating ; it re- 
moves them. ANYVO CO., 427 N Main St., Los Angeles. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


For Exchange 















PADDOCK COMPANY, Riverside, Cal. 


RESIDENCE LOTS- $10,500 buj-8 12 lots 
in best part of city, with $S,000 house haviner 
wide verandas and all modern conveniences 
— barn, oransre trees, etc. 

ORANGE eROVE— 20,000 buys 15 acres in 
full bearinjr, yieldintr income of $2,000 a 
year, with $6,000 house that rents for $60 a 
month unfurnished. Barn, outbuildings, etc 
All near electric car line. 

Redlands is unsurpassed for salubrious 
climate, magnificent scenery, excellent 
schools, churches, libraries and society. No 

Call upon or address: JOHN P. FISK, Rooms 
1 and 2, Union Bank Block, Redlands. Cal. 


Come to Porterville ! 

Where Orang-es and Lemons 
are grown free from Smut 
and Scale. 

equalled Climate. To in- 
vestigate means to invest. 
For information, address 

secreiory Boord oi Trofle, 


We Sell Oranye OrcHards 


That pay a steady investment, with 
ffood water riirhts. We have them in 
the suburbs of Pasadena, finely lo- 
cated for homes, also in the country 
for profit. 



16 S. Raymond Avenue, PASADENA, CAL. 
Los AngclM Office : 317-315 Brync Bldg. 


We Sell the Earth 


We deal in all kinds of Real Estate. 
Orchard and Residence Property. 
Write for descriptive pamphlet. 

Room 208, 202>^ S- BROADWAY 





The home of the Lemon. Olive. Walnut and 
Orange. Petroleum Mining. Rich farming 
Lands. First Ciass Dairy Ranges. 

The equable climate and wide ranjje of 
products make the most charming home- 
land on earth. Information and litera- 
ture furnished on application to 

Secretary Chamber of Commerce, 

Santa Barbara. Cal. 


D. D. DAVISSON 1 Agent FOR { 


I liavc had over 50 yc.-xrs' experience In this 
seekers or investors On my list are ranches 
property. Write to me and (ret posted alwiM 
years are the most profitable ones for the ran« 


locality, and am qual 
of every kind, the mos 
the part of Califurni 


ificd to furnish accurate Information to home- 
t desirable modern homes and choice bnsines> 
a where no irrigation Is necessary and drouth 

Ramon A TOILET ^o A p 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Before Locating in California 

MaKe a XKorovig'K 
Investigation of 

San Joaquin County 

It has the most fertile lands in the State at the lowest prices. 

It has a navigable river and numerous railroads, causing the lowest trans- 
portation charges in the State. 

Its markets are constant and active for all farm produce. 

It offers the best opportunity for the farmer or home-seeker that can be 
found on this coast. 


Call on or address Stockton Chamber of Comtnerce^ Stockton., Cal., or the 
Chamber's Branch Office at 66 Bryson Block., Los Ang-eles, Cal. 

Southern Califonia 


not fail to see 


24 miles from Los Angeles, on the 
Kite-shaped track of the Santa F6 Ry. 


It has first-class hotel accommodations, good drives and fine scenic surroundings. 
Its educational, social and religious facilities are complete. It is surrounded by the 
most productive and beautiful orange and lemon groves in the world, and as a place of 
residence is warmer in winter and cooler in summer than many other famous orange 
For especial information or complete and handsome illustrated literature, 

Write ""■ °A?ur?aSit Chamber of Commerce 

Hummel Bros. & Co. furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



^"^ f The most profitable varieties on the best soil, in X^ ^S^ 
the finest condition. I have more than I want to 









take care of, and will sell part in ten-acre tracts at prices 
«^x \ below present conservative values. Write me for >*^ . 
,^<v \^particulars. Better yet, come and see propert)\ ^^^-V^V* 

%\ A. P. GRIFFITH, Azusa, Cal. X<^ 




of twenty acres, eight and 
nine year old trees, situated 
within two blocks of the 
city limits of San Bernar- 
dino, Cal. Five inches con- 
tinuous water flow. 

PRESENT CROP SOLD for $2,000 1^ 

Will sell for cash for $7,500. 

Address: Box A, 

605-607 FROST BLDG. 







No BETTER Sar^aw in 

the State 

I own, free from debt, a beautiful 160 
acre ranch in the Santa Maria Valley, 
San Diego County. 25 acres are now 
in orchard, 5 acres choicest Olives, 8 
acres Royal Apricots, the balance in 
Figs, Apples, Peaches, Plums and 
Grapes. No finer fruit raised any- 
where. Irrigation is never necesssry. 

About 75 acres more in fine land for 
similar fruits. The balance in rolling 
pasture land, all fenced and .cross- 

A 5-room California house with front 
porch, barn, sheds, chicken house, etc. 
Splendid water piped into the house 
and about the place. 

Elevation, 1600 feet above sea-level ; 
climate simply perfection ; surrounding 
scenery superb. 

An industrious family can make a arood livinir 
on till* place from the start, and accnmnlate a 
fortune from it in time. I offer it away below 
its real value only because bnslneBs interests 
elsewhere will not allow me to live there. 
$a.200 will buy it, and time of payment 
c;in be arranired. 

n. W. SMITH, 123 E. Ave. 42, Los Angeles. Cal. 


prevents early wrinkles. It is not a Ireckle coalinif ; it re- 
moves them. ANVVO CO.. 427 N. Main St.. Los Antfeles. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Imperial FRESNO 

The richest county in California. Produces a greater 
variety of products than any other county in the State. The 
only county that can produce RAISINS and FIGS successfufly. 

Its orange and lemon industry is still in its swaddling cloths, 
but its citrus fruits can be shipped from two to four weeks 
earlier than from any other section. 

I have some exceptionally rich orange land, fully protected, 
that will increase in value from 100 per cent to 1000 per cent 
within the next few years. Alfalfa finds its HOME in Fresno 
County, producing more FULL crops than any other section. 

Its mineral resources are yet undeveloped, but they will 
compare favorably with other counties of the State. 

I will execute commissions of purchase and sale for non- 
residents ; investigate and furnish special confidential reports on 
Fresno city and country property ; take the entire management 
of vineyards and other property and estates. 


References upon application. 



J03J J Street 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 




Riverside County 

...California 4 





The best Orange and Lemon Lands are found in this flourishing colon)', 
and the location is unsurpassed. Mountain and valley scenery grand. 

Great Abundance of Water 

Another pipe line has just been constructed, bringing 800 inches of 
pure good water. 

Here is the Place for 
Homes and Investments 




The best authorities in Southern California commend these lands for 
the raising of lemons. Over 700 car loads of oranges and lemons shipped 
the past season. 

Corona has a population of about 2500, is located on a high, sloping 
mesa, in Riverside County, California, fifty miles east of Los Angeles, and 
fifteen miles from Riverside, on the Santa Fe Railroad. Come and see our 
beautiful colony and let us show you some bargains in groves. 

For full particulars address 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


Costa Rica Development Co. 

We invite you to write for a little book treating on Costa 
Rica and its opportunities^ sent free on request 

Two 3'ears ago this Company entered the business of cultivating rubber 
and cacao. The Company has special advantages, resulting from the loca- 
tion of its property, which lies between two navigable rivers, and is but a 
few miles distant from the route of the proposed Nicaragua canal. The soil 
is deep, rich, and its adaptability to rubber and cacao is shown by the abund- 
ance of wild trees which were originally found upon it. The territory con- 
sists of 7,500 acres. The Company have planted 75,000 rubber trees and 
10,000 cacao trees. 

Any individuals desiring a safe and profitable in- 
vestment are invited to investigate this enterprise. 
Its stability and the ability and integ^rity of its 
officers are a perfect assurance of the greatest suc- 
cess. Stock may be purchased o?i Installments. 

$ 5.00 down and $5.00 per month buys 500 shares. 

10.00 down and $10.00 per month buys 1,000 shares. 

20.00 down and $20.00 per month buys 2,000 shares. 
Stock sells for .50 cents per share. 

Costa Rica Development Co. 203 Carrier Bidg,, LOS angeles, cal. 


L. W. BLINN, President 
C. S. HOGAN, 1st Vice-Pres't 
W. B. RAYMUND, 2nd Vice-Pres't 
J. B. HENDERSON, Secretary 
E. B. MERRILL, Treasurer 








Six Hundred Acres of foothill land in northern Sonoma County. 

The soil is red loam, mixed with slate and quartz : contains a 
high percentage of silica and oxide of iron, and is, therefore, spe- 
cially suited to produce high-grade wines. 

Sixty acres now planted in vines of the best varieties, mostly 
on resistant stocks. 

Water is piped from a living stream , on the place. Supply 
always ample and of the best quality. 

The wine cellar— capacity 60,000 gallons— is built of redwood 
with a 15-inch concrete filling, maintaining uniform temperature 
the year round. Crushing and fermenting rooms above the cellars. 

Twenty acres in orchard — the choicest varieties of apples, 
pears, peaches, plums and prunes. Also hundreds of olive trees, 
the oil from which is of fine quality. 

A good eight-room house, with large outside dining hall and 
kitchen ; a six-room cottage and large barn and stables. 

This fine property can be bought for $21,000. It is worth 
much more. 

For further information address 

P. O. Box 425. Santa Rosa, Cal. 

Help — All Kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co., 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

NEW ORLEANS AND THE EAST - Leaves Los Angeles Every Tuesday. 
Thursday and Saturday at 8:30 A.M. Write Agent for Particulars 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



Grand Canon of Arizona 

65 Miles from Williams, on the 



Words cannot express the grandeur of the scene as 
one stands on the rim of the World's greatest chasm, 
and gazes out over the awful depths. Stop-over privileges 
allowed at Williams on both rail and sleeping car tickets. 
Write for Grand Canon booklet* 

General Pass. Agent, Los Angeles, Cal. 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


The Delightful Scenic Route 

...To Santa cMonica 

And Hollywood 

Fine, Comfortable Observation Cars Free from Smoke, etc 

Cars leave Fonrth street and Broadway, Los Anireles, for Santa Monica via. Sixteenth 
street, every half hour from 6:35 a.m. to 6:35 p.m., then each hour till 11:35 ; or via Bellevue 
Ave., for CoIegTove and Sherman every hour from 6:15a.m. to 11:15 p.m. Cars leave Ocean 
Park, Santa Monica, for Los Anareles, at 5:40 and 6:40 a.m. and every half hour thereafter 
till 7:40 p.m., and at 8:40, 9:40 and 10:40 p.m. 

Cars leave Los Antreles for Santa Monica via. Hollywood and Sherman via. Bellevne 
Ave., every hour from 6:45 a.m. to 5;45 p.m., and to Hollywood only every hour thereafter. 

**"Por complete time-table and particulars call at office of company. 

Sinsrle Round Trip, 50c. 10-Trip Tickets, $2.00. 







The great transcontinental route 
through Salt L/ake City and the 

iosi MQOfiiiiceoi sceoery in Mm 

No European trip of equal length 
can compare with it in grandeur 
of scenery or wealth of novel in- 
terest. Pullman Palace and ordin- 
ary Sleepers through to Omaha, 
St. Louis and Chicago daily. 

For information, handsomely 
illustrated pamphlets, etc., call 
'upon your nearest Ticket Airent, 
or address : 

G. VV. HEINTZ, Asst. Oen. Pass.-iiflrer Atrent, 
Salt Lake City. 

F. W. THOMPSON, Gen. Agent, 625 Market 
St., San Francisco. 

. Jft M M TK^K^r! ." M fK ^M^M'Mf^^^My^MJK Jf. Wk M M /^ J^ M ^ 

Pacific Coast Steamship Ca 






SANTA ROSA Wednesdays, 7 a.m. 

STATE OF CAL Saturdays, 7 a.m. 


SANTA ROSA Wednesdays, 11:00 a.m. 

STATE OF CAL Saturdays, 11 a.m. 

Arrive at San Francisco Thursdays and 
Sundays 1 p.m. 



Ventura, Carpenteria, Santa Barbara, Goleta, 
Gaviota, Port Harford (San Luis Obispo), 
Cayucos, San Simeon, Monterey and Santa Cruz. 

CORONA MoNDAY-S, 6:30 p.m. 



SANTA ROSA Mondays, 4 p.m. 

STATE OF CAL Thursdays, 4 p.m. 


SANTA ROSA Mondays, 8 p.iti. 

STATE OF CAL — Thursdays. 8 p.m. 

For further information obtain folder. 

The company reserves the right to change 
steamers, sailing days, and hours of sailing, 
without previous notice. 

W. PARR IS, Agent, 328 S. Spring «t., Lo« 
General Agents, San Francisco. 




Yosemite Hotel 

«il»«iiii»»i»)%)i)i«»ii»ii(i»»««»»»»»)i««»»»»»»»»»»»»»«»»»tt»»»<^ «»»««««»»<»«»<(»» 


prevents early wrinkles. It i<« n«>l a freckle coating ; it re- 
moves them. ANYVO CO.. 427 N. Main St., Los Angeles. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 












A California Education 

The bound volumes of tbe Land of Sunshine make the most interesting 
and valuable library of the far West ever printed. The illustrations are lavish and 
handsome, the text is of a high literary standard, and ol recognized authority in its 
field. There is nothing else like this magazine. Among the thousands of publica- 
tions in the United States, it is wholly unique. Every educated Californian and 
Westerner should have these charming volumes. They will not long be secured at 
the present rates, for back numbers are growing more and more scarce ; in fact the 
June number, 1894, is already out of the market. 


Vols. 1 and 2. July, '94 to May, '95, inclusive $3.90 

3 and 4. June, '95 to May, '96, 
5 and 6. June, '96 to May, '97, 
7 and 8. June, '97 to May, '9s, 
9 and 10. June, '98 to May, '99, 
11 and 12. June, '99 to May, '00, 
13 and 14. June, '00 to June, '01, 
15. June, '01 to Jan., '02, 



"";^- ! A"^^.--" - ■" " ■^ ^TCTnTHTriTTTllTl 'III 



is interested and should know 
about the wondeiful 

Marvel s^:^ 

If your druggist cannot 
supply the MARVEL, 
accept no other, but write us for 
Illustrated Book, sent free — 
sealed. It gives price by mail, 
particulars and directions invalu- 
able to ladies. Endorsed by Ptayslclnns. 

MARVEL CO., Room 33, Times Building, N.V. 



CURES SICK HEADACHE bv remov- ■ ^l* 

inKthecause. CUBES DYSPEPSIA by nil | A 
aiding digestion. CLEARS THE COM- B* | ll^ 
PliEXION, by purifying the blood. ■ ■^^^* 


These pills act quietly on the boweN, r*'movme the pestilent matter, 
stimulates the liver into notion creating a healthy digestion eurinK 
dyspepsia and sour stomach For pimply, pale or sallow people, they 
imprt to the face that wholesome look that indicates health. Sold 
by druggists or by mail. 2&C a box. Samples free. 

DR. BO.SANKO CO., Philadelphia, Pa. 

HUNTER & CAMFIELD -- --- ,„..e. 


General Business Agents Los Anoblbs, Cal 
Evohantres Telephones! 

Ramon A TOILET 3o ap 

FO R '3 ALE 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 




Conquest of Arid Amcrica" 












is pronounced by reviewers " one of the few really 
best books on the West. A book every American 
should read." "One of the most interesting, one of 
the truest, most prophetic and most vital." " It is as 
readable as a novel and has more brains in it than a 
whole library of modern novels." 

By special arrangement with Mr. Wm. E. Smythe, the 
author of the above famous book, we are permitted to 
oflfer it as a premium together with a year's subscri|>- 
tion to Out West for $2.00, inclusive of postage. The 
price of the book at all dealers is $1.50, or with postage, 
$1.60. The price of a year's subscription to OuT Whst 
being $1.00, 


Beginning with the July issue, 1901, this magazine 
has regularly devoted some twenty pages to 
Irrigation, Cooperation and Colonization, under the 
personal supervision of Mr. Smythe. Those who desire 
to keep in touch with the really big things of current 
progress and interest, or enjoy the great variety of 
articles which will appear in this department from the 
pens of the foremost thinkers and writers of the West, 
should take advantage of this premium offer. 

Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. 

Phone Ureen 1274 
121^ South Broadway, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

>*?SrJ«Paloma Tpilet5?ap 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Your choice at Half-price ^ 

Half-tone and Line-etching Cuts 

We have accumulated over 
2tXK) cuts of WesUrii subjects 
whicli have been used but once in the Land of Sunshine or Out West. 
They are practically a-v^ewoii' a* wrrv, but will be sold at half-price, viz.,8}^c 
a square inch for half-tones larsrer than twelve square inches and $1 for those 
under tliat size with 40c additional for vig-nettes. Line etchinsrs, 5c a square 
inch for those over ten square inches and SOc for those under that size. 
If you cannot call at our office send $1.50 to cover express charges on 
proof book to be sent to you for inspection and return. The book is not for sale 
and must be returned promptly. If j'ou order cuts to the amount of $5 
the cost of expressagre on the proof book will be refunded. 

Land of Sunshine Pub. Co. 

Room 7, No. 121 >^ South 
Broadway, Ivos Angeles 

• -^ tS''S''i& sia"SS''^'S'S''&'S'S''S''^'S^'S''S'^'''^'S'S''S''TS'S''S''S' ■ S 







sx.ooeediT.g Jling'sley - Barnes CSL Ne\iner Company 


PHone Main -417 

An Attractive Line of 
Art Souvenirs 


115 S. Broad^vay \|/ 




Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

AstKina Cure Free ! 

Asthmalene Brings Instant Relief and 
Permanent Cure in all Cases 




There is nothings like Asthtnalene. It brings instant 
relief, even in the worst cases. It cures when all else 

The Fev. C. F. WELLS, of Villa Kidjfe. 111., says: 
"Your trial bottle of Asthmalene received in good con- 
dition. I cannot tell you how thankful I feel for the good 
derived from it. I was a slave, chained with putrid sore 
throat and asthma for ten years. 1 despaired of ever 
being cured. I saw your advertisement for the cure of 
this dreadful and tormenting disease, asthma, and thought 
you had overspoken yourselves, but resolved to give it a 
trial. To my astonisment, the trial acted like a charm. 
Send me a full*sized bottle." 

We want to send to every sufferer a trial treatment of 
Asthmalene, similar to the one that cured Mr. Wells; 
We'll send it by mail POSTPAID, ABSOLUTELY 
FREE OF CHARGE, to any sufferer who will write for it, even on a 
postal. Never mind, though you are despairing, however bad your case, 
Asthmalene will relieve and cure. The worse yoitr case, the more glad 
we are to send it. Do not delay. Write at once, addressing DR. TAFT 
BROS. MEDICINE CO., 79 East 130 St., New York City. Sold by all 

Crystallized Fruits 

We crystallize about twenty different 
kinds of fruits — they are perfectly pre- 
served and keep indefinitely. Fancy Bo.xes, 
assorted, sent prepaid, 75c Povmd. 

i { 

^ QlflCC Prunes stuffed with walnut Meats are Delicious. 


Sent prepaid 75c Pound. 

II Crystallized Navel Orange 


^ 1'kkskkvkd Whole; retains perfect shape and 
"^ individuality. Sent prepaid, $1.00 each. 




Mail orders atlciided to promptly. 


^ 447 South Spring Street 

Los Angeles CRY3TALrZED NaVEL OfiANGr 


Hummel Bros. & Co., "Help Center," 300 W. Secona St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

„-«^ rf««a* „^^tt*<SiSS^ ",--T-^-r- A^"l«- 1 



XKe Ne-w Raymond 

Exemplifies all that modern hotel science means. 
All of its 400 rooms have the sun a portion of 
the day and nearly all are en suite with private 
bath. The office is spacious and inviting with 
large open fireplace. There are several reception 
or drawing rooms, billiard rooms for ladies and 
gentlemen, a sun room, reading room, smoking 
room, ball room, bazar, conservatory, and in the 
center of the patio a typical Spanish garden. 
The golf links are unique in their proximity to the 
hotel to which they belong and the fine views af- 
forded at every turn. The cuisine is as perfect as 
can be made. 

It is just far enough from Pasadena business 
streets and railways to escape the noise, and just 
near enough for convenience. From its sightly 
location, the hotel - commands a magnificent and 
unobstructed view, on all sides, of orange groves 
and vineyards, of green valleys, "flower-carpeted 
slopes and snow-capped mountains. There are 
trolley and steam connections with Los Angeles 
nine miles distant. The Raymond's Station for 
three overland railways is but a few hundred 
yards from the hotel, whence a brilliantly-lighted 
subway leads to the basement elevator, or paths 
and drives up the park-like eminence. 

In fine, the New Raymond provides perfect 
enjoyment among perfect natural surroun(^ings. 

Walter Raymond, Prop. PASADENA, CAL M. C. Wcntworth, Mgr. 


Baking Powder 

Made of Pure Grape Cream of Tartar. 

Safeguards the food 
against alum» 


mm m im imai^ i 




Kw r m KiMEs urn. mm. 

mm M) wm "sm. m? uml^ 
Walter Baker d( Co., Ltd. 



Vol. AVI, No. 2 



Edited m CM^5W^f. Lumm 

ANT>? ^ 

Copyrighted 190J by The Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. 

tf» 1 A 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


Hotel Westminster.... 


American and 

European Plans 





Los Angeles 

Every Modern 

Comfort and Convenience 
"»' that can be found in 
S\ any Hotel. 



\ Unsurpassed Golf Links. 


Send (or Booklet on 

Los Angeles and environs 

F. O. JOHNSON, Proprietor 



B3 -^M 

B D Si] 




TOlttlSTS and otliers troinff Easitward 
will tiiid that a stop off of a few days 
at Salt Lake City can be most pleasur- 
ably spent. "The Knutsford" is the only 
new fire-proof hotel, for the better class 
of trade, in the city. Every place of in- 
terest is nearby this hotel. Do not be 
misled, but check your bairiraire direct to 
"The Knutsford," Salt Lake City. 

X.B. — An interestintr illustrated tx>ok- 
■t on "ZIon," will be mailed to anyone 

«. ^. HOLMES. Prop., 
, Salt Lake City. 


The Angelus^ 

On the corner of Fourth 
and Spring Streets, «>* J* 

Opened Dec 28, 1 90 1, by 

G. S. HOLMES, Prop. 

The " Kimisford" Hotel. Salt Lake City. 


Please Mention that You Saw it In OUT WEST. 


If you have never worn any M. & B. Clothing you have yet 
to experience that self-satisfied feeling that our customers tell 
us about. We sell only the best, but our prices are not 
extravagant. Mail orders filled promptly. 

Suits or Overcoats, $10 to $25 

/Vlullen & Bluett Clothing Co. 

N. W. Cor. First and Spring Streets 


?#^^^^&#^^&^^^^^^^| ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD |^€#^^€€€ 



651 S. Broadway, Los Angeles 


Are all your ideas of California correct? 
You may not know, for instance, that in 
Fresno and Kings Counties, situate in the 
noted San Joaquin Valley, is to be found 
one of the richest tracts of land in the State. 
60,000 acres of the Lag-iina de Tache 
grant for sale at $30 to $45 per acre, in- 
cluding Free Water Kijifht, at 62>^ 
cents per acre annual rental (the cheapest 
water in California). Send your name and 
address, and receive the local newspaper 
free for two months, and with our circulars added you may learn some- 
thing of this different California. 

Address NARES & SAUNDERS, Managers, 

1840 Mariposa St., Fresno, Cal. 

C. A. HUBERT, 207 W. Third St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

TOURIST INFORMATION BUREAU, 10 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal. 

NARES, ROBINSON & BLACK, Winnipeg, Man., Canada. 

SAUNDERS, MUELLER & CO., Emraetsburg, Iowa. 

C. A. HUBERT, 960 Fifth St., San Diego, Cal. 

'Ji-iM.ufW'i >jW^'J!S7wmMm 









President of Stanford University. 


Chicago University. 


The Historian of California. 


Author of The I<ed-Horse Claim," etc. 


Author of " Stories of the Foothills." 


Author of The Sister of a Saint," etc. 


Author of " A Forest Orchid," etc. 


Author of Thistle Drift," etc. 


The Poet of the South Seas. 


Author of Song's from the Golden Gate," etc. 


Author of " The Man With the Hoe." 


The Poet of the Sierras. 


Author of " The Life of Ag'assiz," etc. 


Author of " The Shield of the Fleur de Lis." 



Author of "The Conquest of Arid Americat^etc. 

The arreatest Western Painter. 


Ex-Prest. American Folk-I/ore Society. 


The Historian of Coronado*s Marches. 

of the Smithsonian Institntion, Washington. 

Literary Editor S. F. "Chronicle." 


Author of " In This Onr World." 


Author of " The Story of the Mine," etc. 


Author of "Rod and Gun in California," etc. 


A Director of the California Academy of Sciences 






Authors of " Onr Feathered Friends." 



Contents — Febriaary, 1902. 

^Orang-es 250 years ago, illustrated, Chas. F. Luminis 127 

On Certain Problems of Democracy in Hawaii, illustrated. David Starr Jordan 139 

Porno Indian Baskets, illustrated, Carl Purdy 151 

The Indian Basket Maker (poem), Anna Ball 158 

The Simple Story of a Man, illustrated, Charles Amadon Moody 159 

Matilija Poppies (poem), Julia Boynton Green 165 

Ivubly Ge-Ge and Gruftang-rim (story), Eugene M. Rhodes 166 

The California Poppy (poem), Joaquin Miller 172 

The Anemone of the Kockies (poem), Mary A. Stokes 173 

The American Cadmus, Margaret A. Logan 173 

The Garden (poem), Edward Salisbury Field 176 

'* To Make Better Indians," C. F. L, 177 

For Vicente's Sake (story), Darwin Gish 179 

The Landmarks Club 184 

Illusion (poem), Juliette Estelle Mathis 185 

In the Lion's Den (by the editor) 186 

That Which is Written (reviews by the editor and C. A. Moody) 193 

The 20th Century West, conducted by Wm. E. Smythe. 

The California Constructive League l'*7 

New Zealand Institutions (second paper), illustrated 200 

A Record of Achievement, illustrated 209 

San Mateo, illustrated, Wm. de Jung 221 

Copyriirht 1902. Entered at the Los A nireles PostofHce as second-class matter, (seb pcblishek's pack.) 

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The Okanok Gardens of Akethusa, in LinrKiA. From Ffrrarims, tOjO. 
(Seedlnir, plantidir, pottin«r, rraftinfr, and wall-traininir.) 


XKe Land of SiansKine. 



Vol. XVI, No. 2. 

FEBRUARY, 1902. 



O DOUBT the only permanent g-ood 
a study of history can do any one 
is by taking- — if indeed it shall be 
able to take — the conceit out of 
him. There is no virtue whatever 
in the ability to patter dates, which 
so many confound with a " knowl- 
edg-e of history." Dates are acci- 
dents — if there are such things — 
whereas histor}' is a record (no 
matter how stupid many of the 
bookkeepers have been) of the in- 
exorable procession of cause and 
effect. It is a footing of the ex- 
perience of mankind ; and its largest value is to dissuade 
men from being so many kinds of fool again. Perhaps no 
other one thing is so potent to keep a person from ever 
really knowing anything about any subject as the facility and 
taste to smatter its empty formulas b}^ rote. And fer contra, 
common-sense has no better tool than a good working knowl- 
edge of what others have done, why they did it, and what they 
got by doing it,..^ 

One of the earliest and most valuable lessons history teaches 
to such as can be taught anything is that You and I and our 
times are not the Earth and the Fullness Thereof, but mere 
drops in an inevitable tide ; that we did not invent Human 

Copyrieht 1902 by Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. 

128 our WEST. 

Nature, and that we have not " cornered " it ; that We are not 
so Smart as we Thougfht. Incredible as it may seem, there was 
some World before we got here. And when we can face 
and begfin to gfrasp that inconsiderate truth, we are in a fair 
way to be able to get some good out of history. 

Pretty examples of what I mean will suggest themselves at 
once to any that are intimate with primitive peoples or with old 
books — two things superficially far apart, but in very fact 
rather near together. And for one such example we may take a 
dog-eared volume from ni3' shelv^es. 

Most Americans know an orange by sight ; and we of Cali- 
fornia count it a blood relation. We do grow the best orange 
in the world, and ship 18,000 carloads of it a year ; and we have 
a modest notion that we invented it, and that we " know 

But the handsomest, the fullest and the most erudite treatise 
on oranges ever printed does not derive from California, nor 
yet from the Only Smart Nation and the First Time the World 
was Safe. On the contrary, it was printed in Rome in the la- 
mentable year of 1646 — and written at least two years earlier, 
as the censor's permission (dated Sept. 6, 1644) shows. It is a 
tall folio — my copy in vellum — of full 5>00 pages; in four Books, 
and 91 chapters ; with 98 full page copper-plates — of which a 
few are allegorical, but the great majority devoted to life-size 
drawings of the foliage, flowers and fruit (round and in section) 
of rather more citrus varieties than are familiar today. For 
instance, it figures 5 kinds of citrons, 5 kinds of limes, 47 kinds 
of lemons, 21 kinds of oranges. It quotes 148 still earlier 
writers on citrus fruits — a longer list of authorities, I think, 
than will be found in any modern book on this subject. More 
accurate drawings of these fruits have never been printed ; and 
the illustrations cover not only the varieties and even the 
"freaks" of the Golden Apple, but the methods of planting, 
budding, wall-training and housing it. 

Perhaps the point likeliest to jar our complacent ignorance is 
the fact that this venerable work describes and pictures seedless 
oranges, and even the peculiar "sport," now an established 
variety, which we know as the "Navel." Two hundred and 
fifty seven years ago it was called the " Female, or Foetus-bear- 
ing Orange " {aurautium focmiua, sivc fa-tit crum^ ; but no one 
today can draw a better picture, nor a more unmistakable, of a 
navel orange.* For that matter, the characteristic growth from 
which our modern name derives is in this book called the "umbil- 
icus " — the precise Latin (and English medical) word for navel. 
This old prototype of the special fruit upon which, more than any 

*Seep. 132. 


other one material thing-, the wealth of Southern California 
hing-es, was so long- ag-o extensively grown in " Caieta, once the 
nurse of the Great i^neas, now the name of an illustrious city" 
in Latium. Its modern title is Gaieta. 

The volume is (of course) in Latin — and the ver)- knotty- 
Latin of its time and class. In a far from thoroug-h review of 
it I have encountered more than 200 words which are not to be 
found in any dictionarj^ I know of — and which certainl3- are 
not in the best Latin dictionaries ever issued. Its title page, 
when Englished, reads : 



About the Golden Apples, 
Their Culture and Use 



Of the Society of Jesus 

L H. S. 


With the type of Herman Scheus 


By permission of the Superiors. 

Between these scholarl}" covers, all sorts of myths are given a 
hearing- ; but the book as a whole is perhaps as sane as one of 
our modern government reports. If it relates and illustrates the 
story of Hercules and the Golden Apples — less hackneyed then 
than now in writings on the orange — and the fables of Har- 

* In Umbria. 


Sheds and Wall-training for Oranobs, />*«» Ftrrarh,*, lO^b. 

IN A Roman Gardbn. 


monilla, Tirsenia and Leonilla, who from women were meta- 
morphosed into orang-e trees — it also deals soberl}' with climatic 
influences, protection against excessive heat and cold, manuring, 
ditching-, irrigation and graft- 
ing. If I may misrepresent its 
real character in the following 
pages, it will be for the very- 
simple reason that the supersti- 
tions we have outgrown are "more 
interesting reading" than the ex- 
pert details which stood the 
test of centuries. T/iey may be 
found in less flavorsome modern 

Book I deals with the general 
history of the citrus family, 
which it traces back to mythol- 
ogic times. The fabled Hesper- 
ides are sagely commented upon; 
and an engraving shows an an- 
cient statue of Hercules in the 
original Orange Country. The 
etymology of the various names 
is discussed; "citrus" being 
traced through Greek and Ara- 
bic, and "lemon" of course re- 
ferred to the Greek. "Orange" 
(which we doubtless get from 
mahwi aurantium) may derive its name from " Arantia, a town 
of Greece, most prolific in this fruit, whence Hercules was be- 
lieved to have brought it first," or from "Arianus, meaning 
Persian;" or from the Latin word " rantius {raudiim) , that is, 
of the yellow color of brass;" or from aurum, gold ; or from 
several more desperate chances. 

The orange is not only of the P. P. W.; our cheap human 
acquaintance with it is of rather respectable antiquity. Varro, 
100 years before Christ, mentions it as " the Lybian Citrus." 
Macrobius, in the 5th Century, A.D., called it the "Citrus or 
Persian Apple." By Pliny, about 50 A.D., it is termed the 
"Assyrian or Median Apple," by Virgil, about 40 B.C., the 
" Median Apple ;" by Phanias, the "Multiple Cedar." In the 
ancient literature of the Hebrews it was " Hadar" or "the beau- 
tiful;" in old Rome, "Adam's Apple" (that with which he was 
tempted), "Paradise Apple," "Apple of the Hesperides," 
"Golden Apple," "Wedding Apple" (because it was said to 

From Ferrarius, ib4b' 
Thb Lisbon Orangr-— Very thin-skinned. 
( About Vi life size.) 




Thk "Navel" Orange ok Antiquity. 
(About half life-size.) 

From Ferrarius, lO^b. 

have been a present b)'^ Tellus at the nuptials of Jupiter and 
Juno). Dioscorides called it the "Cedar Apple;" Galen (about 
A.D. ISO), the "Citrus Apple;" Aristophanes (so far back as B.C. 
420), " Oximala" — and so on. A place in literature for 2300 
years saves the orange from any suspicion of the parvenu that 
might be suggested by its modern associations. The reverend 
author mentions also the oranges of the Philippines, Brazil, 
Palestine, India, Mauritius, Italy, Sicily, etc. He says that 
the first orange trees were brought to Sardinia and Naples about 
the year 1200 A.D. by Palladius ; and gives a beautiful allegor- 
ical copperplate engraving of that significant event. It may as 
well be confessed here that modern "half-tones" do scant 

Thk iiKiNGiNG OK THK Okangk TO ITALY. From Fcrraiiiis, ib40. 

134 OUT WEST. 

justice to these splendid old copper-plates by Franciscus Alba- 
nus, Andreas Sacchi, Nicholaus Pousinus, and others, engraved 
by C. Bloemaert. It is still true — as it always will be — that no 
other machine is so perfect as the human hand ; but no majja- 
zine nowadays can afford to employ that kind of hands. The 
iron machines are cheaper, and their product is as good as the 
reader cares for. The plates are here reduced about one-half. 

Simply in passing, I may remark that we in this country owe 
the orange to Spain — as we owe many of our most important 
products, like the best forage-plant in the world. The first 
orange-trees in the New World were planted in Mexico, 350 years 
or so ago, b}' Bernal Diaz del Castillo, a soldier of Cortez and 
author of a book which is so much the most human story of the 
Conquest of America that its value as scientific history can 
easily be — and often has been — exaggerated greatly-. As has 
been set forth in these pages more than once, the characteristic 
orange of California, the " Washington Navel" — the best 
orange in the world (to my taste), and nowhere else in the 
world a commercial success — came to us thirty-two years ago by 
way of Brazil. Two trees were sent from that countr}' to our 
national Department of Agriculture, and from Washington two 
trees born of them were planted in Riverside, Cal., in 1874, by 
Luther C. Tibbits. Prom these two trees the profitable orange 
groves of California derive. These parent trees have made mil- 
lions of dollars even for the beautiful little city in which they 
may still be seen — and, so proud should we be of our human 
nature, the man who planted them goes to the poorhouse. 

Nor will it do any harm to add, from easier sources, that the 
orange probably originated in India and China (Gallesio seems 
to have proved this), and was spread by the Arabs to Syria, 
Africa and Spain. The Spanish name, "Naranja," is from 
the Arabic " Naranj" — and that comes from the Sanskrit 
" Nagrungo;" and has begotten the Italian "Arancia," and the 
Proventjal "Orange" which we have adopted into our tongue. 

But to return to our muttons. Book II of this work deals 
specifically with the citron; Book III with the "Arethusa," or 
lemon and lime; Book IV with the orange. For all these varie- 
ties of the citrus family the treatment is studious, and — for its 
time — exhaustive. 

In a chapter (XVI, Book 2) on " Miracles of Art in Citrus 
Fruits," the author tells how to secure sweeter fruit — "by soak- 
ing the seeds three days in honey mixed with water or (what is 
better) in sheep's milk." This is the advice of Palladius, who 
also gives another formula: 

" In the dead of winter, or in the month of February, they 

The Changing of Tirsenia into an Orange Tree. From Ferrariiis, ib4b. 

136 our WEST. 

bore an opening- in the trunk, obliquely from the bottom. From 
this they suffer the humor to flow while the fruit is forming: ; 
then the opening is filled with clay." Directions are alsg given 
for making the fruit larger ; for giving it various shapes ; for 
making it hang on the tree all the year ; for making various 
kinds of citrus fruits grow on the same tree — the latter from 
Pontanus — and so on. 

Book IV (beginning p. 367) is concerned exclusively with 
" Hesperthusa or Orange"— the finest fruit of the Hesperides. 
It "shines with more fiery gold " than any other. An excellent 
copperplate shows the foliage and flowers life-size. Joannes 
Tristanus — a Roman noble who had, ten years before, brought 
out an erudite book of commentaries on the Roman princes — 
is quoted to the effect that the first planting of oranges was by 
the hand of Venus and on the island of Cyprus. Of the 25 
chapters on the orange, there are those devoted to the wild orange, 
"seedless" orange {seini)ia carcns, p. 381), the "curly-leaved" and 
the "double-flowered" orange, the "starred" and the "rose- 
marked" orange, the "striped" orange, the " fetus-bearing " 
(navel) orange, the "hermaphrodite or horned" orange, the 
"thick-skinned," the " distorted " the "Lisbon," the "Indian 
orange in the Philippine Islands," the "sweet-rind," the "Maxi- 
mus" (seven inches in diameter), and others. Of all these there 
are life-size engravings showing the fruit whole and cut across. 
Not only this, but the implements and methods of planting and 
budding are shown ; and model housings against the weather. 

Following are a few condensed translations from this curious 
old book. In a later paper its dealings with the lemon, lime 
and citron may be more briefl}' considered : 

" Among Median apples, none is more robust than the orange 
in its patience against cold. There are many witnesses of very 
cold hours wherein its golden fruit shone liberally amid silver}' 
snows. But it is remarked how to better the flavor by the 
location; and expressly, that the meat of a sweet orange that is 
in a sunny place is made sub-acid when removed from the solar 
heat, and becomes bitterish, when shaded, from too much and un- 
grateful sweetness." The author praises Naples as the best of 
localities for the orange. [Book 4, Chap. XVIII.] 

"Although the orange, being of hardier temperament, does not 
demand the most exquisite culture, it does not refuse it. Hence, 
it delights in dark, rich, well-crumbled, and humid soil ; although 
it can be reared well in mediocre enough soil. . . If rich soil 
be lacking, thou shalt enrich it as we have forwarned, by mixing 
it^with manure ; and if thou wishest an orange liberal of its gold, 
thoulshalt dol this liberally. ... If thou buriest a whole 

Aegle, Chief of the Hesperideh, and Her Garden. From Fcrrariiis, it>4t>- 

138 OUT WEST. 

orang-e, from its corruption, nevertheless, crowded little trees 
spring up — as many as the seeds that weighted it down. But 
the slowness of planted trees is to be conquered by the artifice 
of the grafter. Even of the seeds most selected for sowing, in- 
deed, of the wild and undomesticated orange, they are wont to 
grow up bearing fruit of harsh flavor and tiny growth. Hence, 
the planted seeds of the sweet orange degenerate into acid and 
wild fruits, which are afterward mitigated by grafting. Though 
sometimes more cunning Nature thus out-does inexpert and un- 
curious Art, as in the case of the seed-planted [a very rare use 
of sativiis as opposed to silvestris — wild] orange, making it by 
its own genius beautifully fruitful, and does not trouble to add 
the budding. Wherefore the colonists in the Philippine Islands 
plant them by seed in nurseries ; whence they transplant them, 
a little adult, to prepared places. The people of Corfu, also, 
very rarely bud, with mellow ones, the volunteer and wild 
oranges sprung from fallen seeds ; but they have enough small 
trees in the nursery to transplant, because from these, of their 
own accord, fruits of absolute goodness are born. The Cretans, 
however, propagate an orange tree sub-acid from the seed but 
sweet by budding. But why do I traverse immense seas ? Why 
journey in distant Isles ? The proof of what I seek afar, Rome 
supplies. There tnay be seen in the cloister of the Godlike [St.] 
Francis, in the Quintian Meadows,* beside the Tiber's banks, 
a copse of orange trees having the name of "Curl3'-leaved," 
grown up happily without any aid of grafting, and most pro- 
lific of fruit, which in size and suavity need not envy the 
budded ones. 

"But this same munificence of a more indulgent Nature, not 
granted to all localities, shrewdly admonishes the Grafter that 
by a natural art he should remove the Vice of the wild orange. 
When it is, then, three or four years old, and certainly of the 
thickness of a thumb already, he buds it with a well-tamed 
orange ; or even if it is wild, applies to it the buds or shoots of 
an improved [variety]. Thenceforth in the more delicate adopt- 
ive tree the flavor will indeed be finer, but the life [of the tree] 
shorter. That thou mayest couple together the Abundance and 
the Flavor of the orange most perfectly, thou must bud its tree 
upon the citrus, according to the land ; for thus in the advan- 
tage of the Orange the universal fertilizing power of the Citron 
is abundantly given forth." 

[to be continued] 

*Nained for Lucius Quintius Cincinuatus. and across the Tiber from the city. 




N THE extension of the rule of the United States a 
number of things were possible, so far as the suf- 
frage was concerned. 

(l) Government by a governor or a commis- 
sioner as a "Crown Colony," without local partici- 
pation. This might give good government, but 
it would not be in accordance with the methods of 
democracy, and it has found few advocates in our 
country. While in the actual control of colonial 
dependencies such rule has its advantages, the re- 
flex effects both of its successes and failures on the 
welfare of the governing country are insidious and 
~^ dangerous. 

(2) Limitation of suffrage to American, European and 
Hawaiian property holders. This was essentiall}' the arrange- 
ment under the Republic. As a result, the local government 
was, in general, economical, dignified and clean. There were 
complaints of tyranny, and the majority of the people had no 

(3) Suffrage limited to Americans and natives, with a lower 
house elected by popular suffrage, and an upper house chosen 
by those citizens having property. This arrangement was 
earnestly recommended by the Hawaiian Commission of 1898, 
Messrs. CuUom, Morgan, Hitt, Dole and Frear. 

The bill prepared by these gentlemen provided that 
" All white persons, including- Portuguese, and persons of African de- 
scent, and all persons descended from the Hawaiian race, on either the pa- 
ternal or maternal side, who were citizens of tbe Republic of Hawaii 
immediately prior to the transfer of the sovereig"nty thereof to the United 
States, are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States." 

To be qualified to vote for representative it was proposed to 
require that each voter 

" (1) Shall be a male citizen of the United States ; 

" (2) Shall have resided in the Territory for one year preceding, aAd 
in the district three months preceding the time he offers to register ; 

" (3) Shall have attained the age of 21 years ; 

" (4) Prior to the election during the time prescribed by law shall have 
caused his name to be entered on the register of voters for representative 
for his district ; 

" (5) Prior to such registration shall have paid on or before March 31 
next preceding the date of registration all taxes due by him to the govern- 

*' (6) Shall be able understandingly to speak, read and write the English 
or the Hawaiian language." 

Illustrated from photos by Henshaw, Hilo, H. I. 

A Hawaiian LaM'IM 



To be qualified to vote for senators, a property qualification 
was added as follows : 

"To be qualified to vote for senators, a person must possess all the 
qualifications and be subject to all the conditions required by this act for 
voters for representatives, and, in addition thereto, shall own and possess 
in his own right real property worth $1,000, upon which valuation legal 
taxes shall have been paid for the year preceding- that in which he offers 
to register, or shall have actually received a money income of not less than 
$600 during the year next preceding the first day of April next preceding 
the date of such registration." 

The effect of this plan would be to recognize the Hawaiian 
and American minority as the people of Hawaii, and the ori- 
ental majority as non-resident aliens. This act would be justi- 
fied only on the ground of distinctions of race, because many of 
the Chinese and most of the Japanese in Hawaii are permanent 
residents, having- no desire or intention to return to the mother 
country. The recent policy of the sugar planters has been to 
encourage laborers to remain permanently, and in late importa- 
tions from Porto Rico married men have been given preference. 
Laborers do better work and are more stable and tractable if 
they try to build up homes. The exclusiveness of the Asiatics 
tends to build up an imperium in imperio, a government within 
a government to which they owe no allegiance. Alien people 
having no share in public affairs will naturally develop leaders 
and customs of their own choosing. Thus arises as 
a matter of necessity a 
rule of Tongs among the 
Chinese, and among the 
Japanese the growth of 
their characteristic forms 
of labor union. If the 
orientals cannot govern 
themselves under our 
forms, they will do so 
under forms of their own. 

The second feature of 
this proposed statute was 
to form legislative bodies 
of distinctive functions. 
The senate, chosen by 
men who have gained 
some property, should be 
a conservative body, inter- 
ested in the financial wel- 
fare and progress of the 

Hawaiian-born Chinesk. 



Territory. The house of representatives, chosen by the people at 
large, would serve as a guarantee of personal liberty and would 
see that the whims and traditions of the native people were not 
offended. In other words, 
there should be a Hawaiian 
house and an American sen- 
ate, while oriental la- 
borers should be with- 
out representation, the 
interests of their em- 
ployers being their 
chief protection 

I may say in passing 
that the requirement of 
ability to read either 
English or Hawaiian 
is of little significance. 
The Americans who go 
to these islands are 
never illiterate. There 
is no place for unskilled 
white labor. The Ha- 
waiian language is a 
very simple one, and 
there are very few Ha- 
waiians excluded from voting because they cannot read it. 

(4) Suffrage limited to Hawaiians and Americans but with- 
out other limitations of importance. 

The objection to a property limitation is strong in the United 
States, and the provision for such limitation in the election of 
the local senate was stricken out in Congress. As a result, both 
houses are chosen by a popular vote of the Hawaiians and 
"Americans," that is, of citizens of American, European, or 
African descent. 

The result of the first election has been to give a Senate and 
a House of Representatives characteristic of the majority of 
the voters choosing them. Without entering on a detailed dis- 
cussion, I may say that, officially, these bodies have shown 
traits of irresponsible children. They have not been vicious or 
corrupt, but trivial, incapable, and swayed by gusts of tempor- 
ary feeling. On meeting an executive check from the Governor 
of the Territory, the}^ sent a delegation to Washington to ask 
for his removal. In the matter of appropriations, the public 
revenue of the Territory was soon exceeded, and the question of 
when and where the territorial band of public musicians should 

Hawaiian Girls. 


play outweighed all questions of port improvement or of the 
sanitation of Honolulu. 

The conditions seen under the present suffrage act will im- 
prove in the future. The experiences of the first )"ear will not 
be repeated. With the passing- of novelty will come an increase 
of responsibility. Besides, the American minority were in a 
sense caught napping. In the future, efforts will be made to 
divide the native vote, providing for the election to the legisla- 
ture of a few men capable, through skill and familiaritj- with 
parliamentary usage, of controlling its operations. Intimida- 
tion is out of the question. Ingenuity and cajolery will serve 
the same purpose. In the very nature of things, the white men 
will dominate in Hawaii as everywhere else, when their com- 
mercial interests are brought into opposition to the simple good 
nature and love of pleasure of the native people. Already the 
local politicians are calculating on the slow extinction of the 
Hawaiians as compared with the rapid increase of the Portu- 
guese. The Portuguese votes with the American, and before 
many years his vote will be an offset to that of the native. 

The extinction of the Hawaiian is, however, not a matter of 
immediate prospect. The causes of decline in the race are 
growing less potent. The disappearance of the native races 
has been usually vaguely attributed to "the survival of the fit- 
test" in the struggle between stronger and weaker races of men. 
As commonly understood, there has been no such struggle in 
Hawaii. The climate is favorable, and there has been food 
enough and to spare for all. The strong race has shown no 
desire to exterminate the weak. It has rather tried to foster it ; 
for the first white residents came as missionaries, and the one 
great need of the islands has been laborers. 

So long as a day's work of unskilled labor will keep a man in 
food and raiment for a week, the industrial stress cannot be a 
cause in the decline of the lower race. 

The causes of the decline of such races are not occult, nor 
are they confined to Hawaii. They are, in general, drunkenness, 
loss of self-respect, and far above all else, unchastity, with its 
accompaniment of disease and sterility. This condition had its 
origin in part in superstition and idolatry ; in part, it is due to 
the presence in Hawaii, in the earlier da)'s, of large numbers of 
whalers; in later days, of some 20,000 wifeless Chinese of the 
lowest class of that race. Better social conditions, better sani- 
tation and a more humane, more christian civilization is tending 
to do away with these evils. The extirpation of the grosser 
forms of vice will arrest the progress of Hawaiian extinction. 

The chief evils of the present condition of the suffrage are 

146 OUT WEST. 

found in demagoguery, cajolery, wasteful and short-sigrhted 
legislation ; in indifference to needs of sanitation, fishery pro- 
tection, and other matters not in the intellectual foreground of 
untrained men. To this end we may add a growing injustice 
toward the non-voting classes, which constitute the majority of 
the actual residents in each island. At the best such an admin- 
istration is democratic only in name. If the American or non- 
Hawaiian elements stood together, the condition would be 
simpler. The real leaders of the native or " Home Rule" party 
are not Hawaiians but "Americans." The three most con- 
spicuous at present are respectively German, Russian and Irish. 
The natives universally favor a return to the monarchy, but 
they will not fight for it. They only mildly regret its disap- 
pearance, or perhaps the loss of its show of force, its processions 
and its feasts. The display of the Fourth of July celebrations 
in its way tends to fill this want. The Americans themselves 
are divided between two groups of conflicting tendencies. The 
one is the "missionary" party which preserves the traditions 
of the "Republic" and of the aristocracy which largely con- 
trolled the declining monarchy. The other is the " American" 
or " Carpet Bag" party, made up of late comers, who care noth- 
ing for these or similar traditions. It is between these two 
tendencies that the real political struggle in Hawaii exists, and 
it will be fought out, not at the polls, but mainly with the ap- 
pointing powers at Washington. 

The executive, the judiciarj^ and the acts of Congress all 
represent the limitations on local action exercised by the nation 
at large. Some such limitations must exist in the case of every 
State, Territory or community, forming part of a nation. In 
the case of Hawaiian interests, it may be more important to in- 
fluence or to control these than it is to direct the acts of the 
local congress. For this reason, the real end of political move- 
ments in the islands may be to make an impression at Washing- 
ton. The Governor holds an especially important function. He 
is a federal official and presumably represents the public opinion 
of the country at large, of which these islands form a very 
small and isolated part. His veto is supposed to hold legislation 
to lines approved by the Administration at Washington. In 
like manner, the federal courts have control over local legisla- 
tion, it being their duty to interpret congressional legislation 
and the provisions of the national constitution, in so far as this 
constitution is sovereign law in the islands. 

With absolute self-government unchecked by federal governors 
or courts, all semblance of American forms and purposes would 
soon be lost in Hawaii. 


(5) The use of some system of proportional representation, 
whereby each form of interest would have a relative voice in 
public affairs. 

(6) The extension of the sufifrage on equal terms to residents 
of all races. 

(7) The extension of the suffrage to oriental householders, to 
those who own property or to those who can read English, or to 
any or all of these classes. 

Some such arrangement as this would have advantages in the 
way both of securing justice and of encouraging thrift on the 
part of these people. The objections to this action are thus 
stated by Governor Dole in his inaugural address on June 14, 


" In our composite community the great world races are well represented 
— Polynesian, Anglo-Saxon, Frank and Turanian. Because of this the 
difficulties of g-overnment are much increased. For the protection of the 
representative and other phases of modern civilized government, it has 
been deemed essential to refuse citizenship to representatives of the 
Chinese and Japanese nations, which together form a large part of our 
population, although some of these are undoubtedly well qualified for the 
duties of citizenship. The arbitrary denial of the franchise and conse- 
quent representation to these, places upon the rest of the community — 
whether as voters, legislators, the courts or the executive — the considera- 
tion of the interests of these unrepresented persons. Neglect of this obli- 
gation would not only be an injustice to them, but would inevitably menace 
the welfare of all." 

Governor Dole further points out that through the public 
school system there will arise a better understanding among 
the different races, and in time a larger and larger degree of 
community of interests. 

The present writer does not intend to argue in favor of exten- 
sion of suffrage to Asiatics, nor in favor of any other proposi- 
tion in regard to the suffrage. He has no desire to criticise or 
to condone. The purpose of this paper is to point out as briefly 
as may be some of the difficulties in the application of demo- 
cratic forms of government to communities having differences 
in racial traits and differences in interests which in a generation 
at least cannot be obliterated. Any system of government 
must represent in some degree a choice of evils. The nearest 
approach to solution must come not through forms of govern- 
ment, but through diffusion of education and especially of in- 
dustrial training. This will give greater self-respect to the 
classes of lower intelligence, make them more useful to them- 
selves and to others, and tend to bring about that harmony of 
feeling, community of interest and truthfulness of opinion 
which are the foundation of all democracy. 

The Hawaiians or any other simple-hearted people are fully 


capable of governing- themselves, through their own forms, in 
their own way to their own satisfaction, and can do it in peace. 
Ants and bears and beavers do the same. But their way is not 
our way. It is not in the power of the Hawaiians to rule both 
the Asiatic majority and the American minority to the satisfac- 
tion of any of the parties concerned. They know nothing of 
foreign relations nor of social problems, nor do they understand 
or desire to promote American enterprise. The world and the 
nation at large are remote to them and more or less repellent 
also. They care nothing for extending business interests, and 
the chief function of administration is to them the spending of 
money. Government to them is represented by display. It is 
not made up of police work, road-building, sanitation, scientific 
investigation and schools, as the Anglo-Saxon mind has inter- 
preted it. 

It is not in accord with the theory of democracy that the 
needs or energies of one class of men should be rated higher 
than those of another in the same community. If we assume 
that the efforts of the men of the European race should be 
fostered without regard to others, our relation ceases to be 
democratic. In such case the suffrage ought logically not to be 
extended on equal terms to all resident races. If ours really is 
a " white man's country," not an "all men's country," then it 
is proper that only white men should be allowed to vote, especi- 
ally when white men's business is mainly concerned. 

A native legislature in Hawaii leaves the American unrepre- 
sented. With an American legislature the Hawaiian is equally 
unrepresented so far as his feelings and traditions are concerned, 
though the American ma)^ better look after his material inter- 
ests, matters for which as a rule the Hawaiian cares nothing. 
A legislature of Hawaiians or of Americans or of both leaves 
the Japanese and the Chinese still without a voice. 

If Congress favors the Hawaiians or Americans or both, at the 
expense of the still more numerous Orientals, it casts aside the 
spirit of democracy. But this may find a justification in the 
will of the nation as a whole, which is overwhelmingly on the 
side of the American. As Mr. Lummis once said of the kindlj^ 
despotism of President Diaz in Mexico, " It is not republican- 
ism but it is business." It is " business" so to limit the suf- 
frage in our colonial possessions that business methods may 
prevail in administration. It is justice so to extend our suffrage 
that every human being, if he will, may find or earn a voice. It 
is not necessary that suffrage should be universal, but in the in- 
terest of justice it should be impartial, knowing no distinction of 
race, color or previous condition. 

Stanford Universit3', Cal. 





N the preceding article we have dealt with the charac- 
teristics of the "iSoft weaves" of Porao baskets. We 
now come to the 

"hard " WKAVKS. 

In the "Tsai" weave a single stick is coiled 
The thread passes through an awl-hole be 
tween the alternate stitches below the preceding coil, 
then over both preceding coil and the loose stick 
above. Thus each stitch alternates with the stitches 
above and below. In this way, beginning at the knob in the 
center of the base of the basket, coil after coil is built up until 
the end of the stick is sloped and neatlj^ bound down on the 
upper margin. On each round one-half of the stitches are 
plainly in sight and one-half partly concealed. The " Tsai" is 
otherwise known as a "one-stick" basket. 

The " Shi-bu" differs from the "one-stick" basket in 
having three sticks bound in a bundle for its framework. 
The thread passes through an awl-hole made in the upper edge 
of the coil just below. As each of the sticks runs out a new 
one is added. On a well-worked "three-stick" basket the 


The Snake Design ix Pomo Baskeis. 



threads are all opposite, and completely cover the framework. 
Placques and any modification of the bowl, canoe or basin, are 
made in these two hard weaves, and they are the only weaves 
upon which feathers or other ornaments can be used to advan- 
tag-e. The " Shi-bu" is most hiofhly esteemed by the Indians, 
and in it they can carry out the most intricate patterns, both in 
the fiber itself and in the beads or feathers with which it is 
ornamented. The most indefatigable patience is required in 
the manufacture of these baskets, as for each stitch an awl-hole 
must be made and the sharpened end of the fiber threaded 
through. The thread is shaved down to such perfect evenness 
that the eye can scarcely detect the shadow of a variation in its 
thickness. As the basket is woven, beg-inning at the bottom, 
the design is worked from the bottom upward. In working the 
design the fiber is cut and a new piece inserted at every change 
in color. In feather work each feather is plucked from the pre- 
pared skin of the bird, and neatly caught in a stitch, which is 
then pulled sotightl}' that the feather cannot be detached except 
by breaking it off. When " kaia" is used, a thread is carried 
along under the woof and the " kaia" threaded on as needed. 
Beads are usually put on in the same way, but on some beauti- 
fully beaded baskets the beads are strung on the woof itself. 

Ka-dbb Lido (tmb Bottbkply). 



Butterfly Repeated. 

Feathers are used in two wa3^s on baskets by the 
Poraos. In the first way, they are secondary to the de- 
sig-n, and only give a bit of color or a finishing- touch to a 
basket with a pretty design. For this purpose the quail plume 
and the red feathers from the woodpecker's head are almost the 
only ones used. The red feathers are oftener placed regularly 
but thinly on the lighter-colored fiber on the upper half of the 
basket, and the quail plumes scattered, or below three crests of 
" kaia" on the upper edge of the basket. These the Indians do 
not consider feathered baskets at all. 

In the feathered basket proper, there is little or no desig^n in 
the fiber, and the basket is closely covered with feathers. The 
Indians divide fully-feathered baskets into two classes, the 
"ta-pi-ca" and the "e-pi-ca." The " ta-pi-ca" (literally 
RED basket) is what is known among basket collectors and 
dealers as the "sun" basket. The name sun basket is, I sup- 
pose, owing to a misinterpretation of the Indian word. In 
Pomo "da" is sun, " ta" is red. I have asked the name of 
this basket fully a hundred times, of as many Indians, and in 
all parts of the Indian country, and the name and interpretation 
arc uniform, allowing for dialect, "ta-pi-ca," " ta-si-tol," 
" tan-kolob," all mean "red basket," with a sometimes secon- 
dary meaning of ""pretty basket.'"' 





Clc-ka-ka Haya (Quail Plume). 

In former days, the "ta-pi-ca," or "red basket," was alwaj'S 
made in one pattern, shown in the oldest specimens, i.e., a 
saucer-shaped basket closely covered with the red feathers, pro- 
fusely decorated with pendants of "kaia" and abalone, with a 
close circle of "kaia" around the top, surmounting- another close 
circle of quail plumes, and often with a string of "kaia." This, 
then, is the original " ta-pi-ca"; but for some years past it has 
been beautifully varied by using the red feathers for a g-round 
color and working in a design in other colors. More rarely other 
feathers than the red are used for a groundwork. The use of 
any other than red feathers is an innovation, though a charm- 
ing one. 

The Indian (Ballo Kai Pomo) name for a feathered basket of 
any other shape than the one described is "e-pi-ca," or 
" feathered basket," and this whether the red feathers and the 
pendants are used or not. 

I have still to meet an Indian who knew of such a thing as a 
" moon basket"; and I repeat and emphasize the statement that 
I have never met an Indian who knew of or used the terms 
"sun" or "moon basket." There is no serious objection to 
their use by basket collectors or dealers, but the names are not 

The " ta-pi-ca" is most highly prized by the Indian. A fine 



specimen takes months, or even years, of the most patient and 
painstaking- work of the woman, and long- hunts by her man. 
Thirty to fifty feathers to every lineal inch are placed so per- 
fectly that the surface of the completed work is like red plush, 
and exquisitely perfect. I saw one which required two hundred 
and forty quail plumes as a finishing" touch, and was fully two 
years under wa3\ 

The real acme of Pomo art is not, however, in these beautiful 
but barbaric feathered baskets, but rather in the "chuset," 
" tsai" and " shi-bu" bowls and canoes which combine so per- 
fectly symmetry of form, soft colorings, and intricate designs — 
perfect works of art from whichever point of view. 

Perhaps the most interesting phase of the study of Indian 
basketry is that of the names and meaning of the designs 
with which the baskets are ornamented. 

Next to a study of Indian myths and legends, this study re- 
quires a knowledge of their language, at least of a good num- 
ber of nouns. If this knowledge extends to several dialects, the 
results obtained are much better, for if under such circumstances 
the facts obtained are corroborative they are thereb}- proved 
be)"ond reasonable doubt. 

During the last three years I have made this branch of Pomo 
basketry a particular study. I have a greater or less knowl- 

Ka-cha-nac (Arrow-point). 


0U7^ WEST. 

ed^e of five dialects and a smattering of several others. When- 
ever opportunity offers I propound the question in regard to any 
basket at hand : "What is this desijrn ?" in the dialect of the 
person addressed. In this way, giving them no clue whatever 
to my previous knowledge, I have had the names of some de- 
signs dozens, if not hundreds, of times, from individuals separ- 
ated by both distance and language. 

In some cases every witness agrees ; in others, the great ma- 
jority. The field is a wide one, and I have by no means ex- 
hausted it ; but as to some I feel I can speak with the weight of 
evidence strongly in ray favor. 

Whether the Porno woman first ornamented her baskets with 
some mark and later gave it some name suggested by its form, 

or whether she deliberately copied nature, we may never know\ 
Personally, I have no doubt that all of the designs originated in 
an attempt to copy nature, and were afterwards gradually con- 
ventionalized until in some instances it requires a vivid imagina- 
tion to recognize in a design any semblance of the object whose 
name it bears. 

I have never seen in any Pomo basket a portrayal of an event, 
or any attempt whatever at " picture writing," and I am per- 
fectly convinced that there is not in existence a Pomo basket 



which is in that sense a " history basket." Moreover, I see in 
the baskets of other tribes desig-ns identical with or similar to 
those I know in the Porno, and must say that I view all such in- 
terpretations with a degree of distrust. Before beg-inning- the 
study of Pomo designs, I had been given by others certain names 
for designs, which I accepted as correct and helped to dissemi- 
nate ; but I am sorry to say that I find that in several instances 
I have never had these names from a single Indian source, after 
as many as a hundred inquiries among different tribes, inquiries 
more frequently made in these instances because these were 
mooted points. It does not necessarily follow that these de- 
signs may not be known by the names formerly applied, among 
some small tribe, but the evidence is indisputable that among 

Bu-DE-LE ( Potato-head). 

the leading Pomo tribes these designs have never been known 
by those names. One peculiarity of Pomo designs is that there 
is seldom a name for the entire design on a basket. As a mat- 
ter of fact, the Pomo woman has at her command a large stock 
of simple or root designs, each with a well known name. These 
she varies, amplifies and combines in a purely artistic manner. 
She is not trying to write a history of an occurrence, or to em- 
bod}^ a religious belief. Her sole aim is to create something 
beautiful. She is an artist, not a priestess or historian. Before 

158 our WEST. 

her basket is started she has in her mind's eye a clear picturejof 
it as completed ; she counts no stitches and has no patternlbe- 
fore her. She may have as her ideal a design she has seen, 'or 
she may have evolved a new combination ; but whether|it takes 
a year or twelve years, she keeps the plan clearly in view. For 
the combination of root designs she has no name, and could not 
well have. If you question her, she will analyze the intricate 
pattern into its constituent parts, the names for which are com- 
mon property. She does not know it as a whole, but only as a 
composite. Again, her art is not a stationary one, a slavish 
copying of others, but rather a progressive one, each woman 
aiming to excel in the beauty of her product. How successful 
they are in this attempt to vary and beautify, an examination 
of a well selected collection of Pomo baskets will -show. 
Scarcely two are alike, and when we consider how few original 
designs are used, we cannot but find our admiration | for their 
artistic ability growing very rapidly. The probabilities are that 
no new root designs are being evolved. This is very strongly 
indicated by the fact that as a rule the designs areiknown by 
the same names by diflEerent tribes, an indication that the'root 
designs were already well known before the original people 
separated into the present many tribes. 

[to be concluded.] 



Pen, brush, nor chisel, needle, nay, nor tongue 
By which my soul its right of speech may find. 
But what can prove a fetter to the mind ? 

Here are my ivory grasses ; once they clung 

To mountain ledges where the great clouds hung. 
And these slim jetty ferns their stems unwind. 
By deep-down canon springs with dark moss lined. 

And here are weeds and limber roots upstrung. 

I weave my baskets ; all the high and low 
Of my wild life in these wild stems I snare. 

The jagged lightning and the star I show. 
The spider and the trailing snake are there. 

And many a mystic thought doth shape and flow, 
Setting itself in picture firm and fair. 

Colton, Cal. 



JN the editorial pages last month was printed a 
concise estimate of one of the greatest men 
the West has ever developed — the late John J. 
Valentine. The following brief review of his 
life gives perhaps a better idea of the man 
than an}^ of the thousands of notices called 
forth by his death. It is just and in-seeing, 
enlightened by personal acquaintance and by 
scrupulous investigation. 

It was not a "story" life. It had no dramatic adventures 
nor sensational fortunes. So even was the tenor of its way that 
there is difficulty in showing forth its genuine mastery and 
lesson. Yet it is doubtful if a braver man ever lived, or was 
sorelier tested. Few men in America have wielded more abso- 
lute power. Yet no man ever less abused it — and few ever used 
it so wisely. And at no other time in American history has 
there been such need of the example of a man who could handle 
millions and not harden; who could rule and not for a moment 
forget his trusteeship; who could "do business" and not be 
"done" by it in any smallest atom of head or heart. Such a 
man was this. — Ed. 

Born in Kentucky in 1840, from the hardy and adventurous 
stock that had earlier pushed across the mountains from Vir- 
ginia into what was then the uttermost wilderness ; with com- 
mon-school education, supplemented b}^ the more important 
training of hard work and helpfulness ; starting at fourteen in 
his native village to make his own way in the world as clerk in 
the drugstore, which also happened to hold the agency for an 
express company ; with the spirit of his pioneer ancestors 
thrilling to the insistent call of the West, and lifting him in 
1861 — when the miles must be counted by foot-paces, not blurred 
by flying wheels — to California ; there soon appointed to a 
minor agency of Wells Fargo & Co.; quickly promoted to the 
important station at Virginia Cit}^ ; winning upward a step 
at a time, without "pull" or " influence" except the inevitable 
outgrowth of his native power and character, till, at thirty, he 
was General Superintendent, at forty-two Vice-President, and 
at fifty-one President, of the great corporation which meantime 
(and largely as a result of his firm and wise control) had come to 
count its stockholders and employees by the thousands, its mile- 
age on railroad, steamship and stage lines by tens of thousands, 
and its annual "turn-over" of dollars by tens of millions; dying 
just past sixty-one, one of the best known and most widely 
honored men in all the business world — these are the outlines 
of a biography of John J. Valentine. When he entered the 



Mk. Valentine at the Time of His Election as 
President of Wells-Fargo— 1892. 

service of Wells-Farg-o, it w^as little more than a border stage- 
coach line. When the reins slipped from his d3ang- fing-ers its 
operations reached from ocean to ocean, and beyond, controlling 
absolutely the express business in the larg-er part of the West 
and in Mexico, and including one of the world's important 

Of these vast and m ^ided interests, Mr. Valentine was 
by no means merely outive officer, carrying into effect the 
decisions of a mar ,ng board. Neither was he content to deal 
with the large" lObleras, leaving " routine matters" wholly to 
subordinates. He kept himself in touch with every thread of 
the intricate web of its affairs. One of his methods was to 
take frequent trips over the whole of the "Company's Terri- 
tory," during which no detail, down to the lettering of an of&ce 
sign or the blanketing of a horse, was too small for his scru- 
tiny. And his interest extended far beyond the purely " busi- 

162 OUT WEST. 

ness matters," concerning- itself deeply with the personal welfare 
of every Wells-Fargo employee. Each was to him something 
more than a cog in a machine. It was his earnest desire that 
every man of the thousands in the company's service should 
grow to a sounder, fuller, better manhood by reason of his con- 
nection with it. He was wont to justify this — and rightly — on 
the ground of "the better the man, the better the employee." 
An ordinary brain may accept the aphorism ; it took an extra- 
ordinary heart to make of it a vital and controlling principle of 

To illustrate these points it is worth while to quote briefly 
from the circular letters sent out at intervals to the employees — 
letters, by the way, typical of the man and wholly unique in 
"corporation literature." They were no bald, curt orders or 
instructions, but were informed with such gentle and consider- 
ate argument, advice and illustration as the wise head of a 
family might use toward his household. Take this, referring to 
his last trip before the final failure of health : "In some in- 
stances, I heard of employees whose regular work required them 
to be on duty longer than could fairly be considered an average 
working day. I directed that steps should be taken to remedy- 
this, feeling certain that suitable service cannot be rendered by 
an overworked employee. . . . Economy is not to be gained 
at the expense of impairing in any respect an effective, satis- 
factory and becoming- service. ' There is that scattereth, and 
yet increaseth ; and there is that withholdeth more than is 
meet, but it tendeth to poverty.'" Or this, from a letter about 
the extension of the company's library system: "Properly 
considered, education goes on from the cradle to the grave ; and 
the man who cherishes an abiding interest in whatever is tak- 
ing place in the world at large proves, as a rule, the most effi- 
cient workman." Or the letter giving most minute instructions 
as to the care of horses in winter, which begins : " 'A righteous 
man regardeth the life of his beast.' Prov. xii-10." 

Not only did Mr. Valentine's broad and tender sagacity inspire 
in greater or less degree every servant of the company — it made 
of the corporation itself a live thing, not lacking heart, mind 
or will. A few instances of its habit of well-doing will make 
this clear. P^or many years no great disaster has overwhelmed 
a community — be it Chicago fire, Kansas grasshopper plague or 
Galveston flood — but Wells Fargo & Co. was at the front with 
liberal contributions of money and free express service to re- 
lieve the distress. It established its own circulating libraries, 
so that its agents in the most remote places have at their com- 
mand, without cost, the world's best literature. No faithful 
employee need fear being turned out in sickness or old age to 


shift for himself — even 
horses worn out[^in the ser- 
vice are pensioned. Senti- 
mental, and a sign of weak- 
ness, will someone say ? But 
the same company was gran- 
ite against the attempts of 
legislative "grafters" and 
that ilk. Neither threat nor 
persuasion could extract a 
single dollar from it to 
block a "cinch bill" or to 
grease the ways for a desired 
measure. It would do its 
business cleanly and honor- 
ably — or not at all. In more 
recent years, this had be- 
come so well understood that 
members of the leech family 
left Wells -Fargo severely 

Mr. Valentine was neither 
of those who can be gen- 
erous with other people's 
money while gripping 

Mr. Valentine in the 'Seventies. , . ^ 

their own close, or iron 
with a Board of Directors to brace them, but putty when stand- 
ing alone ; nor of those whose kindliness or firmness is exer- 
cised only within a narrow circle. His private charities, wholly 
unostentatious, found their limit only in the needs of others 
and his own ability to relieve them, while his kindly advice, 
sincere sympathy and helping hand were at the service of any 
who called upon them. No man could have won more delight 
from the happiness of others, nor have been more continuously 
thoughtful about adding to it. On the list of supplies for his 
private car for his official trips through Mexico were regularly a 
quantity of broken candy and a number of little gauze bags. At 
each station, he would summon up enough Spanish to call to 
the nearest urchin, "Hey, muchacho ! Venga ! " And both 
mtichachos and muchachas soon learned to look for the passing of 
el Senor Presidente de Welh-Fargo as one of the bright spots in 
their lives. 

During his last tour abroad, made necessary by failing health, 
Mr. Valentine wrote to his life-long friend Aaron Stein — "Uncle 
Aaron " — a series of long and delightful letters concerning the 

164 OUT WEST. 

scenes he was visiting; a series cut short, as was the trip itself,, 
onl)' by the death of his friend. By previous arrangfement, these 
letters as received were reproduced in manifold and a copy for- 
warded to each of many friends whom he believed they would 
interest. Similar instances of his thought fulness might be cited, 

All his life — though born in a "slave State' — a consistent 
hater of human slavery, Mr. Valentine was among the most 
outspoken opponents of recent American policy in the Philip- 
pines. And he was of the few "men of affairs" who could not be 
restrained from voicing his conviction on this subject fully and 
on every occasion either by considerations of business policy, 
personal abuse, threats to withdraw patronage from bank or 
express company, or the persuasion of disagreeing or more 
"politic" associates. All these were tried, but utterly without 
avail. It was by no means the first time in his life that " busi- 
ness policy " had seemed to compel one course, his own con- 
ception of right and duty another ; nor did he ever fail to choose 
the higher standard.* For the consideration of those who think 
conduct should be squared to "will it pay?" the fact ma)-^ well 
be noted that Wells Fargo & Co. has paid large and constant 
dividends under Mr. Valentine's management ; and his private 
estate proved to be larger than even his friends thought possible. 

There is space here only to touch upon Mr. Valentine's intellect- 
ual achievements, though these were amazing in view of his busy 
life. It was not surprising, perhaps, that he should have been 
a profound student of finance, transportation and economics. 
But where he found time to make his mind a veritable store- 
house of the choicest literature of the ages; to qualify himself 
to discuss intelligently — and with experts — Homer, Spencer or 
the Wagnerian school of music; how he could remain to the end 
of his life responsive alike to the lightest play of wit or the most 
delicate touch of pathos — this was a marvel to those who knew 
him best. 

His life was an answer to the question how to be a Christian 
though in business. For many years President of the Y. M. C. 
A. in San Francisco, and Senior Warden of his church in Oak- 
land — indeed, preaching from the pulpit when occasion arose — his 
religion was neither a cloak, a shield, nor an insurance policy. 

*As an example at once of his safij^acity and his fearlessness, it may be 
noted that when all the silver-producing' West, and a great share of the 
East, was apparently following' after the strange gods of Free Silver, Mr. 
Valentine had no hesitation whatever about opposing and exposing the 
fetish of the great majority of the patrons of his company. In five yeara 
the nation — including the West — overwhelmingly agreed with him. — Ed. 



He summed it up, when the Great Shadow was already drawing 
near him, in the words, '*I fix my faith on the gentle Nazarene. 
That is all." He did not talk much about What Jesus Would 
Do — so far as he could, he lived it. 

To the room where his body lay there came by hundreds 
people from every walk in life, from leaders in the business and 
social world to poor creatures who felt themselves friendless in- 
deed, since he had gone. I have spoken since his death with 
many who knew him well on some of his many sides — not yet 
with one who could talk of him long without a choke in the 
voice or a mist in the eye. 

Los Auffeles, Cal. 



EN blithely hazard life and all, I hear ; 

They give good years, foregoing home and friend, 
Those over-bold adventurers who wend 

Northward beyond the lands of sun and cheer. 

Where Father Yukon pours his stately flood 

Frenzied for wealth they fare, through fatal cold, 

Peril, privation, hardship, all for gold ; 
To pay for this how small a price is blood I 

Yet here these bloom and guarded by no law, 
Each with her proffer of resplendent dust 

Yellow as ever lit the eye of lust ; 
The peerless poppies of Matilija. 

The fairy tissue of their fluted dress 

Might tire Titania fitly; 'twere allowed 

Love dying to implore so pure a shroud. 
Or shriven souls to crave such spotlessness. 

Redlands, Cal. 




UBLY Ge-gfe galloped merrily down the Lomitas road on 
Mr. Dooley, the pink donkey, in the cheerful October 
afternoon. Perhaps scampered is the better word to 
describe the progress of Mr. Dooley ; who, with ears 
thrown back and head thrust forward, his wicked eyes 
alight with mischief, went down the way in a cloud of 
dust, shying nimbly from one side of the road to the other 
at judicious intervals, seriously jeopardizing Lubly Ge-ge's 
precarious seat thereby. 

But Ge-ge's mulemanship proved equal to the occasion. The 
scratched brown legs clung fast, and at each of Mr. Dooley's 
strategic efiForts, Ge-ge crowed ' ' Ha !" in the cheeriest, most 
musical note that boy or bird ever startled a listening ear withal, 
and encouraged Mr. Dooley with a stout mesquite branch. 

Lubly Ge-ge's eyes were deep blue, like violets in winter. 
He was freckled and tanned as to his face, and, alas, grimy as 
to his hands. His hair was long — his mother said it was 
auburn — and he looked the thing he was doubly not — a cherub. 
His hilarity was heightened by the pleasing consciousness of 
wickedness, for at this moment he was supposed to be visiting a 
playmate at Tularosa. 

The Mexican wood-haulers said, as this apparition scattered 
dust on them in passing, "Ah, what a devil of a boy is Ge-ge 1 
What a boy 1 and what a burro !" 

For native and Saxon with one accord were loud in their de- 
preciation of this audacious demon's pranks — and, with similar 
unanimity, were wont to show their disapproval of the culprit 
by the bestowal of assorted candies and sweetmeats much to the 
comfort of the inner Ge-ge. 

After a mile or two Mr. Dooley abated somewhat in his 
reckless career, and Ge-ge sagely remarked: 

"Ha! Guess we'll go back home now I Uncle Jim said 
Giant Gruff angrim lived down there." 

But Mr. Dooley seemed to have conscientious scruples about 
returning ; and in the debate that followed, the mesquite argu- 
ment was dropped. 

"Hal" said Ge-ge — and slipped off to recover that symbol 
of his domination over the beasts of the field. Alas for Ge-ge! 
As he stooped to pick up his property, the perfidious Dooley per- 
ceived his opportunity, and started to run. Ge-ge tugged at 
the reins violently, but stumbled over a bush, and the faithless 
Dooley left the road and set off across the mesquite-covered 


desert, looking- back over first one shoulder and then the other 
in contemptuous derision, and uttering- his discordant brays. 

"Ha !" said Ge-ge — no whit daunted, and gave resolute chase 
forthwith. Surely, there was never a burro so abandoned, so 
recreant, so lost to shame as this Martin Dooley. He would 
stand quietly, with lowered head and drooping ears, the image 
of meekness, till the reins were almost within reach, always to 
run again at the last moment. In vain did Ge-ge tempt him 
with handfuls of grass and honeyed words alternated with 
other reproachful remarks, which may not be written here lest 
his mother should see and grieve. 

But Dooley was proof against cajoleries, and deaf to the 
dictates of honor — and even led his pursuer farther from the 
road and out on the dim gray desert. And though Ge-ge did 
not notice it, an ominous, dirty-white cloud grew in the north, 
and the cold winds began to rise. The small bare feet were 
bleeding from cruel thorns, and the small brown legs were 
growing weary — and at last they ran into a bunch of wild 
burros. Dooley, ceasing his unjustifiable and tantalizing tactics, 
set off in unmusical and fleet pursuit. 

Poor little Ge-ge ! The fictitious strength of rage begotten 
of his wrongs died away, and he sat down and cried. He was 
only five years old. 

Long time he wept — till he was called to action by a sense of 
bitter cold. The low afternoon sun was blotted out by a dry, 
white mist-like dust, and a fierce, numbing wind chilled him 
to his bones. Child as he was, he knew that the dreadful 
Norther was upon him, and he must find Tularosa or die. 

Brave little man 1 He dried his tears and stumbled wearily 
along, and said, with a shivering attempt at cheerfulness, 
" Guess my papa will find me." Then, with a memory of his 
mother's knee, he painfully choked down a lump in his baby 
throat and said " Maybe God'U send one of his angels. But — " 
with a wisdom far beyond his years, which even gray hairs do 
not always confer, "I'll just keep trying to go right home — 
cause, maybe, God's pretty busy, and I don't want to be too 
much trouble !" 

No, Ge-ge I Fortunately for you, it was not ' ' too much 
trouble;" for those poor bare legs could not have withstood the 
cold another half-hour. As he went along, he shouted in a thin, 
childish treble that he tried to make brave "like papa said," 
which even in his desperate pass retained a faint trace of the 
jubilant "Ha!" of happier times. 

Suddenly, "Hello!" shouted a startled voice close to him. 
"Hello!" returned Ge-ge — and a moment later a form loomed 

168 OUT WEST. 

gigantically and indistinctly through the mist, and — '* O,. 
mercy ! — that is not God's angel — that tall, fierce man with a 
cocked six-shooter in his hand, rough, bearded, dusty and stern. 
Oh — it is — it must be — Gruffangrim !" 

The new-comer picked up the trembling little form. " Why, 
you poor little fellow," he said; "who are you, and how did 
you come here ?" 

" I'm Fwedewick Ca'loss Morley, and I'm losted — and please, 
Mr. Gruffangrim, take me home to my mam-m-m-ma !" 

*' Don't cry, little man," said the stranger, "you're all right 
now." But his face was troubled. He took Ge-ge down into a 
"sink-hole" — a natural depression common in the alkali lands 
— and wrapping his coat about the boy's form, warmed the poor 
little bleeding feet at a very small fire that was burning there. 
Gruffangrim showed no signs of devouring him, neither was he 
half as tall as Uncle Jim said, and Ge-ge made a note to the 
effect that Uncle Jim told wrong stories. 

The grateful warmth, and the unexpected kindness of this 
reputed monster, cheered him, and his natural boldness returned 

"Why don't you put on more wood ?" he demanded ; " you've 
got lots." 

Gruffangrim looked somewhat embarassed. "Eh? I might 
as well" he said. "It's no difference now. Say, tell me how 
you got lost, anyhow." 

Ge-ge told his woeful tale, and the other listened with knitted 
brow and an air of preoccupation, as of one who is solving 
some perplexing problem, "and" concluded Ge-ge with a diffi- 
dence entirely foreign to his normal disposition, " and I thought 
at first you was old — old Gruffangrim, but maybe you're one of 
God's angels — after all ?" 

The other coughed behind his hand. "Well — h-m — hardly," 
said he. "I'm old Gruffangrim, all right enough. And now — ," 
his face grew set and stern as if steeled against some present 
danger. "Now, Frederick Carlos, you stay here a little, and 
we will just mosey along to Tularosa." He disappeared, and 
came back presently leading a thin and weary horse. He sad- 
dled him up, leaving out one saddle blanket, which, with his 
coat, he wrapped about the little form ; and the ill-matched pair 
rode slowly out into the biting mist. 

The child snuggled up against him. "Will you help me 
whip Mr. Dooley when we find him ?" he said. 

It was four o'clock when the coming storm caused Ge-ge's 
mother to miss him and go to her neighbors in anxious search ; 


and it was half-past before she realized that he was not with 
any of his playmates. 

The alarm was given, and men rode up and down every street 
crying- aloud in English and Spanish that Lubly Ge-ge was 
lost — was lost ! and enquiring who had seen him last. Presently 
they came to the Mexican wood-haulers, who told of seeing 
him on the Lomitas road two hours before. 

A few minutes later every man in Tularosa who could get a 
horse had started for the spot where the boy was last seen, while 
the few who were left afoot prowled around the bushes nearer 

The Sheriff and Ge-ge's papa took charge of the party. It 
was too near night to follow the trail far, so Ruperts, the In- 
dian trailer, was left behind to trace it as far as he could. The 
others, spreading out into a vast semicircle, rode at intervals of 
two or three hundred yards, keeping their distance from each 
other by continual calls. 

Meantime the women and children built an immense bonfire 
at the big horse corral, on the desert edge of town. Theirs 
was — as always — the hardest part, to wait in maddening inac- 
tivity. The Mexican women vied with their white sisters in 
endeavoring to console and comfort the distracted mother with 
tales of children who had been lost and found, and glib assur- 
ances that the men would indubitably find him. All social dis- 
tinctions, all previous unkindness and ancient grudges were for- 

Mrs. Judge and Mrs. Doctor — who had been at daggers drawn 
for months — buried the past in their backing up of each other's 
generous and optimistic lies. For the first time in a century of 
sleepy years, Tularosa was bending every energy to a common 

The horsemen were far out on the plain, and it was swiftly 
turning dark. The suspense was growing unendurable, and 
hope was almost lost, when an answering shout came faintly 
from far away. 

" All ri-ght I The hoy is all right ! " 

The father heard it, and the sheriff, and a dozen others as 
well — and with a great cheer they all ran at full speed in con- 
verging lines in the direction of the answer. 

The father was a few yards in advance, and " Oh, my baby I" 
he said, as he held out his arms — and then, "You 1 My God 1 
Quick ! take my horse ! The sheriff is coming I " he cried, and 
sprang down with Ge-ge. But it was too late. Even as he 
spoke, men were nearing them on every side. 

170 OUT WEST. 

"No use," said the other quietly, as he mounted. *'But 
thank ye kindly, just the same." 

"Run, Ge-ge ! " said his father, setting- him down — "Run — 
run 1" and drawing his six-shooter, he sprang on the other 
horse and, spurring beside the stranger, faced the sheriff. 

But the officer threw up his hands in warning, and shouted, 
" Don't shoot ! Hold on, every one ! By God, John Brady, you 
are a man all right ! And damned if you lose anything by this 
day's work ! Listen. Come to Tularosa with us. I would let 
a rattlesnake in to the fire, a night like this, and I promise you 
shall go free with twelve hours' start tomorrow — and no man 
shall touch you unless he kills me first." "And me," said Ga- 
ge's father. "And me," echoed the other dozen men around 
them, though up to that moment half of them had been his 
bitter foes, ready to hunt him to death. 

"Thank ye, gentlemen, thank ye," said Brady in a grave and 
gentle drawl. "As you say, the night is rather chilly. I guess 
I'd enjoy a good sleep in a real bed. But though your offer is 
really lib'ral, there is another condition I'd like to make. Old 
Zip here" — he patted his horse gently — "is about to lay 'em 
down ; you-all shot him some the other evening, and if dark 
hadn't of happened along just then you'd 'a got me sure. And 
you see, I was sorter expectin' to get another horse tonight and 
mebbe find a Winchester lay in' in the road somewhere." 

"You shall have them," interrupted the Sheriff ; "an' by 
God, we-all '11 get you a pardon too, or know why. 'Twas an 
even break, anyhow — if you hadn' 'a' got him he'd 'a' got you." 

" All right, Bill, I'll go," said Brady. "Call the kid." 

" Shake," said the Sheriff, " and put on this coat — you must 
be mighty nigh froze." 

The little party turned back to the town, emptying their six- 
shooters to notify the others of the successful termination of 
their search, while Ge-ge again related his experiences, and the 
father in a husky voice gave heartfelt thanks to the rescuer. 

"Well," observed the sheriff, jocularly, "I reckon this here'U 
finish my chances of being elected. You-all '11 vote against me 
on general principles, and my side will be wild 'cause I let yer 

"Ye-es, that's so," assented Brady thoughtfully. "It's 
kinder rough on you. Sheriff — and I'm mightily obleeged to ye.'' 

"Pshaw, man — I had a mighty slim chance anyhow; I ain't 
precisely pop'lar, you know. When the Governor appointed me, 
it did look as if no one was pleased but me, nohow. Say, 
Brady, you look sorter peaked. Guess watering at night don't 
agree with yer constitution and by-laws." 


" Well— it's partly that," said Brady ; "and then you-all shot 
me some round the edges, like, as I took up my departure." 

They were drawing- near the light and the waiting crowd. 
"You take him, Brady," said Ge-ge's father, " and give him to 
his mother." 

When the firing announced that the lost was found, it was 
taken up all along the line, so that, though all knew the boy 
was found, it was impossible, in the general fusillade, for many 
to find where he was, and every one started top-speed for the 

But the little party with Ge-ge rode slowly, on account of 
Brady's weary horse, and so it was that practically all Tularosa 
was waiting for them, and when the others fell back, and the 
tall figure, with a gaunt, haggard face, bearing the boy in his 
arms, rode into the circle of firelight, a hush like death fell 
upon the throng. For a fortnight before, this man had raced 
with death through their streets, through a rain of lead from 
every house and wall, with half Tularosa in fierce pursuit — and 
a quiet figure, with a pale face upturned to the sky, lay behind 
him in the plaza. 

One moment, and then they realized that he was braving a 
shameful death, and — what he minded much more — risking the 
triumph of his enemies, for the child's sake — and a thousand 
voices swelled wild to heaven. 

He gave the boy to the mother's arms, while she wept over 
her darling, and sobbed broken thanks to the rescuer — and for 
the first time in all his wild, hard, lonesome life, the hand of a 
good woman clasped his. 

"Mamma! mamma!" clamored Lubly Ge-ge, desirous of 
showing due courtesy to his new acquaintance, " this is Old 
Gruffangrim — and, mamma, he's not a bad man at all — and me 
and him is going to settle wif Mr. Dooley, and now he's going 
wif me. I'm tired and hungry — and now, Mr. Gruffangrim, 
come home wif me !" 

And so, through a line of sobbing women and cheering men 
a child's hand led the rough wanderer home. 

But on the morrow Brady was delirious. The wounds and 
exposure had done their work — and there was nothing done in 
Tularosa save parleying and planning and telegraphing. Also, 
a picket kept guard around the town day and night for a week, 
till everything was settled to their entire satisfaction — and they 
that approached were gruffly informed that Tularosa was not 
at home. "Go to — Alamogordo," was all the information they 
vouchsafed; " it's not so far off as here." 

172 OUl WEST. 

A month later, in a crowded court-room, Brady, white and 
worn, stood in the prisoner's dock, and listened gravely to the 
absurd phraseology in which it pleases the legal mind to word 
an indictment for murder. 

" Prisoner at the bar — you have heard the indictment. Are 
you guilty or not guilty ?" 

" Guilty." 

The Judge, in a few terse sentences, gave him the least 
penalty the law allowed, and then there was a hush, and the 
Governor of the Territory spoke briefly. He recited the circum- 
stances of the killing — and of the child's rescue — and then "in 
response to a petition signed by the great majority of the voters 
of Otero county, and in recognition of the unselfish heroism of 
your atonement, you are pardoned. And I trust that the man 
who was brave enough to do that deed, will be brave and stead- 
fast enough to live henceforth an honorable life! You are free." 

He gave to little Ge-ge the paper which meant so much — and 
the child handed it to Gruflfangrim and kissed him. And then, 
in the Sheriff's vigorous language, " hell broke loose." 

The Sheriff made one mistake. It is well known that West- 
erners are a lawless race — far inferior to the Easterners in their 
respect for justice, their love of the good, the true, and the 
beautiful, and their devotion to those principles that make for 
civic righteousness. The Easterners admit this themselves. 
Doubtless that is why the Sheriff was re-elected by an over- 
whelming majority, contrary to all expectations. 

Tularosa, N. M. 




HE golden poppy is God's gold, 

The gold that lifts, nor weighs us down, 
The gold that knows no miser's hold. 

The gold that banks not in the town, 
But singing, laughing, freely spills 
Its hoard far up the happy hills ; 
Far up, far down, on every turn. 
What beggar has not gold to burn I 

The HifflUs, Oakland, 



iHEN the foothill loosens her cloak of snow 
And bares her breast to the warm Chinook, 
There by her nude brown foot, we know 
"We shall find if we but look. 
Cradled in furs from throat to toe, 
A baby anemone sleeping low. 

The snowbirds twitter a chansonnette 

And the babe peeps out with her soft blue eye. 

Thirsting, she seeks the rivulet 

'Neath the mother's cloak awry ; 
Her velvet lip she creeps to wet 
And her face in the snow cloak's fringe is set. 

Helena, Mont. 



HERE could hardly be more appropriate title than 
this which has been given the truly great 
aborigine who is commemorated by science in the 
name of the hugest trees in the world — for the 
Sequoia gigantea, the incomparable Redwood 
of California, was christened in honor of the 
only American Indian that ever invented a writ- 
ten language, the only Indian "Educator" (as 
we use the word nowadays), Se-quo-yah, the 

Se-quo-yah's mother was a Cherokee maiden whom a Dutch 
peddler, named Gist, wooed and married while trading among 
her people. Gist was a lazy vagabond, but admired industry in 
others. He watched this girl as she prepared the venison and 
birchen dish of hominy in her father's cabin, saw her go out 
into the field to assist in cultivating the maize, and, on her re- 
turn, pick up a moccasin that she was embroidering with many 
colored beads ; and he thought, truly, that such a thrifty wife 
would be cheaply purchased with the best contents of his pack. 
The bargain with her father was soon made, and Gist took 
this Indian bride to his home in eastern Georgia ; but, before 
two years had passed, the roving habit returned, and he left 
without a word. This was in 1771, and he was never seen or 
heard from again ; but in three months a little son came to 
cheer the widow's solitude. His mother called him Se-quo-yah, 

174 OUT WEST. 

which means '''' He guessed it,'''' a probable reference to the family 
name Gist, or Guest; but poetically apt in the light of later 
events. Among the English he was afterwards known as 
George Guess. 

A Cherokee woman was allowed to hold prop>erty in her own 
right, and Mrs. Gist possessed a little farm of eight acres which 
she could cultivate herself. The little Se-quo-yah's cradle was 
made of dried buffalo skins, fastened to a straight board. 
This, when working in the field, his mother would fasten to 
her back or hang upon some bush near by ; and when engaged 
in household duties, she stood the cradle with its little occupant 
in some safe corner of the hut. As the boy grew older he 
seemed to share his mother's energy, and was soon able to assist 
her in farm work. Having no one to teach him the manly 
sports in which other youths were engaged, Se-quo-)'ah often 
amused himself with carving upon wood, or bark, and at last 
became so expert in the use of his knife that he could make 
many improvements in his mother's milking and cooking 

As her boy showed some of his father's taste for trading, Mrs. 
Gist allowed him to visit the hunters' camps and exchange guns 
and hatchets for furs and skins which would furnish them with 
clothing and winter covering. So passed a peaceful youth. 
But with manhood came the loss of the mother whom Se-quo-yah 
tenderly loved, whose influence and guidance had been the great 
blessing of his life. 

In the lonely days that followed, he became the silversmith of 
his tribe. He had, besides, some fame as a storyteller, and this 
attracted many visitors to his wigwam ; but, feeling the need 
of more gentle companionship, Se-quo-yah determined to seek a 
wife. Choice being made, he proceeded to woo the girl in true 
Indian fashion. 

He painted his face, breast and arms in every color of the 
rainbow, then he greased his black hair and adorned it with 
Indian "jewels," and finally wrapped himself in the buffalo 
robe, a symbol of care and protection which was offered to the 
bride. Thus arrayed, Se-quo-yah stood day after day at the door 
of her cabin, smiling whenever he obtained a glimpse of his be- 
loved, but never daring to address her. Not until the price 
which her parents chose to demand for the maiden had been de- 
cided upon was she allowed to give a smile in return. This 
weighty matter being settled, Se-quo-yah that night loaded his 
horse with buffalo robes and tied it at the door of her hut. The 
next morning he found that the robes had been taken in, a sure 


sign that she accepted his protection, and he could claim her as 
his wife. 

Se-quo-yah is said to have had a very pleasant countenance; his 
face was Asiatic in contour, with the softness and refinement of 
an Eastern sag-e. His wife was very handsome — tall, symmet- 
rical and delicately formed. They lived happily tog-ether for 
some years ; then Se-quo-yah grew dreamy and apparently in- 
dolent, while she became absorbed in children and household 
cares. The wife, not understanding his unwonted listlessness, 
would often reprove her husband for lack of industry ; but Se- 
quo-yah's mind was busy, for he was already brooding over the 
mystery of " the talking leaf." 

This was a paper found upon a white man taken prisoner by 
the Cherokees. He explained to them that it was a letter from 
one of his friends, and read it to them; but the Indians declared it 
must be a message from the Great Spirit. ' ' No, " said Se-quo-yah, 
" the white man knows how to make fast his words upon paper, 
just as we catch a wild animal and tame it." The subject inter- 
ested him more and more, so at last he borrowed the English 
spelling-book from the mission school. But, not knowing a 
single letter of that language, this could do him no good. Then 
he said, " I will make an alphabet for my people, that they may 
have talking leaves of their own." Receiving no encourage- 
ment from family or friends, Se-quo-yah might have abandoned 
the enterprise, but for a severe accident which crippled him for 
many years. 

Unable to engage in active pursuits, he sat alone at the door 
of his cabin, listening to the songs of the birds, the rustling of 
the leaves, and the rippling murmur of the water. Then he 
thought, as every movement, emotion, or passion was represented 
to the ear by some peculiar sound, why should not every sound 
be depicted to the eye by some appropriate symbol. So Se-quo- 
yah made his children bring pieces of bark from the woods and 
gather herbs from which his wife could extract beautiful dyes ; 
and again resorted to the knife with which he had before be- 
come so skilful. He carved and painted upon these pieces of 
bark symbols of things, or parts of things, which stood for cer- 
tain sounds of the Cherokee tongue. After much labor, Se-quo- 
yah discovered that with eighty-two of these signs he could repre- 
sent every sound of his native language. 

Then all the neighboring chiefs were summoned, to whom he 
explained what he had accomplished ; and to prove its practical 
use, called in his little daughter, Ahyokeh, the only one of his 
family who had shown much faith in his self-appointed task. 
The child was sent from the room, while some of the chiefs re- 

176 OUT WEST. 

peated sentences which Se-quo-yah wrote upon the bark ; and 
when she returned, Ahyokeh read them off as readily as if 
she had heard them spoken. The chiefs were at last convinced, 
and news of the great discovery spread. When it reached Wash- 
ington, Congress voted a silver medal and five hundred dollars 
to be bestowed upon the inventor. He afterwards received a 
literary pension. 

Se-quo-yah lived to see four million pages of good literature in 
his signs. In 1797, John Arch, a Cherokee who had been in- 
structed by the missionaries of Tennessee, visited Se-quo-yah 
and, after learning all about his work, translated the third chapter 
of St. John into Sequoyah-syllabic characters. This translation 
was copied and read by millions, and then other books were pre- 
pared in the same way ; those who could obtain them read them 
in preference to the English, the sounds of that language being 
unknown and unfamiliar. 

In 1840, this great Indian traveled towards the Rocky Mount- 
tains, hoping to find some trace of a missing branch of his tribe 
which, according to tradition, had strayed in that direction. 
Near the banks of the Colorado, he was overcome by age and 
fatigue, and his companions buried him there among the shifting 
sands. When his bones were sought, that they might be given 
honorable burial, not a trace remained. Yet he is not without 
fitting memorial. In the Council hall of Tahlequah a marble 
bust of Se-quo-yah was placed, and in the public library of Boston 
an elegantly bound copy of his Testament may be seen. And 
we may hope that at least, one grove of the giant Redwoods 
may be spared, as an evergreen monument to this Cadmus of 

Pass Christian, Miss. 



Y%^ARKSPUR and eglantine, 
I^M Heartsease and heather, 
^"^^ Hollyhocks, four-o'clocks, 

Poppies, mignonette and phlox 
Growing wild together. 
What a dear, old-fashioned nook, 
And how few would heed it. 
What a place to take a book — 
And never read it ! 


"TO mahe better Indians." 

^^flHE new Leag-ue (of national scope) "to make Better In- 

J^ dians and! better- treated ones," is rapidly shaping its 
organization. B)'- next month's issue it will be incor- 
porated and officially at work, and it has already done a good 
deal of work, unofficially but effectively. 

Its constitution and platform will be published next month. 
Those who have already consented to serve on its Advisory 
Board for the first year are Mrs. Phebe A. Hearst, founder 
of the Department of Anthropology of the University of Cali- 
fornia ; Major J. W, Powell, the explorer of the Grand Canon 
of Arizona, and head of the Bureau of American Ethnology ; 
Prof. W. J. McGee, second in command in the same institution : 
J. Sterling Morton, founder of Arbor Day and ex-Secretary of 
Agriculture ; U. S. Senator Thos. R. Bard, of California ; Miss 
Alice C. Fletcher, Fellow of the Peabody Museum, member of 
the Council of the Department of Anthropology, Universit)'^ of 
California, and the most successful intermediary with the Indians 
the government has ever had ; F. W. Hodge, of the Smithsonian 
Institution, co-laborer and successor of Dr. Elliott Coues, the 
greatest critical editor of Western history ; Archbishop Ireland, 
one of the foremost American publicists; Hamlin Garland, author; 
Dr. Washington Matthews, the dean of American ethnologists; 
Miss Estelle Reel, Superintendent of all Indian schools. The 
rest of the Board will be of people equally distinguished for their 
knowledge of Indians or their interest in humanitarian causes. 

Among the Executive Committee will be Dr. David Starr 
Jordan, president of Stanford University, Cal. ; C. Hart Merriam, 
head of the government's Biological Survey, Washington, one 
of the foremost living biologists, and a man of ripe experience 
with Indians and the frontier ; and George Bird Grinnell, editor 
of Forest and Stream (N. Y.), author of many standard books on 
the Plains Indians, and an honorary chief of the Blackfeet. 

The plans of the League have been carefully outlined in per- 
sonal conversation with President Roosevelt, Secretary of the 
Interior Hitchcock, and Commissioner of Indian Affairs Jones, 
and by them all and severally heartily approved and promised 
personal co-operation. U. S. Senators Geo. C. Perkins (of Cali- 
fornia ) and Boies Penrose ( of Pennsylvania ) have promised 
their assistance. Edward Everett Hale and ex-President Cleve- 
land express their cordial interest in the League's work ; of 
which the next issue of Out West will give a concise forecast. 
The magazine will be the official organ of the League and will 
keep pace with its aims and its acts. 

178 OUT WEST. 

With the proverbial slowness of legislative bodies, Congress 
has as yet done nothing for the relief of the 300 evicted Mission 
Indians ; but sufficient pressure is now on — beyond reasonable 
doubt — to secure action in the only line in which it can be effec- 

An earnest protest has already been forwarded by the League 
against the proposed abolishment of the Mission-Tule River 
Consolidated Agency and the turning of its duties over to the 
Superintendent of the Perris government Indian School — or of 
any other school. The man who shall run a government Indian 
school of hundreds of pupils honestly and efficiently will have 
both hands full with that one job. If — in adequate discharge of 
his duties — he does not neglect his family, it will be because he 
is an uncommonly good man and an uncommonly effective one. 
If he tries to take any other man's business on his shoulders, 
he will have to shirk either the old or the new duties. 

The agent in charge of this agenc)', if he does his sworn duty, 
has an even heavier contract. An administration as business- 
like and clean-cut as we have now would, if it knew the facts, 
appoint an extra agent and " disconsolidate " the agency, rather 
than think to abolish the one agent — and it would be better 
economy. So unbearable has become the state of things that 
this League is formed primarily to remedy it ; and no member 
of the League will for an instant favor a measure whose only 
result would be to add incalculable confusion to a disgraceful 
enough situation already, to block the work of the League, and 
to impose almost incalculable hardships on the Mission Indians, 
who have already had more than their share of trouble. Beyond 
a reasonable doubt, the Department will heed this protest. 

Without going into the details of the case, the folly of abol- 
ishing this agency and giving its duties to a man who will have 
all he can do to stay in his office and run a competent school, is 
sufficiently shown by the following table of distances between 
this agency and the 34 reservations under its control ; adding 
merely that these journeys are to be made, not by Pullman, but 
mostly by wagon or horseback : 

50 miles, 75 miles, 35 miles, 130 miles, 170 miles, 120 miles, 70 
miles, 100 miles, 85 miles, 25 miles, 75 miles, 40 miles, 35 miles, 
75 miles, 65 miles, 110 miles, 240 miles, 480 miles, 160 miles, 150 
miles, 130 miles, 80 miles, 85 miles, 6 miles, 55 miles, 52 miles, 
35 miles, 75 miles, 190 miles, 60 miles, 65 miles, 55 miles, 60 

Anyone who can believe that any one man can run any kind 
of a school properly — or do any other business whatever — and 
contemporaneously pay to these distant, scattered, desert reser- 
vations any adequate attention, can believe anything. 

The present incumbent of this agency seems to be doing his 


duty as well as one can whose hands are tied. He is no longer 
allowed even a clerk — and a reasonable service would require 
two clerks, if not two agents. No provision is made for that 
suffering of the Indians which is due exclusively to the failure 
of the government to take care of them. A good many of them 
would have stcirved to death long ago if private help had not 
reached them.. For instance, Miss Du Bois is feeding half a 
dozen old, helpless and penniless Mission Indians. Their help- 
lessness is due not to the fact that they are Indians and impro- 
vident, but to the fact that our government has not fulfilled its 
obligations to them, and has suffered them — in its distant ignor- 
ance of the facts — to be crowded into the deserts where a horned 
toad might scratch a living if single, but must inevitably starve 
if led into matrimony. 

It will be a function of the League to remedy some of these 
shocking facts. Its creed is based on the faith that the govern- 
ment's intentions are honorable — and that the present adminis- 
tration is peculiarly "horse-sense." Given the facts, it will do 
the right thing — and the League proposes to give the facts. 



iOSEFA was Itired ; so tired that the distance 
across the room seemed a long way to her 
But when one is sixty years old, and bends all 
day over a low washtub, it is not strange that 
she is tired when night comes. And when 
the drudgery has continued day in and day out 
for many years, with no hope of relaxation in the future and 
small store of happiness in the past, the weariness becomes 

Josefa knew that her mind had grown dull and her heart 
hard, just as she knew that her glossy black hair had turned 
gray, that her face was furrowed with wrinkles, and her back 
grown bent almost to a deformity. But she had long since 
ceased to care very much. 

During the day, while at work, her mind was almost a blank ; 
but at night, upon the little straw pallet that served for a bed, 
the torture of strained and aching muscles kept her long awake; 
and in these hours of quiet she would knock at the doors of 
memory and somewhat laboriously recall the more important 
incidents of her life, dwelling with a lingering fondness upon 
anything that had meant happiness to her. 

She could remember the days of her girlhood when she lived 
at a beautiful little hacienda near San Gabriel. The memory 
of her freedom from care at that time seemed like a dream of 
some strange and impossible land, and she smiled a little in- 

180 OUT WEST, 

credulously to herself. There were horses and dog's and sheep, 
and she had loved them all. And there were so many flowers. 
And then Vicente had come, and had loved her. How hand- 
some Vicente was ! She remembered how she would sit in the 
shadow of the window to watch him ride past, so tall and 
straight. How splendidly he rode his horse ! . What a noble 
brow he had ! And she closed her eyes, even in the dark, to 
get the picture of him clearer in her mind. 

Finally they were married, and moved from the hacienda 
into the town ; and then trouble began. But it was not Vi- 
cente's fault. Vicente was always so kind, and Vicente worked 
very hard. But he was unfortunate ; everthing that he under- 
took went wrong, somehow, and often they had not bread in the 
house. So they moved again, into the outskirts, into this same 
little house. She did not mind it so much then, for she was 
young, and the patter of baby feet on the hard dirt floor was 
music to her ears. 

Besides, she had Vicente. 

But her youth faded in the poverty of the hut, and the little 
feet ceased to patter on the hard floor. Two of her babies lay 
under unlettered mounds in the churchyard, and the other, Jose 
— Jose was a man now, but he was a roisterer, and cared noth- 
ing about his mother. He had been very rough and unkind to 
her when she saw him last, and she had not seen him for years. 
Her heart overflowed with bitterness as she thought of Jose. 

But she could endure it all until Vicente went. Why he went, 
or where he went, she did not know. She tried and tried to re- 
call the circumstances of his disappearance. It was so many 
years ago. She couldn't remember whether he had said he was 
going to find work or not ; but anyhow he had gone away one 
day, and she had waited for him when night came, and then had 
waited for him while the weeks grew into months, and the 
months into years. She was still waiting for him, wasn't she ? 
Of course she was. Why else did she work so hard, but to have 
something saved up for Vicente when he should come home ? 
For she thought Vicente might come home sick, and she knew 
he would be old, although she always thought of him as a young 
man, with his splendid carriage and the independent toss of his 
raven black hair. For what other reason did she live so poor, 
and for what purpose did she save every cent, except for Vi- 
cente ? Had she not two hundred dollars in a can in the floor 
just under where the string of chiles hung ? 

Ah, she had counted the sum so often, and it had grown so 
slowly. In all the years since Vicente went she had saved only 
that. That would be a great sum for her, but Vicente could 


not live as she had lived. Vicente must have nice things. 
She would g-et up early in the morning' and work harder the 
next day and try and make a little more. 

People told her that Vicente would not come back, but she 
knew better than that. They did not know Vicente as she 
knew him. Vicente would come I And with this faith secure 
in her heart she usually went to sleep. 

She had worked even harder than usual today, but she had 
earned cuatro realcs ; and when she thought of that she did not 
feel quite so tired. That would be a great addition to "Vicente's 
money" as she called it. The twilight had already turned into 
dusk, and it had been long since she had permitted herself the 
extravagance of a candle. When she heard a knock on the door 
she dreaded to walk across the room to open it, she was so tired. 
And then she was a little afraid, too, for her house was a long 
way from the road and it was seldom that people came there at 
night. But when she opened the door she saw an inoffensive 
stranger, a little man stooped almost as much as she was her- 
self, and quite old. His voice was not strong. He asked for a 
night's lodging. It was a long way to the next house and he 
was tired, he said. He would give her dos reales. She had 
only a big pile of leaves for him to sleep on, but he said 
he would take that. What should she do ? The dos reales 
tempted her. It was as much as she usually made in a day. 
That would be seventy-five cents in one day to put away for 
Vicente. And then, she was as much afraid to refuse him as to 
let him stay. 

The dos reales turned the scales, and she let him in. He 
gave her a little box to keep for him, which she thought was 
strange, and then she went into the other little room in the hut 
and lay down on her pallet of straw and pulled an old comforter 
over her. Her back was so tired that she could not straighten 
it out all at once ; but it seemed so good to lie down. She told 
her beads and then began to "remember," as she did every 
night. But tonight she could think of nothing but Vicente. 
That was because she had made seventy-five cents for him 
that day. How happy he would be when he should see how 
much she had saved. If she could only make that much every 
day 1 The stranger hadn't paid her the dos reales yet, but he 
would in the morning. What if he went away before she was 
up the next day, and should not leave her the money ? But he 
could not do that, for he had given her that box to keep for 
him. Why did he do that ? Mightn't there be something in 

182 OUl WE S 7 . 

the box to harm her ? She shook the box but it did not rattle. 
Then she became curious. He had no right to give it to her, 

She crawled on hands and knees to the door and peeped 
through the crack. The stranger was sleeping quietly. So she 
crawled over into the moonlight where it came through the 
window, and worked hard with the string before she could untie 
the knot. Then she unwrapped the box and opened it. In the 
top was cotton, and under that was roll after roll of paper 
money. She always kept her money in gold, for she felt surer 
of it in that way ; but she knew what bills were. 

How much there was she could not tell, but she knew that 
there was a great deal. She started to count it, but heard a 
noise and slipped into bed trembling from hand to foot. She 
thought there must be a thousand dollars! A thousand dollars! 
If she only had that to put with "Vicente's money!" She 
hugged the box close to her and smiled at the thought. A 
thousand dollars 1 Then she would not have to work so hard, 
and Vicente could have a horse when he came. Vicente was so 
fond of horses. Who was this stranger ? He had not yet paid 
her the dos reales that he owed her. He was probably going to 
cheat her out of it too, although he had so much money. 
Where did he get a thousand dollars ? He didn't look as if he 
had earned so much. He stole it, probably. 

And then something very strange happened. We are prone 
to ridicule the Biblical expression, " and the devil entered into 
him." But the devil entered into Josef a that night. The daily 
hardening of her heart to all but Vicente made it easier for him 
to enter ; the brutalizing effects of hard work and poverty gave 
him a better hold ; but the deed of that night was the deed of 
the devil that possessed her, not the deed of Josefa. 

Suddenly her* jaw shut tight. She raised her head from the 
bed with a new look in her eyes, and her hand began seeking 
for the knife she kept in her bed for her defense. It was all 
done very quickly. She found the knife and crept stealthily to 
the door. She opened it very cautiously, and stole to the side of 
the old man who was asleep. His head was turned away, but 
the moonlight streamed across his breast and she could see the 
beat, beat, beat of his heart. She poised the knife for just a 
moment, then sunk it deep. The man gave one groan, and 
turned half over. That was all. Her aim had been true. 

The deed was done ; the devil came out and left her. She 
dropped the knife in the leaves that made the old man's bed ; 
the fierce light died out of her eyes and horror came in its 
place. She gazed about the room terrified, and stumbled back 


to her bed. Here she fell in a heap and drew the covers over 
her head. 

She was a poor little woman, and she had worked so hard and 
tried to be good. Why had the devil used her so ? Slowly she 
began to think. What had she done ? Slie trembled as if in 
an ag-ue. The box was under the covers with her and she pushed 
it out. It had grown hateful to her. What did she want with 
money that was not hers ? The stranger would have given her 
the dos reales^ and that, with the fifty cents she had earned, 
would make seventy-five cents for Vicente. Besides that, she 
had two hundred dollars. That would last Vicente a long time. 
And Vicente would be too old to want a horse. Why had she 
not thought of that ? How glad she would be when Vicente 
came 1 

And then the terror of her deed came back to her. Surely 
she had not killed the old man 1 She had not meant to kill 
him ! He was a stranger and very gentle. He would have 
paid her the dos reales. But if she had killed him, then the law 
would kill her and she would not see Vicente. 

Oh, God, not to see Vicente 1 

She tried to pray, but she could not get the words out. She 
tried to begin her little routine of memory, commencing with 
her girlhood, but things would not come out straight. Only in 
the thought of Vicente could she get some comfort. Vicente 
would come I He would protect her ! Not even the law could 
make him give her up. She would hide the body in the morn- 
ing, and no one would know. Nobody saw the old man come 
there. And then Vicente would come soon, and she would not 
tell him where she had got so much money. And they would 
be so happy. Vicente would take her in his arms again and 
put his cheek against hers. "Yes, Vicente will come, Vicente 
will come !" 

Repeating this to herself, she lay until the first light of day 
entered her window. Then she arose to hide the body of the 
stranger. It was pitiful to see how she staggered. She had 
grown so much older in one night. 

She took the body of the man she had killed in her arms and 
dragged it to the door. As the light fell upon them she saw a 
saber scar on his neck and a little tattooed anchor on his fore- 
arm. With a gasp she pushed back the hair from his brow and 
looked searchingly into his face. Then without a word or a 
cry, she sat down on the doorstep and took his head in her lap. 

Vicente had come. 

San Francisco, Cal. 





J. G. Mossin. 
Henry W. O'Melveny. 
Rev. M. S. Liebana. 
Snmner P. Hunt. 
Arthur B. Benton. 
Margaret Collier Graham. 
Cbas. F. Lummis. 


President. Chaa. F. Lummis. 
Vice-Piesident, Marsraret Collier Graham. 
Secretary, Arthur B. Benton, 114 N Sprinir St. 
Treasurer, J. G. Mossin. 
Corresponding Secretary. Mrs. M. E. Stilson. 

812 Kensingrton Road, Los Antreles. 

Honorary Life Members : R. Ejran, Tessa L. Kelso. 

Life Members : Jas. B. Lankershim, J. Downey Ha rrey, Edward E. Ayer, John F. 
Francis, Mrs. John F. Francis, Mrs. Alfred Solano, Marjrart't Collier Graham, Miss Collier, 
Andrew McNally, Rt. Rev. Geo. Montjromery, Miss M. F. Wills, B. F. Porter, Prof. Chas. 
C. Bra«rdon, Mrs. Jas. W. Scott, Mrs. Phebe A. H.;arst, Mrs. Annie D. Apperson, Miss 
Airnes Lane, Mrs. M. W. Kincaid, Col. H. G. Otis, H. Jevne, J. R. Newberry, Dr. W. Jarvis 
Barlow, Marion Brooks Barlow, Geo. W. Marston, Chas. L. Hutchinson, U. S. Grant, jr., 
Isabel M. R. Severance, Mrs. Louisa C. Bacon, Miss Susan Bacon. 

Advisory Board : Jessie Benton Fremont. Col. H. G. Otis, R. Earan, W. C. Patterson, 
Adeline Stearns Winir, Tessa L. Kelso, Don Marcos Forster, Chas. Cassat Davis, Miss 
M. F. Wills, C. D. WillJird, John F. Francis, Frank J. Polley, Rev. Huffh K. Walker, 
Elmer Wachtel, Maj. H. T. Lee, Rt. Rev. Joseph H. Johnson, Bishop of Los Anireles, Mrs. 
Caroline M. Severance. 

Chairman Membership Committee, Mrs. J. G. Mossin. 

@f?HK Club begs to remind those whose g-enerous help enables 
X it to carry out its work that all annual memberships lapse 
January 1st, and that these fees are now due. P^orjjetfulness to 
send in dues seriously handicaps the Club's labors. 

All persons who can care for such a cause as the preservation, 
from vandalism and decay, of the finest architectural remains in 
the United States — and of historic landmarks in general — are 
invited to become members of the Club. No other formality is 
necessary beyond the payment of dues of $1 per year. Life 
memberships are $25 ; and several contributions of larger 
amounts have been received. All moneys go net to the work ; 
the officers of the club all serving without compensation of any 

Two of the Club's most indefatigable workers, Mrs. J. G. 
Mossin and Mrs. Harriet C. Wadleigh, have now in press in this 
office, and for the Club's benefit, a large and invaluable Land- 
marks Club Cook-Book — the only authoritative and characteristic 
California cook-book thus far. Besides a great number of proved 
recipes from all over the world — no city has a more cosmopolitan 
population than Los Angeles — it has a larger and more de- 
pendable array, probably, than was ever before published in 
English, of the best typical dishes of early California, Mexico 
and Peru. These are not the usual cook-book *' Spanish " foods, 
but the real thing, gathered by the Club's president from the 
foremost cooks during many years of intimate acquaintance with 
nearly all Spanish-America — and competently as becomes a 



pretty fair cook himself. It is hoped to have the book on the 
market within a few weeks. 

For the information of strangers it may be added that the 
Club has raised over $4600, and has expended most of that 
amount in expert protective repairs to the principal buildings of 
the San Juan Capistrano, San Fernando and San Diego Missions. 
There is no "restoring" and no botching. All work is done 
under the supervision of recognized experts. The result thus 
far attained is that the most important structures at these three 
Missions will now stand about as they are for another full cen- 
tury ; whereas without the safe-guardings that have been given 
by the Club, all would have been hopeless ruins within the pres- 
ent decade. But a great amount of work remains to be done ; 
steps have been taken for repairs to the picturesque Mission 
chapel at Pala, and for imminently needful work at San Juan 
Capistrano ; and the Club earnestly urges all friends of such a 
cause to contribute. 

Excursion. — A joint excursion of the Landmarks Club and 
the Daughters of the American Revolution will visit the Mis- 
sion San Juan Capistrano on Washington's Birthday, Feb. 22. 


Previously acknowledged, $4607.50. 

New contributions : — Anonymous, Hawaii, $5 ; D. M. Rior- 
dan, Los Angeles, $5; Rev. G. D. Haldemann, Chicago, $5; J. 
C. Nolan, St. Paul, Minn., $3 ; Mrs. Stephen Mallory White, 
$2 ; James Slauson, $2 — both Los Angeles. 

$1 each: — Miss Elizabeth W. Johnson, N. Y. ; Edmund G. 
Hamersly, Philadelphia.; Wm. S. White, J. G. Mossin, Mrs. J. 
G. Mossin, Los Angeles ; Mrs. Francis F. Browne, Chicago ; 
Mrs. H. T. Lee, A. G. Wells, Los Angeles. 




HUSH thy throbbing restless heart ! Through 

dim, wide aisles of night 
It is his voice that sings and calls. 

thrills the old delight ! 
I hear the low, responsive leaves as soft winds 

strike the trees. 
Caressing and bewildering — such magic notes 

are these 1 

In louder strains it swells, it rings, repeats my name, O hark 1 
Sing on, cease not, I come, I come swift through the fragrant 

O'er tangled vine and drifting bloom, thy song of many keys 
Compelling floats as gales which smite the near resounding seas. 

The swinging eucalyptus censers beat against my face, 

All empty of thy touch and tone, the fair, sweet trysting place, 

Alas ! 'Twas but a mockery of joy forever slain, 

An ever haunting dream of bliss, a waking unto pain. 

San Francisco. 



NBw ISSUES Naturally, the President's determination that we shall 

^•''tk^^rs " ^^^P ^"^ faith with Cuba has roused to open rebellion 
those who think their "business interests" will suffer if 
the nation's honor is not prostituted. It is onlj' a teapot, but 
it boils hard ; and as there are people professionally devoted to 
believing everything they hear, people who would chloroform 
their mother if they were told by anonymous telephone that the old 
lady's health was a source of satisfaction to the Sugar Trust, 
a few men have scared up a considerable array of disciples. 
One humor of the affair — and it has many — is that these same 
people and papers who are now bitterly fighting the solemn and 
immovable intention of the President of the United States be- 
cause they fear their pockets will suffer, are the very ones who a 
year or two ago were shrieking " Traitor" at men who opposed 
a President for a policy into which he had been driven against 
his will and his often expressed convictions ; and who opposed 
him simply on moral grounds and at their own pecuniary loss. 
A lot of these present rebels, a little further back, were also 
fighting the national government and bitterly denouncing the 
few men in the West who had sense enough to oppose the silver 
craze. But such people never learn from their own experience 
nor from history — the experience of mankind. 

OUR Here in California, for instance, one would fancy (to 

SHARK hear these gentlemen) that our entire population was 

engaged in the beet sugar industr)^ and that a fifty per 

cent, reduction on Cuban raw sugar would so dock, hamstring 

and eviscerate the commonwealth that no industry would be left 

of it but the Pulmonary Brigade. 

As a matter of fact and the United States Census, beet-sugar 
is not all there is of California. There are eight factories. 
How many people do you suppose are employed in the business 
in California— salaried ofl&cers, clerks, foremen, wage-earners 
and all ? The grand total of 1020. Tenants and contract 
farmers cultivate 56,352 acres of beets, and their gross returns 
average $24 per acre. Also, if they were not growing beets, 
they would grow something else. 

Now, how many people in California eat sugar, as against the 
1020 who Some 1,480,000 and odd— or 1456 to 1. 
They all pay an excessive price for their sugar to " foster" the 
1457th man. The average protection given all the industries 
of the United States is 50 per cent. ; but the Beet Sugar people 
are getting about 100 per cent, protection. Their uproar, their 
fight against the President, their "treason," is not because of a 
proposition for free trade. They are wailing to high heaven 


lest they should have to g-et along- with anything' less than 
twice the protection other American industries have. 

In the whole United States, including- California, somb 
there are 31 beet-sugar factories, with altogether 48 ^^'*"^>igurbs. 

salaried officers, 302 superintendents, managers, clerks 
and salesmen, and 1970 wage-earners — a g-rand total of 2424 
persons making beet sug-ar in a country of 76,303,387 people, 
most of whom eat sugar. When we figure out, then, that the 
beet-sugar man is less than one in every 31,478 of us ; and that 
his business has managed to increase 300 per cent, in three 
years, we have come somewhat nearer the real proportion of 
things. We haven't protested at paying- him such a tribute for 
ever}^ meal we sit down to ; but when each one of him requests 
the other thirty-odd thousand of us to throw away also for iris 
sake whatever regard we may have for our country's honor — he 
really is too modest. And when he roars "Sugar Trust," he 
will naturally capture the same degree of intelligence which en- 
abled English mothers for a generation to quiet their unruly 
offspring- — " If you don't hush up, now, Napoleon will g-et you." 

If the beet-crusher increases the price of sugar, what worse 
could the " Sugar Trust " do ? 

Far more than 99 per cent, of the whole American where 
people — far more than 99 per cent, of the entire popu- " ^°comb in. 

lation of California — would be benefited, every time they 
sat down to the table, by cheaper sug-ar ; and benefited materi- 
all}^ even at a rate which would still allow the beet sugar in- 
dustry to flourish like a California bay tree. And I mean bene- 
fited in their pockets, even if they could not see any " benefit " 
in keeping- the country from being- a drab. 

As much is true of all the other items in the proposed from 
reciprocity with Cuba. How many persons did you ever ^"*^to smoke. 

see making cigars ? How many persons did you ever 
see smoking cigars ? But millions of people are forced to smoke 
indecent weeds — and all who smoke decent ones are heavily 
fined — all for the benefit of a few thousand persons, mostly of 
alien birth, whose only important achievement in history is that 
they largely brought on a war which has cost us half a billion 
dollars and many thousand lives, and has given us nothing in 
return but more wars, more costs, more burdens, and some Courts 
of Inquiry. Por example, a Mexican cigarette I am familiar 
with costs in Mexico 6 cents Mexican (half as much in gold) ; in 
the United States it costs 40 cents gold. It, and all other real 
cigarettes, are " impossibilitated " to us in order that a few con- 
cerns here may poison our boys with their vile-smelling de- 
coctions. We may not be read}^ to kill the American cigarette 
manufacturer, nor to drive him out of business, but he could 
still maintain his steam yacht if you and I and other persons of 
taste could get Havana cigarettes at a livable figure, and left 
him those predestined to "coffin-nails." 

As for the relation of beet-sugar to California, no one, California 
from the President down, desires to starve out that In- ^sugar^eet 

f ant Industry which fattens faster than ciny other in the 

188 OUT WEST. 

State, so nobly have we pampered it. But the total beet-sugrar 
output of California — and roug^hly this one State has half the 
total acreag-e, investment, production and number of employees 
of the whole Union — is less than three and a half million dol- 
lars. Leaving- out oranges altogether, our fruit-growers pro- 
duce in fresh and canned fruits alone over sixteen and a quarter 
millions of dollars a year. Not only do they and their families 
eat sugar ; cheaper sugar would enormously increase their busi- 
ness. There is no other staple of life, the cheapening of which 
would so stimulate the growth of California. Our orange crop 
is worth $18,000,000 — and that figure would go up 30 per cent, 
without the planting of another tree, if cheaper sugar enabled 
us to turn our culls into marmalades, instead of throwing them 
away and paying fancy prices for marmalades made in Dundee 
of oranges shipped from California. The growers of these 
18,000 cars of oranges shipped in a year — and of the thousands 
of carloads wasted — all eat sugar. 

Our product of grapes and raisins comes to more than our 
beet-sugar ; our prunes to nearly as much ; our dried fruits to 
nearly twice as much ; our barley to more than twice as much ; 
our milk, butter and cheese to more than three times as much ; 
our lumber to four times as much, our wheat to over six times 
as much, our alfalfa hay to over seven times as much, our min- 
ing to over eight times as much, our manufactures to over 
seventy-one times as much. Even our whale-fisheries — and 
very likely you never knew we had any — are nearly three times 
as productive as our beet-sugar. Even among the farm-prod- 
ducts of California, beet-sugar is less than three and a half is to 
eighty-seven. And all these people eat sugar — and have to pay 
a fancy price for it. And none of them, I believe, have 100 per 
cent, protection for their products. 

IN GOOD In January this magazine printed brief extracts from 

coMPANY^^^^ t^c straight utterances of President Roosevelt, Secretary 
Root, and Major-General Wood, Military Governor of 
Cuba, that we are " bound by every consideration of honor and 
expediency " to make liberal tariff concessions to Cuba, now 
that we have deprived her of other markets. The conviction 
was also expressed by me that failure to do the honest thing in 
this case would shipwreck the Republican party. Since then, 
Senator Proctor — certainly as good a protectionist as any of 
them — has seriously warned his colleagues of the same thing. 
A rock-ribbed Republican paper of New York declares that "the 
Republican press of the country is practically a unit for Cuba," 
and that those who oppose the intended reciprocity care more 
for their private interests than they do for honor and "plain 
duty." Public Opinion^ easily foremost record of the national 
pulse, sums it up pithily with : "It is hard to see how any but 
the most selfish motives can oppose it." Which is quite true. 
And when Western newspapers, and the people who depend 
upon newspapers for their ' education " cease to be as easily 
made fools of as in free silver and now in beet-sugar, the West 
will be a great deal better off. And when the West is sane, the 
nation's Right Arm is free. 


Since the earlier pag-es of this number went to press, copying 
there has befallen this Den a sudden avalanche of letters, ^^^dblilah 

enclosing newspaper clippings, and invariably with in- 
dignant comment, as to an alleged order of the Indian Bureau. 
These letters have been not from people that do not "know 
Indians," but precisely people that do. Even the newspapers, 
almost without exception, "have fun" with this alleged order ; 
and the Baltimore Sun prints for its leading editorial (Jan. 18) 
as bitter a jest as perhaps has ever been printed with reference 
to our Indian Policy. It need not be quoted here — accurate as 
it is, if its information be accurate. It is not hard to be sar- 
castic ; but in the present case the Lion would rather not say 
the things anyone who knows the field would be tempted to say 
— and that scores of his correspondents have said within these 
few days. The League he is interested in is here not to be 
smart but to get something done for the Indians. It is here not 
to fight, but to assist, the honorable men now in charge of our 
Indian service ; not to jeer at them when they err — as men may 
who deal with an unfamiliar subject — but to try to help them to 
that understanding which keeps honorable people from further 

The Lion is on his way to find out ; but until there is some 
stronger evidence than newspaper clippings he will not believe 
that any such order has been issued under the hand and seal of 
Ethan Allen Hitchcock, Secretary of the Interior, and W. A. 
Jones, Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Only a few weeks ago 
he talked with these gentlemen, pretty fully and several times ; 
and their general horse-sense encouraged him. Neither pretends 
to know much about Indians ; both are honest, clean, manly, 
practical business men, bankers, with every intention to do their 
full duty to the Indian, whom the whole power of the United 
States forces to submit to whatever plan they may formulate. A 
brief consideration of this alleged order— which shall be more 
fully discussed next month — will show why it seems likelier to 
be a newspaper fake than the official action of two such men, 
whom it is to be hoped no malicious adviser could so egre- 
giously befool. i 

" The wearing of long hair by the male population of your agency is not 
in keeping with the advancement they are making, or soon will be expected 
to make, in civilization. The wearing of short hair by the males will 
greatly hasten their progress toward civilization. . . . On many of the 
reservations the Indians of both sexes paint . . . this paint melts when 
the Indian perspires and runs down into the eyes . . . leads to many 
diseases of the eyes . . . causes many cases of blindness." * 

" You are therefore directed to induce your male Indians to cut their hair 
and both sexes to stop painting. With some of the Indians this will be an 
easy matter; with others it will require considerable tact and perseverance. 
. . . Non-compliance with this order may be made a reason for dis- 
charge [of employees] or withholding rations and supplies. . . If they be- 
come obstreperous, a short confinement in the guardhouse at hard labor, 
with shorn locks, should furnish a cure." 

" The wearing of citizen's clothing instead of the Indian costume and 
blanket should be encouraged." 

" Indian dances and so-called Indian feasts should be prohibited. In 
many cases these dances and feasts are simply subterfuges to cover degrad- 
ing acts and to disguise immoral purposes. You are directed to use your 
best efforts to the suppression of these evils. On or before June 30, 1902, 
you will report to this office the progress you have made in the suppression 
of these evils." 

190 OUT WEST. 

Now to anyone who knows Indians or stops to consider human 
nature, this requires no comment ; but as there are many who 
neither know the one nor reflect upon the other, it may be well 
to make a few remarks. 

First and generally, such measure would better be deferred until 
we get our 60,000 troops back to this country. We have not 
enough soldiers in the United States now to kill off all the In- 
dians who object to being "civilized" by spitting in their faces. 

Is that a strong word ? You wear your hair as suits you. 
You shave your face clean, or wear a moustache, or "siders," or 
a full beard. You probably have not studied exhaustively if 
your style of barbering is the best esthetic adornment of your 
special countenance. You don't have to. What would you 
think of a law compelling every voter to shave his face smooth 
every day ? Or to have his hair clipped once a month ? Or to 
wear cutaway coats and creased trousers ? There is no law to 
prevent Captain Jack or a street quack from wearing long hair. 
If there were such a law passed, you and I, who wear our hair 
short, would be first to rebel against it. In fact, the way to 
make free Americans wear long hair would be to order them to 
cut it short. 

And why confine it to the males? Are not the female Indians 
equally worth "civilizing?" It would still more hasten their 
"progress toward civilization" — if the way to civilize is to crush 
the spirit and destroy self respect, and make a lot of renegades. 
Aren't many of our most "progressive women" wearing short 
hair now ? 

As for painting the face — is there an)^ law yet to forbid an 
American woman to put on face-powder — or even rouge — if she 
wishes ? It is neither sanitary nor pretty ; but who has author- 
ity to put a lady in the guardhouse for it ? As to the paint 
"causing blindness by running down into the eyes," it may do so 
when the Indian stands on his head long enough to perspire. 

"Rations and supplies," where they are given, are not the 
alms of the Indian office, but a sacred obligation of the govern- 
ment. Should these pledges be broken and an Indian starved 
to death because he does not rub his nose in the dirt ? 

There are, fortunately, people who know what an "Indian 
dance or feast" really is. Several hundred books — and some 
scores of them by the officials of the United States government 
who have been best qualified to give adequate service for their 
salaries — tell. No Indian dance or feast in the world's history 
— and the Lion pretends to be adequate authority to say so — 
was ever a "subterfuge." No Indian dance "covers" immoral 
purposes — though there are a few which have features that 
seem to the ignorant as dreadful as the drinking of beer by a 
German seems to some very good people. The best Police Com- 
missioner New York ever had has said, "There are people who 
would sooner have the city in the hands of Tammany than that 
a German should have his glass of beer." 

I have seen various books of such title as From the Ball Room 
to Hell. There are people who deem waltzing wicked and las- 
civious. Every grown man knows of cases where our select 
dances have in fact helped to ruin girls. But who cares to pass 
a national law forbidding dancing in the United States ? 


The main difference between our dancing: and Indian dancing- 
— for our low-cut ball-dresses and their masks or paint are far 
less unlike — is that we dance for fun. The Indian never dances 
except reverently. It is as sacred a function to him as the com- 
munion is to a Methodist. It is as worthy of respect — for 
respect goes not by the final truth, of which no man living has 
the last word, but by the spirit of reverence. 

The Indians have feasts to celebrate their planting, to cele- 
brate harvest home, in memory of their dead, in honor of their 
ancestors. They have feasts for the calendar-days of their 
Christian church. Because one ignorant agent — or the collective 
and thereby enlarged stupidity of a hundred agents — detects un- 
prettiness in a dance ( by hearsay), shall we forbid all dances? 

At least some of our Indian tribes have been dancing their 
ceremonial dances for at least 1000 years. Between ten days 
ago and June 30 of this year is time enough to undo an older 
custom than the English-speaking race possesses — or to report 
progress in undoing- it ! Now isn't it ? It is statesmanlike, 
isn't it, to make a cast-iron etiquette for all mankind ? We can 
draw a dead-line at murder, theft, rape and the like. The com- 
mon-sense of mankind has agreed to that — and Indian laws on 
these points are at least as well enforced and as wise as ours. 
But the common-sense of mankind has not agreed that a man 
must wear his hair so many inches long, and shave his face all, 
half, or at all ; that a woman shall wear her hair one, two or 
three feet longer, and shall not shave unless it amuses her ; that 
either sex shall dress sensibly ; that neither sex shall communi- 
cate with the other except by telephone ; and that no person, 
male or female, shall apply vaseline, rice powder, talcum pow- 
der, salves, ung-uents, rouges, court-plasters or mustard-plasters 
to the face or any other portion of the body where the personal 
tenant of said body may have the foolish notion that they would 
feel gfood. 

The Lion is perfectly willing to leave this matter to a jury of 
all the men and women in the United States who know any thing- 
whatever about Indians — which is merely another way of saying- 
" who know anything about human nature." For Indians are 
human. They are also Americans. If you and I have got no- 
tions of personal dignity and freedom by being only 125 years 
on the Rig-ht Side of the World, they ( who have been here ten 
times as long ) have the same notions quite as deep-seated. 

Anyone who does not know that an Indian's personality is as 
strong as our own — and as indispensable to any sensible scheme 
of uplifting him — anyone who does not know that the only way 
in the world to make any man better is by using what he has — 
has a good deal to learn. And we shall have an " Indian Prob- 
lem " growing more shameful every day — which is quite need- 
less —as long as we shut our eyes to the fact that the same things 
you and I would resent, the same things that would make it im- 
possible for the British Empire (for instance) to "civilize" us, 
antagonize the Indian just as much The ways in which you 
and I could be made wiser than we now are — and these ways are 
many — are precisel)^ the ways in which the Indian can be 
changed from a much older habit. Por you and me any such 

192 OUT WEST. 

measures would have to be based on common-sense, knowledgfe of 
the facts, and patience. No less is true of the Indian. 

You and I could be killed off if we were unwilling: to become 
Perfectly Wise fast enou^^fh to suit some benevolent civilizer. So 
can the Indian — and more easily, because the majority of him 
has been killed off already. But it really seems as if a better 
use might be made of either of us than to madden us by indig- 
nity and then send in troops to shoot us down. 

The Lion, however, still refuses to credit that this alleged 
order is official. It sounds much more like a burlesque, invented 
by some malicious person. If indeed it be authentic, nothing 
could more clearly show the need of such a national League as 
is now forming than the fact that the Department has had to 
rely on advisers who could urge so unpractical and lamentable a 
measure. The League can safely promise that the Department 
need not again be so egregiously imposed upon. For the League 
will be — and now is — prepared to give " information and advice 
based exclusively on common sense and knowledge of the 

A provisional protest will of course be forwarded by the 
League at once. This League has been organized not only 
because, as every one knows, present conditions in the Indian 
service are unsatisfactory, but because it believes that the 
present Administration is of honest men who desire to remedy 
the past follies and injustices ; men who care more to be right 
than to play infallible ; men who would rescind an order if they 
discovered it to be wrong or absurd. 

''^^ It would be unfair to hold any cause responsible for the 

'^"they'keep. rabble that follow its sutlers' wagons. On the other 
hand, all great causes have at the outset few and lean 
sutlers, and campfollowers none. These things come in force 
only when the case is grown fat and popular — that is to say, 
" the easiest thing to do." They belong chiefly to the side which 
doesn't take the trouble to think. 

For instance, while there are doubtless foolish and dishonor- 
able persons who, so far as they know, believe in Freedom in 
South Africa and the Philippines, I do not believe — nor is it of 
record — that any man of all that have this faith ever did or ever 
would write the sort of letters noted below. These are types of 
a considerable class. Neither Life nor Out West is calculated 
to circulate much among the riff-raff. Yet both have received 
large numbers of such letters. And while not quite enough to 
decide a question of ethics, these letters certainly tend to con- 
firm any respectable person in the belief that he must be on the 
the right track when he has such opponents. 

Life (No. 1003, p. 73) prints a letter whose character may be 
judged by these extracts : 
" To the Editor of Life : 

Though I suppose I should really have too much contempt for 
your miserable rag of a paper, yet I really can't help noticing 
that lying and detestable paragraph. . . Does it make your yellow 
rag sell better ? . . . Where do you get your information 
from re the Boer women and children dying of exposure and 
starvation ? 


Did you take the trouble to prove your statement ? No, 3^ou 
didn't. You allow any lie, adverse to the British, being- put in 
your paper. 

Continue, Yankee liar, skunk, and cad, to put in your detest- 
able lies. 

I only regret that the King's Regulations forbid me to sign 
my name, so I have to be contented with 

British Officer. 

South African Field Force, Orang-e River Colony." 

To which the only answer vouchsafed is : 

" Life's information concerning the deaths in the British re- 
concentration camps is derived from the published statements of 
the British War Ofl&ce. — Editor." 

But think of this refined gentleman being in charge of an 
enemy's women and children! 

A postal card, in a disguised handwriting-, signed with an 
assumed name, and mailed at the car to avoid postmark, asks 
the Lion : 

" Are you the creature referred toby the British Calif ornian ? 
Can you disprove it ? If not, why not ? Such then being- your 
character, your malicious cackle in your dirty yellow ra^ — on 
the principle of two negatives equalling: an affirmative, is a 
testimony to the benevolent action of Gt. Britain to the Boer 
women and children — as praise from you would be disgrace ! ! ! 

A. L. Browne." 

" There are a few thousand of us to attend to you if necessary 
— don't forget — -right here in California." 

If there are a "few thousand " of the fatherless Mr. "Browne's" 
sort, here or anywhere, by getting all together and encouraging- 
one another they ought to be able to "attend to" a person of 
146 pounds who will give them a check for his last dollar for the 
comfort of seeing their faces. 

The official reports of the British War Office state that in the 
British reconcentrado camps there died 

In October, 2633 Boer children. 
" November, 2271 " 

As to the Boer men who are prisoners of war in Bermuda, 
Rev. Edward Everett Hale — no mean name in the United 
States — has sent his assistant. Rev. W. S. Key, to inspect con- 
ditions. "All the prisoners complain of having- no clothing ex- 
cept what they had when captured. Some of them have not had 
a change of underclothing in sixteen months^ Dr. Hale, as 
President of the Lend-a-Hand Society, which for many months 
has been shipping to these Boer prisoners the decencies which 
the British government does not supply them, asks for "such 
food as oatmeal, cornmeal, condensed milk, all kinds of cereals, 
tea, coffee, peas, beans, rice, sagfo, evaporated apples, canned 
corn, dessicated veg-etables and tobacco for the old men. Money 
is also needed. The Lend-a-Hand Society, Boston, ships all 
contributions." This list, if you stop to think about it, shows 
just about how the British g-overnment treats its male prisoners. 

Chas. F. Lummis. 




To be, without much question, 
the handsomest and most sumptuous 
books yet printed in America is, in itself, no 
small distinction. But that is not the best that can be 
said of the two superb volumes of The Harriman Alaska Expedition. 
The work (of which these two first volumes are, as it were, the literary and 
artistic side, the narrative for the general public) not only surpasses all 
previous books on Alaska, but in fullness, competency and beauty together 
makes a wholly new standard for reports of an expedition, artistic or 
scientific, under private or governmental auspices. As a whole — and the 
scientific work will run on into many volumes — this book will be, beyond 
reasonable comparison, the most perfect example extant of how such things 
should be done. 

The two "popular" volumes in themselves are easily the foremost of their 
kind ; and there is a distinct delight not only in their richness and beauty, 
but in the fact that all this costly elaboration is of a field worth while^ 
Books which make us less ignorant than when we began them are gener- 
ally those which have to count the cost of production pretty closely. But 
in these thick, tall octavos, of generous type and page, we have 39 superb 
colored plates, 86 of the best photogravures yet produced, 5 maps, and 
nearly 250 line-drawings. Nor is it this enormous number alone that 
should be counted — enough for a reasonable average library. It is illus- 
tration that illustrates ; and it is selected and arranged with exquisite 
skill. Indeed, too much cannot be said for the part played by the editor. 
Dr. C. Hart Merriam, to whose taste, learning and sagacity the perfection 
of these volumes is due. He has managed every detail of the publication, 
artistic, literary and mechanical ; and it is not too much to say that if we 
could spare from his appointed work, as Chief of the Biological Survey, this 
great biologist, we could use him as publishers' censor, to the great better- 
ment of the face of our literature. 

And it is expert company. Vol. I, " Narrative, Glaciers, Natives," is by 
John Burroughs, John Muir and George Bird Grinnell ; with papers by 
Wm. H. Dall, dean of our Alaska students, E. E. Fernow (forests), Henry 
Gannett (geography). Dr. Merriam and others. Vol. II, " History, Geog- 
raphy, Resources," is by Wm. H. Dall, Chas. Keeler, Henry Gannett, Wm. 
H. Brewer, C. Hart Merriam, George Bird Grinnell and M. L*. Washburn. 
The artists are R. Swain Gifford and F. S. Dellenbaugh ; and Louis Agas- 
siz Fuertes, the foremost American portrayer of birds. A large proportion 
of the admirable line-drawings are by Louise M. Keeler, of the staff of this 
magazine ; and Charles Keeler (her husband, and also of this staff) is re- 
sponsible for no small portion of the text. 

The expedition, organized by the railroad magnate E. H. Harriman, 
spent two months of the summer of 1899 in cruising about Alaska in the 
chartered steamship "Geo. W. Elder." It was equipped with everything 
scholarship and experience could suggest and money buy ; and it probably 
achieved more than any other scientific expedition did in the same length 


of time. The Harriman family party numbered 14 ; the scientific party, 
25 ; there were three artists, two professional photographers ; stenog- 
raphers, doctors, hunters, etc., a ship's crew of 65, and others to bring the 
number up to 126. To such as are naturally suspicious of a " gilt-edged 
outfit" (as people of frontier experience usually are) it is enough to remark 
that the party brought back in its natural history collections thirteen gen- 
era and 600 species new to science. In a word, the expedition has seriously 
multiplied our scientific knowledge of Alaska. 

For the ordinary reader the book is charming ; and its surpassing beauty 
will make it the treasure of many who "really oughtn't" to afford it, 
and certainly of all that have as much money as taste. Doubleday, Page 
& Co., New York. 2 Vols., $15. 

Western novels of any real depth and vitality are so few and onb 
far between that the advent of a new one may almost be hailed mors 

as an " angel's visit" — of the improved sort we are in no special 
danger to entertain unaware. So much might be said, of course, as to 
novels in general, these days ; but the West is so broad, so deep, so infin- 
itely full with the elemental and the enduring, so literally oppressive with 
great things aching for utterance in letters and in art, that it seems a 
little extra-pitiful when its giant back is used to carry the pettinesses to 
which the progressive diseases of *' Modernitis" have so largely brought 
our literature. It is entirely within bounds to say that of every hundred 
books of or upon the West, not more than one betrays any reasonable com- 
prehension of the West's generic meaning, or yet a thorough familiarity 
with the specific phases chosen for setting. 

Stewart Edward White has written not only the one book in the hundred, 
but the one in several hundred. If his name be unfamiliar now, it will 
never be so again to such as shall read his first book. He will be remem- 
bered and looked forward to. The Westerners is, from any aspect, an un- 
usual novel ; as a novel of the West it must stand high up. It lacks some- 
thing of the power to win — which is the dearest a novel can have — but 
nothing of the power to compel. Any novel is a success — not by the stand 
ard of the shambles, where only sales count, but in the terms of them that 
know and respect Time — which adds to a category still brief, after so 
many centuries of fiction, one character unforgettable in love or hate. Mr. 
White does not, indeed, win out on the rarer side. His heroine, " Molly," is 
not of the immortals ; though she is decidedly a creation, and her skating 
on the thin ice — unaware Puritan that she is, set down to, and swayed by, 
putative dregs — is diagraphed with almost brutal coolness. She shall be 
liked, but she shall not be loved. Her mother, who is but an incident, 
comes nearer to that Design to which all women, in fiction as in life, must 
square. There are several other real characters — particularly "Billy" and 

But Mr. White's great triumph — and it is enough to carry any book — is 
the begetting of a new villain. " Michail L<afond" is a new scoundrel, 
and need " take a back seat for no one." His long hate, his halfbreed 
finesse and Indian patience, his fatalism, his ease in stress — perhaps the 
most powerful point in all the picture — these are drawn with really sur- 
prising power. 

It is a depressing story ; it is foreshortened, as doubtless all fiction must 
be ; in a very few points it limps. But no person not yet a mental con- 
sumptive will read as far as the early chapter wherein " Prue" is " taken 
along," and not finish the book to the last word. McClure, Phillips «& Co., 
New York. $1.50. 


A MH,ESTONE The Thousandth Number of Li/e, as a historical fact, is more 

IN THE than the mere anniversary of a successful publication. It is an 

WILDERNESS. earnest that enoujjh unspoiled Americans remain to make success- 
ful a publication of that particular sort. For Li/e is not only a weekly — it 
is a Promise. So long- as it is "worth living^," just so long- no one need 
despair of the republic. Perhaps we should come out better in general, if 
we looked upon all our publications not so much as periodicals and more a& 
Types of the Thing That Is. As a number, this anniversary issue is pecu- 
liarly interesting. For the first time we are let into the " living-room," 
to meet the men who have made Li/e what it is- and this is a favor for 
which probably every reader will feel grateful. These are our Preferred 
Creditors. I have Li/e from its first number ; and would as soon turn 
from coffee to burnt beans as give up this weekly Fountain of Youth. 

The portly and cosmopolitan volume of Argonaut Letters, by Jerome 
Hart, editor of the most ponderable weekly west of the Hudson, has run 
through its second edition, and is now out of print. 

C. F. U 

THEIR Whether the proper prefix to J. P. Mowbray's name is *' Miss*' 

COUNTRY or "Mrs." may be open to question; it is pretty certainly not 

EXPERIENCES. " Mr.," as the publishers of The Making o/ a Country Home 
have taken some pains to put it. Personally, I should wager on the "Miss" 
or a very recent "Mrs." The view-points and intimate knowledges are 
throughout feminine. Yet the baby iu the book is but a stage property, 
and never once gets mixed with the dog or the cat or the puddle of red mud 
, ■ — clear enough proof that the author's dealings with healthy three-year- 

olds have not been closely personal. The table of " Possible L/iving Ex- 
penses," by a strict adherence to which the young couple who had been 
spending their whole income of $2,400 a year, succeed in saving $2,900 in 
two years, soars aloft quite as untrammeled by clogging experience. Per- 
haps the young wife might have done her own housework in a New York 
flat — family washing, scrubbing, and even the husband's laundry included. 
Possibly, also, they might have dispensed utterly with books, newspapers 
and magazines — such a course would have its merits. It is even credible 
that $100 would cover the cost of clothing all three for two years, since the 
property baby would have been equally comfortable with none at all. But kt 
it likely that they went to bed at sundown through two New York winters? 
At least, the $50 which they had been recklessly squandering for gas each 
year is wholly cut off, and no item for oil or candles takes its place. 

It would not be fair to leave the impression that the book is on the whole 
blundering or ill-informed. To the contrary, it is full of charm and sin- 
cerity — good reading from cover to cover. And its main position — that 
even such "country" as is accessible to "commuters" on the railroads 
makes infinitely better homes than a New York flat — is perfectly unassail- 
able. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. $1.50. 

The " Beacon Biography" of Samuel F. B. Morse is not one of the best 
. of th^t useful series, though by no means wholly incompetent. It gives 
the impression of hasty preparation from ill-digested material. Small, 
Maynard &. Co., Boston. 75 cents. 

Half-a-dozen short stories by women writers of this vicinity have been 
published in a neat, brown-paper-covered, little volume, under the title of 
From The Old Pueblo, for the benefit of the local College Settlement. The 
authors are Amanda Mathews, Gwendolen Overton, Nancy K. Foster, 
Lillian Corbett Barnes and Olive Percival. Not one of the stories is dull, 
though the minor key dominates throughout. Miss Foster's " Monsieur 
La Tribe" is an uncommonly dainty and sympathic study. 

Dr. Lorenzo G. Yates's carefully prepared and useful check-list of the 
Marine Algae of Santa Barbara county, originally appearing in Bulletin 
No. 3 of the Santa Barbara Society of Natural History, has l)een reprinted 
in pamphlet form. 

Of convenient side-pocket size and entertaining as to contents are the 
reprinted Stories /rom McClure^s. The "Comedy" volume has tales by 
Robert Barr, Stewart Edward White, E. Hough and others — seven in all. 
McClure, Phillips & Co., New York ; C. C. Parker, Los Angeles. 

C. A. M. 


Conducted by WILLIAVI E. SMYTHE. 

the california constructive 

And it shall come to pass that California will consider, 
at least, in a mild academic way, a program devised for 
its economic betterment. Two months ago this maga- 
zine published an article presenting five points as worthy of 
discussion by those who would like to see the West rapidly de- 
veloped on sensible lines. These points were, very briefly, as 
follows : Induce the political parties to deal with constructive 
legislation ; build public works of irrigation ; purchase the 
great estates and dispose of them in small holdings under the 
New Zealand plan ; abolish strikes and lockouts b}^ means of 
arbitration, legal and compulsory; develop the full possibilities 
of cooperation in the economic life of the State. This program, 
set out with some fullness, though not with real amplitude, was 
submitted to the public, first, as an outline of magazine topics 
to be considered in these pages during the present year ; second, 
as a possible platform for political action in case the develop- 
ment of public sentiment should justify it. Well, what was the 
result? Simply this — that enough people have expressed their 
interest in the program to justify its sponsors in bringing it 
before the public for definite discussion as a practical means of 
making California a place where more people ma}' live, with 
more comfort and prosperity, than live here now. 

The publication of this program impressed the writer 
with one thing that he had not fully appreciated. That 
is, that a great many people, in widely scattered com- 
munities, read the pages of this magazine with considerable 
care. Moreover, many of them sit down and write letters when 
the}' find something that strikes them favorably. It would not 
be correct to say that the matter has resulted in a popular up- 
rising. But it is wholly within bounds to say that it has 
brought forth an amount of earnest expression of interest and 
encouragement to convince the writer that the people are in a 
receptive mood, and that it is nothing less than a public duty 
to respond to the cordial overtures which have been made. 
Many prominent citizens of California have addressed a letter to 
the author of the program, in which they say : 

We are strongly of the opinion that this line of thought ought to be sub- 
mitted to our people and become the subject of general discussion. The 
State is greatly in need of some new economic impulse, which might be 
imparted to it bj' such an experience. The irrigation part of your program 



The people 



198 OUT WEST. 

seems to be closely in line with President Roosevelt's recommendations to 
Congress on the same subject. The cooperative feature is already illus- 
trated by the progress of the fruit exchanges. The New Zealand ideas are 
certainly well worthy of consideration in a State where industrial condi- 
tions and elements of population approximate so nearly to those of 

And they invite the writer to take the platform and discuss 
these issues before the people, "making such plans for a sup- 
porting: organization as shall seem most feasible to you in view 
of your experience in dealing with public movements." This 
letter, with the names of its more prominent signers, and a re- 
print of the program as it appeared in the December issue, will 
be published in pamphlet form and used as the initial tract of a 
new movement. 

A POPULAR So it is settled that we are to have a discussion of 

CRUSADE, these subjects in California, and possibly throughout the 

West. The seed will be planted and watered and culti- 
vated. Whether it will sprout in any tangible sense remains to 
be seen. But the lecture tour and the magazine symposium are 
assured. We are going to have a popular crusade. Its purpose 
is expressed in four short words— to build the State ! And 
the name of the organization which will take the work in hand 
will be The California Constructive League. Its nucleus is al- 
ready formed. Its officers will be announced through the dail)' 
press at an early date. And its champions will go forth to see 
if they can slay the dragon of Public Indifference and start an 
intellectual friction which will result in Bringing These Things 
to Pass. Already a number of strong men in the world of 
thought, in California and out of it, have promised to lend a 
hand. There will be speeches, clubs and literature. Whether 
there will be politics of a practical kind depends entirely upon 
future events. But we have been gratified to learn that a num- 
ber of leading politicians in various parties have been caught 
in the act of reading "A Program for California," with a 
thoughtful expression on their faces, as if there might, after 
all, be " votes" in a proposition to do something for the benefit 
of the great State of California. 

wcAi. One of the most useful institutions that ever existed 

coNSTRucTivK '^^ ^jjg intellectual life of America was what was known 
in Horace Greeley's day as the Village Lyceum. It 
began with a lecture bureau and ended in a debating society. It 
reached its finest development in the twenty years between 1850 
and 1870. It died when the spirit of commercialism poisoned 
the intellectual atmosphere and strangled, for a time, popular 
interest in public affairs. But it was a goodly forum, and now 
that public thought is turning again so strongly into economic 
channels, it ought to be revived, at least on the Pacific Coast, 
where we are still so largely a rural folk. The new movement 
will attempt to establish a series of debating societies, known 
as Constructive Clubs, which will be combined in the State 
League. Is it possible to form these local centers and keep 
them alive for the discussion of the practical questions of the 
day ? Many wise heads say it is not, and yet only exjierience 
can answer the question conclusively. It all depends upon the 


appeal which this new cause shall make to the popular heart, 
and upon the kind of men who shall be attracted to its support. 
If the people of California believe this movement stands for 
their economic salvation, they will ligfht the lamp and keep it 
trimmed and burning. At least they shall have the chance. 

The Constructive League will endorse the latest plat- ^o 
forms of the National Irrigation Congress and of the ^"^^^^^*^here 

California Water and Forest Association. If it has anj'^ 
influence or votes, it will use them in the enthusiastic support of 
candidates for public office pledged to assist in the realization of 
the principles of these two associations. Let it be understood, 
then, once and for all, that the new movement does not antag- 
onize either of the old ones which occupy one corner of the field 
the Constructive League has chosen for itself. Neither of the 
old organizations is political in character. Both are purely non- 
partisan and devoted to the cultivation of public sentiment out- 
side of political lines. The Constructive League is non-partisan, 
but it is frankly and deliberately political. It is composed of 
those who think that Moral Influence is of little avail in chang- 
ing the face of the times unless backed up by good white ballots, 
decorated with certain marks in appropriate places. Thus it 
may be able to accomplish for the irrigation organizations. Na- 
tional and State, some important things which they cannot do 
for themselves. 

The Constructive League starts out with one fixed irrigation 
political object. That is to endeavor to send men to both lkgislature 

branches of the Legislature who will attempt to secure 
the passage of the new water laws to be framed by the commis- 
sion of which Chief Justice Beatty is the head. We have learned 
by sad experience that irrigation legislation will not enact itself. 
It requires the attention of its friends. We shall never get good 
laws until we have men at Sacramento who go there for the ex- 
press purpose of putting them on the statute books. It is one of 
the cases where God helps those who help themselves. 

No popular movement of educational character cande- wteraturb; 
pend on its speakers alone. They are here today and °^Jove ent 

there tomorrow. There must be literature and period- 
icals. Out West will be the textbook of the movement within 
the limitations of this Department. Cheap editions of valuable 
works dealing with the objects of the League will be brought 
within reach of its membership. The most important book 
which it is hoped may be put into the hands of thousands by this 
method is Henry D. Lloyd's description of New Zealand institu- 
tions, called "Newest England." If the movement succeeds in 
enlisting a large membership and taking on the form of a per- 
manent organization, it will endeavor to have a number of books 
forming the Constructive Library, And thus it will attempt 
gradually to educate public sentiment to an understanding of the 
propositions covered in its program for building California and 
the West. Further details of the progress of the League will 
appear in these pages from month to month. 

200 OUT WEST. 

IRRIGATION 'pjjg Western Representatives in Congfress appear to 

"ROGRKSS AT & r-i- 


PROGRESS AT u ^ • • i. xt. i • 

have agreed upon a measure aiming at the early inau- 

guration of the national irrigation polic}-. It is in some 
respects a strange bill. It creates an Arid Land Reclamation 
Fund from the proceeds of land sales, which now amount to 
about $2,000,000 a year. This is a very small sum to begin so 
great a work. It ought to be at least five times as much, but 
President Roosevelt distinctly said in his message that the new 
policy should be regarded as "experimental" at first; and no 
doubt the Western congressmen concluded that they could not 
safely ask for more at this time. The measure vests large power 
in the hands of the Secretary of the Interior. He can say where 
the money shall be expended, what price shall be charged for 
land and water, and what shall be the maximum size of the farms 
acquired under the new law. These are all details of the first 
importance. The success of this first experiment in national 
irrigation will depend mostly upon the wisdom of the Secretary 
of the Interior. The bill practically says to him: "Here is 
$2,000,000. Spend it as you think best." The bill leaves the 
distribution of the water to the respective States and Territories, 
and, while it says that beneficial use shall be the measure and the 
limit of the right, and that the ownership of water shall attach 
to the soil, it makes no requirement for the reform of local laws 
in accordance with these principles. No doubt the bill will lead 
to an interesting debate on the whole subject of irrigation as 
presented in the President's message. What the result will be 
no one can tell in advance of the event. The gratifying feature 
of the situation is the fact that the cause of national irrigation 
is unquestionably stronger at Washington today than ever before 
since it first began to attract attention in the East. The man in 
the White House is for it. The Western congressmen have 
wisely harmonized their differences. The friends of the cause 
throughout the country are pulling together, as far as it lies in 
human nature for people of pronounced and varying views to do 
so. Nothing is more certain than that in the next few years the 
reclamation of the desert lands will begin in earnest, and that 
under this new policy the public domain will be the salvation of 
the nation from social congestion and the evils inherent in that 
condition. By all means, let Congress make a start during the 
present session and give us a chance to demonstrate the vast 
possibilities of such a policy. 



>EW ZEALAND institutions are attracting the attention 
of the civilized world. What personality best repre- 
sents them? Who is "the man behind the gun?" 
Many minds have co-operated in the development of New Zea- 
land political ideas, but the responsible statesman who stands at 
the helm is the Premier, Richard J. Seddon, familiarly and 
lovingly known to his followers as " Digger Dick " The explan- 
ation of this humble sobriquet lies in the fact that the Premier 
was a miner before he became a statesman. It was in the 
mines that he got his start in life, making money, becoming the 


Premier Seddon. 

champion of the rights of laborers, and establishing a successful 
mercantile business. 

Born in Lancashire, England, of sturdy farming stock, he 
learned the engineer's trade, arrived in Australia in 1863, was 
attracted to the New Zealand gold fields three years latter, and 
steadily rose in prosperity and popular esteem. He began his 
public service as a member of local road boards, provincial coun- 
cils, and board of education, and was elected Mayor of Kumara. 
Then, in 1879, he went to the New Zealand Parliament, where 
he has remained ever since. 

Seddon was from the first identified with the Labor Party, 
which finds its strength among the labor and farming elements 
of New Zealand. This party came into full power under Premier 
Pallance, whose untimely death was received with consternation. 

It seemed as if the Liberal cause must die with him," said one 
writer. Who would take the place of the leader of whom so 
much was expected, but whose strong hand had now dropped life- 
less from the helm ? Seddon had been made Minister of Public 

202 OUT WEST. 

Works by Pallance. He succeeded the dead statesman as head 
of the party and of the administration. The rest is history — 
history which we shall see in these pages for some months to 

Premier Seddon is now 57 years of ag-e and in the prime of 
his powers. He is a democrat of democrats. He has absolute 
faith in the people. He has no caution or diplomacy in the 
sense familiar to American politicans. He does not have " his 
ear to the ground." He has his face to the stars. He believes 
in the rights of man, thinks he knows how these rights may be 
achieved, and proceeds to lay down his program with utter dis- 
regard of the conseciuences to himself or his party. The result 
is that the people hold up his hands and that he is able proudly 
to boast: ' I am the Premier of the paradise of the British 
Empire." The measures which his party has put into force 
have made New Zealand a paradise for average folks — a place 
where the masses of men can get access to the soil, where public 
utilities are built and owned by the people, where the barbarism 
of strikes and lockouts has been abolished, and where the lost 
art of the ancients, cooperation, has been restored to bless the 
land with prosperity. 

We shall learn the life and principles of Richard J. Seddon as 
we proceed with the study of New Zealand institutions, for his 
name and fame are written with indelible characters on the hills 
and valleys of his country. 



^rt HE series of papers in this magazine entitled, "How to 
\ Colonize the Pacific Coast," ended in November with this 
question : 

Is it necessary to leave the destinies of California to be worked 
out by private enterprise ? May it not be true, after all, that 
colonization is a function of government ? The answer to that 
question leads us to New Zealand. 

At first thought the conservative reader may be inclined to 
look upon this proposition as a trifle startling. "Would you 
really have the government go into the business of promoting 
settlement and handling lands ?" he will ask. And he will pro- 
ceed to tell you that this is a new and dangerous departure. 

Such criticism is entirely mistaken. It is not a new departure, 
it is not startling, and it is not dangerous. The greatest col- 
onizing agency the world has ever seen is the United States 
government. First and last, it has disposed of something like 
a billion and a half acres of land. True, much of its work was 
done in a loose and wasteful manner. This was not due to the 
inherent inability of the government to deal with such matters, 
but to the fact that the country was new and largely unexplored 
and that the true value of the public domain was not appreci- 

*The first paper in this serits appeared in the January nnmber and was entitled, " The 
Law of Compulsory Arbitration at Work." 


ated. The fact remains that Uncle Sam has been the greatest 
promoter of settlement and most extensive real estate dealer in 
history. New Zealand is now doing in a scientilfic way what 
the United States has done less intelligently. It is helping its 
people to make homes upon the land. 


Our national land policy dealt only with the public domain. 
The New Zealand policy, on the other hand, was compelled to 
deal with great tracts of fertile soil which had passed out of the 
hands of the government to become lordly private estates. In 
this respect the conditions of California are ver}'^ similar to those 
in New Zealand. Here, as there, immense land holdings have 
grown up in places which would otherwise be most favorable to 
settlement in small homesteads. In large part these holdings 
trace back to Spanish land grants, but they have also been 
readily acquired under United States land laws. Not only have 
agricultural lands been monopolized in this way, but vast tracts 
of forest, valuable alike for timber and for water supply, have 
been taken in the same manner ; oil lands and mining properties 
have been separated from the public estate and converted into 
private property, with slight compensation to the people who 
once owned them. Thus it happens that in California we have 
a large population, living in the midst of enormous natural 
wealth, yet that population is not able to get access to the soil 
on terms which it can accept, and realizes benefit from its prox- 
mity to forest, mine and oil-well only as it is able to draw wages 
from employment obtained in developing them for the benefit of 

In this article it is proposed to deal only with the monopoly 
represented by large private estates of agricultural soil. Cali- 
fornia is yet in the primer of its twentieth-century economics. 
New Zealand has got further along in the curriculum. It knows 
how to save its timber, and how to make its mineral resources 
pa}^ tribute to the public treasury. 

The New Zealand method of dealing with private estates is to 
make them pay their full share of taxation, or to purchase them 
from their owners and apply them to higher public uses. When 
the State comes into possession of them it does not wait weary 
years for private capitalists to make improvements essential to 
their settlement. If they need to be irrigated, the State irri- 
gates them. If they need roads — even railroads — the State 
builds them. In a word, the State takes these great raw hold- 
ings of land and makes them fit for immediate settlement in 
small tracts. And it doesn't invite anybody to make his home 
upon them until they are actually fit for home-making purposes. 
They cannot be suited to that purpose until large public im- 
provements, beyond the reach of individuals, have been made. 
To leave these improvements to private enterprise involves two 
dangers. First, there is the danger that the settler will eat his 
heart out while he is waiting for the improvements to be made. 
Next, there is the equally urgent danger that if private enter- 
prise does these things the settler will be exploited to a point 
which will prohibit his prosperity. 

204 0U7 WEST. 


Having acquired these great estates and IprovidedCthem with 
necessary public improvements, New Zealand leases them to 
settlers for a term of 999 years. Why is the long leasehold 
better than the freehold — better for the people and better for the 
State ? 

It is better for the people, because at least a hundred times as 
many of them can get possession of the property in that way as 
can do so under the ordinary plan of purchase. There are few 
men so poor that the)' cannot get homes in New Zealand. It 
may be a small home, but it is a home. And by acquiring it 
they become attached to the soil, become their own masters, and 
rise from the servitude of employment to the sovereignty of 
proprietorship. The State asks them to pa)'^ perpetual interest 
of five per cent on what it has cost the State to purchase, im- 
prove, and subdivide the lands. Since money in new countries 
— and even in old countries, when required for agricultural pur- 
poses — is worth more than five per cent, the transaction repre- 
sents a substantial gain to the settler. But since the govern- 
ment can borrow all the money it wants at three and one-half 
per cent, the transaction is also profitable to the government. 
The great point about the leasehold, however, is this : Under 
this plan poor men, and men of very moderate means, can actu- 
ally get access to the soil, whereas they cannot do so when they 
must have sufficient capital to buy land, to improve it, and to- 
await the return. And is it not for the highest interest of all 
elements in the community — bankers, merchants, railroads, pro- 
fessional men — that there should be a large and prosperous 
population upon the soil ? 

Why is the leasehold wiser public policy than the freehold ? 
Because it prevents speculation, that baneful epidemic which 
everywhere attends the opening of new countries under the other 
plan. There is no chance whatever for land speculation in a 
community which is built on the leasehold, under these condi- 
tions. Land values may rise, but the profit takes the form of 
enhanced prices for products, and these enhanced prices are 
distributed among all the people. 

There is a second advantage to the State. The leasehold 
system prevents the recurrence of that monopoly, to abolish 
which the estates are purchased. Wherever land is owned in 
freehold, speculation and resulting hard-times quickly restore 
the original condition of land monopoly. Men mortgage their 
farms and lose them. The land passes out of their hands and is 
consolidated again into large estates. The leasehold system 
renders this result absolutely impossible. By retaining title to- 
itself, the government is able to dictate the size of farms, the 
character of improvements, and the manner in which the prop- 
erty shall pass from one person to another. 


If California should adopt the policy of purchasing the large 
estates, what price would it pay for them ? Would there not be 
danger of corruption with resulting injury to the people ? 

New Zealand statesmanship deals with this phase of the pro- 


blem in a way which avoids alike all danger of corruption and 
of injustice to public or to landowner. The method adopted is 
so obviously simple and just that California could do no better 
than to imitate it. 

New Zealand invites the landowner to act as his own assessor 
in fixing- the valuation of his property for purposes of taxation. 
The State then reserves to itself the privilege of bu3dng the 
land at the owner's valuation, plus ten per cent. This simple 
plan puts the landowner in a position to protect himself without 
doing injustice to the public. If he values his property above 
its fair market price, the State collects taxes upon that basis and 
goes its way rejoicing. If the valuation is less than the market 
price, the State avails itself of the opportunity to make money 
for the people by exercising its reserved privilege of buying the 
property at that valuation, plus ten per cent. Hence, if the 
owner puts the valuation too high, he is compelled to pay taxes 
on more than the property is worth. If he puts the valuation 
too low, he is compelled to sell to the State at less than the 
property is worth. In either case the public interest is secure — 
the people come out on top. 

Sometimes New Zealand wants property which the owners do 
not care to sell. In that case the State exercises the right of 
eminent domain, and acquires the property just the same. But 
it should be distinctly understood that though New Zealand in- 
sists upon policies which enable the largest number of men, 
women and children to get homes on the soil, it avoids anything 
savoring of confiscation. It acquires the land it needs by pur- 
chase and pays for it honestly in coin of the realm, generally at 
a figure fixed by the owner as its true valuation for purposes of 

NEW Zealand's money-making debt. 

The proposed land policy will be objected to on the ground 
that it involves the creation of a public debt. The same objec- 
tion was made in New Zealand. But events have proven that 
the debt incurred in connection with land settlement and ad- 
vances to settlers has been profitable, directly and indirectly. 
The State has made money when the proposition is considered 
as a financial transaction by itself alone. The farmers have 
made money as a result of getting homes upon the soil. The 
storekeepers, manufacturers, railroads and professional men 
have made money in consequence of the growth of population 
and the general prosperity of the community. While the social 
and economic gain may not be calculated in dollars and cents, 
the effect upon the public treasury is revealed in the latest re- 
ports issued by the government. 

In the past twelve years New Zealand has expended in the 
purchase of private estates the sum of $10,377,830. The annual 
cost of this debt is $361,435. The annual earning of the debt 
is $518,890. 

During the same period New Zealand has used in advances to 
settlers the sum of $11,900,000. The annual cost is $361,750. 
annual earning is $535,500. 


When it is remembered that, without the expenditure of these 
suras, New Zealand could not have expanded its agricultural 
population, while, with the expenditure, she is able to open the 
door of opportunity to the humblest citizen, the reader must ap- 
preciate the fact that this form of money-making-, reproductive, 
public debt is a piece of financiering to be commended on the 
most practical business grounds. 

Another thing must be remembered — that new countries are 
always settled by comparatively poor men, and that these set- 
tlers are always compelled to borrow vast sums of money for 
public and private improvements In Kansas and Nebraska the 
money was borrowed from banks and loan companies at a cost, 
including interest and commissions, which probably averaged at 
least ten per cent. Aside from the private indebtedness incurred 
in this way by settlers, there was a vast sum of corporate in- 
debtedness incurred by railroads and other semi-public enter- 
prises. This money was also obtained at high cost. If the 
private debts of Kansas and Nebraska during the early period 
of their settlement were added to the public debt of those com- 
munities, it would be found to represent an amount per capita 
probably much in excess of the New Zealand public indebtedness. 

The New Zealand method is infinitely shrewder. There, the 
people issue the note of the commonwealth and borrow at whole- 
sale rates the money required to develop the resources of a new 
country. The State can borrow mone)' for less than one-third 
the price charged struggling settlers and doubtful corporations. 
It can then turn round and loan money to its settlers at a higher 
rate than it pays, and yet on better terms than the average 
western bank can get in rediscounting the paper at New York 
and Boston. Since debt cannot possibly be avoided in settling 
a new country, are not those the wisest people who borrow on 
the shrewdest terms? 


The first great estate which New Zealand acquired was the 
beautiful property known as Cheviot. The owner had died and 
his executors could not agree as to the proper valuation for tax- 
ation purposes. Finally, the executors fixed the valuation them- 
selves, whereupon the State promptly purchased the property at 
that figure, plus ten per cent. It consisted of 84,000 acres. At 
the time the State bought it "one man owned as far as he could 
see," and the splendid domain was "occupied" by a single 
family and its attendants. 

In six years the population had increased to over 1,000, and 
there was still ample room for expansion. The State had paid 
for the property $1,312,145, involving an annual interest charge 
of $44,330. The property earned interest from the beginning, 
from pasture rents. At the end of six years settlers were paj-- 
ing $72,500 per annum in rent, and only $859 was in arrears. 
There were 4,019 acres in grain ; 7,374 in green and root crops, 
and 11,430 in English grasses. And still only a beginning had 
been made in settlement; yet over the beautiful landscape of 
Cheviot, New Zealand statesmanship had written, in letters of 
living light, the song of " Home, Sweet Home.' 


We have as 5^et barely crossed the threshhold of New Zealand 
institutions. The story of Cheviot, for instance, is well worth 
telling- in detail. But follow these pages during- the current 
year, and you will see the economic problems of California, as 
they appear under the searchlight of New Zealand experience. 


The EpocH-MaKing "WorK of tKe "Water and Forest 


YKAR and a half ago, while prosecuting an active cam- 
paign which resulted in the enrollment of a membership 
of thousands, the friends of the California Water and 
Forest Association frequently referred to it as "the most hope- 
ful movement that ever arose in the life of this State." So it 
was, and so it is, even when measured by the yardstick of " the 
arduous greatness of things done." This is not extravag-ance. 
It is sober truth, and it is time the fact was more generally ap- 

What, then, has the movement accomplished ? 

First and foremost, it smashed the smug complacency of 
California with itself, startled the inertia of its stagnating in- 
difference to intolerable conditions, and enlisted many of the 
leading minds of the State in the effort to turn the tide of 
public sentiment toward achievement. That of itself, even 
when phrased in general terms, was a very big- thing to do. 

Then, having arraigned existing laws and customs touching- 
the use and abuse of water and land as unfit for the time and 
place, it proceeded to preach the Gospel of Progress through Ir- 
rigation by means of three State conventions, scores of local 
meetings, and newspaper articles and special publications 

Next, it induced the Government to search out undiscovered 
reservoir sites aud artesian basins, and to project plans by 
means of which the wasted waters could be saved. In order to 
do this the Association had to raise money to supply public 
needs which had been denied by Executive veto. 

Still further, it arranged for a thoroug-hly scientific investiga- 
tion of California water laws and irrigation practice as the first 
essential step toward reform. And here, again, it was neces- 
sary to " pass the hat" to raise the money which a great State 
could not spare for the purpose, even though its Legislature 
was practically unanimous in favor of the appropriation. The 
report of the United States Commission belongs to the economic 
literature of California. In the end it will be found to have 

210 OUT WEST. 

contributed more to the real progress of the commonwealth 
than anything else which has occurred in many j'ears. 

Finally, at its last convention, the Water and Forest Associa- 
tion, taking its cue from the President's message, enunciated an 
irrigation policy for California which will lay the foundation 
for a population of millions by making irrigation possible on 
the largest scale and on the sanest conditions. In declaring- in 
unequivocal terms "that works of irrigation arc essentially 
fublic utilities, and ought to be constructed, owned and adminis- 
tered by the -people and for the people,'''' the Association has 
erected a milestone that marks the beginning of a new epoch in 
California history. Furthermore, it has again proceeded from 
words to deeds by creating a commission to revise the water 
laws and to frame measures by which its policies may be carried 
into effect. 


The need of a complete reformation of the California water 
laws is now generally understood, thanks to the educational 
work done by the Water and Forest Association and to the investi- 
gations prosecuted by the Government experts. But is a com- 
mission necessary as a means of bringing about this reforma- 
tion, and, if so, why is it created by this Association rather 
than by the law-making and executive power of the State? 
These are questions which have not been widely discussed in 
the press, but which ought to be fully answered for the informa- 
tion of the public. 

The work of reforming the water laws is preeminently one 
which calls for wide knowledge, expert ability, and concentrated 
effort. It may be said without the slightest disrespect to the 
Legislature that that body could not be expected to peform such 
a task successfully in a single session of sixty days. In that 
brief period it is compelled to consider a mass of general 
legislation and to provide appropriations to cover all classes of 
State expenditure for the next two years. The next Legislature 
will also have to deal with the distracting business of a sena- 
torial election. To expect it to frame, discuss, and enact into 
law a new water code, sufficiently comprehensive to deliver 
the people from the evils that now oppress them and to provide 
broad policies for the development of the State on new and pro- 
gressive lines, would be unreasonable. Besides, the needed 
legislation makes peculiar demands upon its framers. They 
must have a thorough grasp of the nature of water as an ele- 
ment in the life of an arid or semi-arid land. They must be 
familiar with irrigation law and practice throughout the world. 
They must have an intimate acquaintance with judicial decisions 


in this State and the requirements of our constitution. It is 
one thing- to prepare a law, but it may be quite a different thing- 
to prepare one that will stand the test of practical experience 
and judicial interpretation. Is it necessary to say anything 
more to justify the creation of a special commission to perform 
this work which means so much to the future of California ? It 
remains to explain why the appointment should be made by the 
Water and Forest Association. 


Before the Governor could appoint a commission to revise the 
water laws it would be necessar}^ for the Legislature to provide 
a special authorization and an appropriation. For four reasons, 
all of which are perfectly patent upon the mere statement of 
them, this would be impracticable in view of the urgent neces- 
sity of action. 

In the first place, to induce the Legislature to authorize the 
creation of a commission would involve a struggle in nowise in- 
ferior to that which must accompany the effort to pass the re- 
formed statutes themselves. And it would be far easier for 
opponents to defeat the commission bill than to frustrate the 
actual accomplishment of the reform when it shall take shape 
in definite measures presented, after months of labor, by a body 
of men who enjoy the public confidence in the highest degree. 
It is always easy to defeat a demand for a new commission. It 
is especially easy to do so when the object for which it is to be 
created is not generally understood, and when the proposals it 
may bring forth are involved in more or less doubt. These 
dangers are avoided by the action of the Water and Forest 
Association in making its own commission. The Legislature is 
not asked to authorize the body. Nor will it be asked to do 
something the nature of which is not clearly defined in advance. 
The measures presented hy the commission will be specific. 
No man can say that the object of the movement is inscrutable. 
The object will stand revealed in the clear light of the commis- 
sion's report and in the plain provisions of its Reform Bills. 

There is another reason why the course adopted was eminently 
wise. A commission authorized by the Legislature and ap- 
pointed b)' the Governor would require an appropriation from 
the public treasury. Nobody knows who will be Governor next 
year. It may be some man with a broad conception of the needs 
of the State, who would gladl)' see a few thousand dollars ex- 
pended for this purpose. It may be some cheese-paring states- 
man with no idea above a reputation for economy, even if it be 
that kind of economy which saves a thousand dollars by wasting 

212 GUI ]^ES1. 

a million. In this case no small soul can hide himself behind 
a dollar mark. The commission asks no appropriation. The 
Water and Forest Association raised many thousand dollars in 
order that the State might have the benefit of national surveys 
and investigations, and it will now undertake to raise thousands 
more to meet the expenses of this commission. Its only means 
of doing this is by popular subscription, which involves the 
hardest kind of work on the part of men whose time is some- 
what valuable. But the plan has its advantages. An " appro- 
priation" obtained by this method is not subject to Executive 

There is another advantage — one of the highest moment — in 
having the Water and Forest Association name the commission 
and permit it to begin its labors almost immediately. This is 
the fact that at least two years will be saved over the time that 
would be required to get results from a commission authorized 
by the Legislature. And when one thinks of the floods which 
will run to waste during those two years — of the homes they 
might create, of the millions of value thej' might add to the 
wealth of the State — one sees that those years are very precious. 
The very best the Legislature which will assemble in January, 
1903, could do would be to authorize a commission which should 
report measures to be acted upon by the Legislature in 1905. 
On the other hand, the report of the present commission will be 
presented for legislative action next January. Thus the method 
which has been adopted represents a saving of time which is 
worth much to the people of California. 

There is a fourth reason which may be named in justification 
of the action of the Association, and which of itself is quite 
conclusive. If the undiscovered statesman who is to emerge 
from the smoke of battle as Governor-elect next November 
should appoint a commission, what kind of a body would it be ? 
Would it be composed of men eminently fitted for the great 
task? Would it represent expert knowledge and ripe experience? 
Or would it be a body packed with hungry politicians ? To 
have a commission composed of unfit men would l)e little short 
of calamity. The Water and Forest Association is not political. 
It is entirely impersonal. It has no means of helping itself 
except by rendering good service to the people. It cannot exist 
without public confidence. Naturally, it would seek to select 
the best possible elements to be found within the State for the 
commission whose work will give the Association a clear title 
to public gratitude, or consign it to public contempt. Its com- 
mission is already named. No Governor could select one of 
higher character or larger fitness to produce the best results. 



The new commission consists of nine members, of whom six 
were named by the resolutions adopted at the third annual con- 
vention on December 20, 1901, and three were appointed by the 
President of the Association in further compliance with the 
resolutions. President Thomas's appointees were Chief Justice 
William H. Beattj^ Supreme Court Commissioner N. P. Chip- 
man, and ex-Supreme Judg-e John D. Works. The members 
named by the resolutions were the Presidents of Stanford 
University and the University of California, the professors of 
Engineering in those Universities, and one representative each 
from the Interior Department and the Agricultural Department 
at Washing-ton, to be nominated by their respective Secretaries. 
Frederick H. Newell and Elwood Mead would be the logical re- 
presentatives of these two departments, except for the fact that 
their presence cannot be spared from Washington for a long 
period. It is likely that they will be represented by their as- 
sistants in California, who are J. B. Lippincott and J. M. 
Wilson, respectively. It is worth while to look more carefully 
at the personnel of this commission in order that the reader 
may appreciate the mental capacity and moral and public char- 
acter which the Water and Forest Association has brought to 
bear upon the reform of the water laws. 

The honored Chief Justice of our Supreme Court knows Cali- 
fornia and its needs as well as any man who could possibly be 
named. The fact that he is an enthusiastic lover of his State, 
willing to sacrifice something for its advancement, was suffi- 
ciently attested by the manner in which he gave time and effort 
from his busy life to the work of this Association. No squeam- 
ish conception of judicial dignity and etiquette prevented him 
from lending his name to the movement from the start. He be- 
lieved it had a great public service to perform, and that the 
people who had honored him with one of their highest distinc- 
tions would not misunderstand his action in stepping outside 
the boundary of his official territory to accomplish something 
for their benefit. His name alone was a tower of strength. 
His faithful attendance upon the meetings of the Executive 
Committee was an example and an inspiration to all others. 
Finally, his acceptance of a place on the commission, of which 
he will inevitably become the head, is a subject for public con- 
gratulation. Furthermore, it is a guarantee that the new 
measures will be conservative and in accord with constitutional 

Of General Chipman it is not too much to say that he is one 
of the most useful citizens of California and far more identified 



Chief Justice Beatty. 

with efforts aiming: to conserve the public welfare than with the 
mone3'-mad race for personal agg^randizement. He particularly 
represents Northern and Central California, where he has been 
for many years a leader and a prophet of progress. Probably 
there is nothing he desires more than to see the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin Valleys start out upon a career of genuine pros- 
perity within his lifetime. He can be depended upon to favor 
irrigation laws, which he sincerely believes will accomplish that 

Judge Works, though a man whose reputation has been won 
by public service for the entire State, represents interests pecu- 
liar to Southern California. Having his home in San Diego and 
then in Los Angeles, his public life has been contemporaneous 





N. p. Chipman. 

with the transformation of the Southland from desert to g-arden. 
Since his retirement from the Supreme Bench he has been the 
legal representative of great investments in irrigation. It is 
not only proper, but in the highest degree important, that these 
large vested interests should be represented on the commission, 
and by a man whose ability and integrity are everywhere ac- 
knowledged. The appointment of Judge Works was, therefore, 
one eminently fit to be made. 

The University representatives on the commission will lend it 



Benjamin Ide Whkei.kk. 

the hig-hest educational and scientific character. Probably no 
other service of the many which Dr. Jordan and Dr. Wheeler 
have rendered to California, outside of strictly collejre duties, 
begins to compare in importance with what they will do in this 
capacity. It is indeed fortunate for the State that the heads of 
its great Universities are men who gladly keep in touch with 
the economic life of the people and stand ready to bear their 
full share of the burdens of practical, as well as of academic, 
affairs. Professor Charles D. Mjirx, of Stanford, and Frank 
Soule, of Berkeley, belong to the commission by virtue of their 
places in the engineering departments of those institutions. To 
the training which they have gained from years of scientific 



David Stakk Jordan. 

work they have recently added a most valuable experience b}"^ 
their studies of the San Joaquin and Salinas Rivers as members 
of the body of experts employed hy the Government for its 
California investigations. 

The Representatives of the Interior and Agricultural Depart- 
ments bring- to the work a large fund of practical experience 
and valuable information obtained by years of labor throughout 
the arid region. 

All in all, the Irrigation Commission of the Water and Forest 
Association combines as much in the wa}^ of ability, character, 
education, special training and experience as could possiblj' be 



William Thomas, I'h-miIimu California Waicr and Forest Association. 

brought toyfothcr in the personnel of any simihir number to be 
chosen from all the land. Measuring: our words, we may say 
that this is a commission greatly fitted for great duties — one 
which could not be surpassed and one which probably would not 
have been approached by a different method of appointment 
than that which called it into being. 


The officers of the California Water and Forest Association 
for the present year are as follows: 



T. C. Friedlandbr. 

President — William Thomas. 

Vice-Presidents — N. P. Chipman, Arthur R.'Brig-gs and J. B. 

Secretary — T. C. Friedlander. 

Treasurer — P. W. Dohrmann. 

Executive Committee — Chief Justice Beatty, President Ben- 
jamin Ide Wheeler, Prank J. Symmes, W. H. Mills, John D. 
Works and E. B. Willis. 

Advisory Council — President David Starr Jordan, Edward P. 
Adams, Will S. Green, William E. Smythe, Scipio Craig-, J. M. 
Wilson, C. D. Marx, T. J. Field, Timothy Hopkins, Charles W. 
Thomas, Frank Soule and A. J. Pillsbury. 


our WEST. 


While the Association owes much to the representative mem 
composing: its Executive Committee and Advisory Council, it. 
owes more to its President, its Secretary and its Treasurer. The 
movement begfan with these men, and it has lived because their 
interest and enthusiasm have survived and overcome difficulties 
at various critical periods. In re-electinjj them unanimously 
for the third time, the annual meeting: honored itself and g^ave 
the best g^uarantee of the perpetuity and continued usefulness, 
of the Association. 

A Vista Along thk County Road, San Mateo. 





OUTH of San Francisco, the Contra Costa Hills and Mt. Hamilton 
Range make the eastern setting of a landscape rising from the bay 
to the redwood-crested heights of the Sierra Morena Mountains. 
Over the foothills are groups of old oak trees, not unlike colossal beasts 
herding together, with here and there a sequoia standing sentinel. Cations 
and dells offer cool and quiet retreats within these slopes, which are alto- 
gether the most beautiful in the vicinity of San Francisco, and enjoy a 

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W- »P«i,-||^... 

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—jgH^iiiP*^' 1 

1 ^^^m^ 

'■■■*'■*■ ": ■■" '^ .— J* 

^^^^^ m^^^m 

A San Mateo Ho.mi: 

mild atmosphere, free from the high winds which prevail nearer the ocean. 
Only those specially favored by fortune, however, have heeded nature's 
invitation and built homes in this Fl Dorado. 

Iveaving San Francisco the train passes through a fog belt, which, in- 
creasing in density, obscures the outlook and does not diminish until San 
Bruno is reached. Here, however, the mountains, rising to an elevation of 
2,000 feet, hold the fog banks and divert them into the foothill valleys. 
The sun holds full sway, and the moisture that chills the evening air of the 
city is almost absent south of San Bruno. Millbrae is all the name im- 
plies, and from now on the eye rests upon the richest rural scenery. 

Burlingame, west of the railroad line, lies partly in a shaded valley, 
partly among the foothills of the coast range, and preparations to make 
this spot an ideal place for homes reach almost thirty years back. 
Driveways and bridlepaths lead through the hills for miles. Residences 
have been built each upon a large tract, the landscape gardener's art hav- 
ing done everything possible to keep up unity of plan, so that lines of 
division are not noticeable. The whole is a grand park. The houses, 
dropped here and there, are alii in keeping with the forest-like scenery^ 

Illustrated from photog-raphs by Langre, Berkeley. 

and the people living there 
are a community singularly 
fitted for their surroundiiijfs. 
A view toward the east from 
any eminence reveals an ex- 
panse of water so g-rand, with 
tints so beautiful, vessels of 
every kind, outward and home- 
ward t)ound, giving life to the 
scene, that a better sight can 
nowhere be found, and yacht- 
ing, of course, is a feature in- 
separable from such a marine 
picture. The Beach near Bur- 
lingame is extensive and much 
frequented by bathers. The 
sportsman can find every var- 
iety of game, even deer in the 
higher ridges around Montara 

From a climatic and artistic 
point of view no better place 
for a home of the refined and 
cultured could be found, and 
here provision has also been 
made for the rising genera- 
tion, in that St. Matthew's 
School, the oldest and most 
noted Church School west of 
the Kocky Mountains, is sit- 
uated just to the south of, and 
jutting upon, this locality. 
The founder, who is closely 
connected with everything 
progressive and of high stand- 
ard in this county, has carried 
out magnificently his high 
plan to provide the best iu 
every way for the education 
of the young. 

The early history of this 
district must be read from the 
shell mounds along the banks 
of the creeks, where many in- 
teresting relics have been un- 
earthed, showing that here 
are the burial places of the 
original dweller. The Missions 
left their stamp of advance 
everywhere, and by a subse- 
(lucnt Spanish grant all the 
territory between Burlingame 
and Palo Alto was set aside 

as the San Mateo Rancho. In 
the part most suitable for the 
purposes of a pueblo, San 
Mateo sprung up, the nucleus 
being " the old adobe house," 
referred to in surveys and 
transfers, but long since 
crumbled away. 

The town of today is pro- 
gressive and interesting. It 
furnishes ample proof that 
everything is done to meet 
the tastes of the exclusive 
community. The sanitary 
arrangements are of the 
latest, and every invention 
for the furthering of muni- 
cipal and home comforts is 
utilized. The streets and roads 
in and about the town are 
beautiful. The building of 
homes and laying out of the 
ways have been effected in 
such a manner as to compel 
admiration and call forth a 
desire to seek no farther. A 
home-feeling is here induced 
by the cosy appearance of the 
smaller as the more imposing 
dwellings, nestling among 
semi-tropical verdure. It is 
indeed a spot to cause dull 
care to flee and leave the mind 
free to absorb with satisfac- 
tion the effect of such well- 
ordered beauty. 

Further south the hills step 
nearer to the bay and on the 
narrowed strip of flat land 
prosperous hamlets are strung 
out. Homes within vast en- 
closures are numerous, and 
all along the route to Menlo 
Park the various scenes are 
so imposing that it would be 
a difficult task, indeed — leav- 
ing the distance from San 
Francisco out of the question 
— to single out any one lo- 
cality that could rightly be 
preferred to another. 

The vicinity of the railway 
depot at San Mateo appears to 



St. Matthew's Chukch, San Matbo. 

best advantage at about ten o'clock A.M., when the stage coach stands 
ready to convey passengers, who left the city at nine, to Spanish Town 
and Pescadero. With bright clatter of hoofs the conveyance sways grace- 
fully round the corners of the streets and soon passes out on the county 
road, at the juncture of which stands the ivy-covered church of St. Mat- 
thew, perhaps the prettiest of its kind. Following the meanderings of the 
San Mateo creek the road passes into the hills, winding about among 
stately trees of every variety. Everything is picturesque. The California 
laurel casts its deep shade near the stream. Groves of oaks, magnificent 
in growth, spread on both sides. Smaller cafions open here and there into 
the hills, displaying vistas of indescribable beauty alluring to the artist. 

A Chukch Diumit 

The Episcopalian School at San Mateo. 



Looking West 

Buckeye and maple stand within the natural lawns where browsing' cattle 
testify by their sleek appearance to the abundance of sweet fodder. The 
hills become more rug-ged, and precipitous rock walls rise beside the road, 
and climbing- up the grade the scenery grows more wild. Chaparral here 
lays its dense cloak over the ground. Trees stand out in lesser groups, 
but the next dip brings us again among the ferns and flowers. So the 
journey proceeds, now in the shady groves, now among moss-covered rock, 
steadily rising higher and higher, and after rounding a mountain to which 
the road seems to cling, the traveler looks down from the coach with per- 
haps a feeling of insecurity into the deep cafion which a short distance 
above has been dammed up to gather in a large lake the 30,000,000,000 
gallons of water that are stored here to provide water for San Francisco. 
The Crystal Springs Dam is 176 feet thick at its base and about 170 feet 
high. The lake, formed by the water shed from the surrounding mount- 
ains, measures about nine miles in length. Following and crossing the 
lake higher up the road proceeds to the mountain ridge, and from there 
down toward the ocean. Now, winding in and out among the hills, a some- 
what different view lies before us. Deep down a green and widening valley 
is seen, and in the end the coach rattles into Spanish Town, typical, as its 
name implies, of Spanish life, adobe cottages, and the inimitable cadence 
of its people's speech. 




In this neighborhood are the gardens that supply San Francisco with 
vegetables. The long and even rows of green attract the eye rather 
pleasantly, giving somewhat the impression of lacework such as the Span- 
ish excel in making by drawing linen threads after certain designs. 

It is quite surprising that such a beautiful county as this should as yet 
be so little known. True, many from the city take an occasional outing in 
this direction, but comparatively few seem to take into account that they 
might be permanent sharers in what now conies to them only as an occa- 
sional treat. 

Burlingame, San Mateo, and other desirable places for homes are reached 
by frequent trains of the Southern Pacific Company in about as short a 
time as it takes to get to the other suburbs of the city across the bay. The 
fares are reasonable, and the advantages to the resident no way inferior to 
those of other localities. Churches, libraries, public and private schools, 
commercial banks, and business enterprises of every description are 

San Mateo county fronts upon the bay of San Francisco on the east, and 
upon the ocean on the west. Two-thirds of its area is mountainous, the 
remainder level or rising into the foothills. In the southern portion of the 
county a forest of redwood spreads over a hundred thousand acres. 
Wheat, barley, beans, potatoes are produced' in the western portion of the 

Snap Shots at San Matbo. 

Bits of Burlinoamb, 



county, while vegetables, fruits and flowers are more particularly raised in 
the eastern part. Every kind of tree flourishes, and ferns and wild flowers 
are endless in their variety. 

Through the length of the county along the railroad from San Francisco 
are Colma, Baden, South San Francisco, San Bruno, Millbrae, Burlinganie, 
San Mateo, Belmont, San Carlos, Redwood City, Fair Oaks and Menlo Park. 
On the seacoast are Pescadero, Spanish Town (sometimes called Half 
Moon Bay), and Amesport. Within the Sierra Morena mountains are 
Searsville, Woodside and La Honda. 

The temperature in the vicinity of San Mateo is remarkably even, the 
changes coming gradually as a rule, there being never a time of insuffer- 

Thk Approach to Burling amb Station. 

able heat nor extreme cold. After the warmest day the night is pleasant 
and cool, as during the colder season the average temperature registered 
is still mostly comfortable. During the rainy season, which is by no 
means a dreary time, but rather refreshing through seeing nature taking on 
fresher tints, there is hardly. a day when walking abroad would not be 
pleasant ; indeed one half the rainfall occurs by night. 

For those pursuing business in San Francisco and desirous of a suburban 
residence, Burlingame, San Mateo and a few of the places further south 
are ideally suitable to establish homes. The railway service is excellent, 
frequent trains running at convenient hours all through the day. There 
are no noisy industries to mar the idyllic character of the country or to 
disturb the rest needed to renew the forces expended in daily toil. 



td > 

J- H 

Where Two's Company. 

Photo, by y. A. Ramsey. 

In EASTLAKt I'AKK, UosAngklks. 

/'//,./,.. /., PilUburx. 

St. James Park, Los A.NCitLEs. 

riiolo. by Pillsbury. 

In Wkstlakk 1'akk. 

Photo, h V I'illsbury. 

At Wiisn-AKK I'akk, Los AMiJiLi-S. 

J'hoiC! t,i Jiamicj'. 


Office of Publication : 

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PuBi/iSHKD Monthly by 


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William Wyles 345 and 347 SOUTH SPRING STREET 



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crow's-feet It never fails to perform all that is expected.'' 
— Chicago Times- Herald. 

" The Electric Roller is certainly productive of irood re- 
sults. I believe it is the best of any appliances. It is saff 
and effective." Hakkiet Hubbakd Ayek, New I'ork World. 


An Electric Roller in all the term implies. The invention 
of a physician and electrician know througrhout this coun- 
try and Europe. A most perfect complexion beautifier. 
Will remove wrinkles," crow's-feet" (premature or from 
afire), and all facial blemishes — POSITIVE. Whenever 
electricity is to be used for massasrintr or curative pur- 
poses, it has no equal. No chanrinfir. It will last forever. 
Always ready for use on ALL PARTS OF THE BODY. 
for all diseases. For Rheumatism, Sciatica, Neuralsria, 
Nervous and Circulatory Diseases, a specific. The pro- 
fessional standintrof the inventor (you are referred to the 
public press for the past fifteen years), with the approval 
of thiscountry and Europe, isaperfect (fuarantee. PRICE: 
Gold, $4.a). Silver, J3.0(). By mail, or at office of Gibbs" 
('ompany, 1370 Bkoadwayi New York. Circular free. 
The Only Klectric Kuller. All others are fraudu- 
lent linltHtioiiH. 

"Can lake a iiound a day off a patient, or put it on." — 
New rork Suit, Autr. 30. l*)!. Send for lecture on " Great 
Subject of Fat." no dieting, no hard work. 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' Obesity Cure 

For the Permanent Reductlun and Cure of Obesity. 
Purely Vegetable. Harmless and Positive. NO FAIL- 
URE. Your reduction is assured — reduced to stay. One 
montir« treatment $5.iiO. Mail, or office, 1370 Broadway, 
N. Y. "On obesity. Dr. Gibbs is a recosrnized authority." 
— New Tork Press, 1«99. reduction quarantcco. 

"The cure is based on Nature's laws.— /V(fw Tork Her- 
ald," July 0, IHO'). 

e^/wwww% WW wwww w 


56 bedutifiil views, Southern California, 
artistic and attractive. Postpaid, 10c. 

CALIFORNIA ART CO.. Frost BIdg., Los Angeles 


NO DRY YE.\R at MAY>v<)on Coi.onv, Toliania 
County, Cal. Land in small parcels at low prices. The 
srreatest colony in the world. Over one million thrifty 
fruit trees, railroad facilities, fruit dryer and cannery, 
fine hotel, opera house, churches, graded school, weekly 
newspaper, 3,000 residents, numerous social, reliarious and 
fraternal orcranizations, superb soil, plenty of water, un- 
surpassed climate. Free Illustrated literature, etc., fur- 
nished by Ralph Hoyt, Southern California Office, 241 
Dousrlas Building, Los Anireles, Cal. 

Don't tlo the top of year 

Jelly and presorvo Jars In 

theoldfu.sbionetlway. Keal 

tliem hy the new, quick, 

al)6oluicly sore way —by 

a thin coatlnsrof Pure 

Rellncd Paralllne. llus 

no tanto or odor. Id 

air tipht and acid 

proof. Easily applied. 

Useful In a dozen other 

ways al>out the 

Full directions with 

each cake. 

Sold everywhere. Mode by 



POCKET INHALER— Cures headache, asthma, catarrh, 
sore throat. Sent postpaid for SI.OO. U.S. currency sent 
safely by mail. P. O. Bo.x (j43. Atlanta, Ga. 



1 Pkge Bromangelon 


W Nothing More 
Send 3 cents in stamps 


Stern ^SaALBERG, New York. 

You can be iii> 
abandon spectacli 
tific instructions 

; I'.storc your eyosijrht 
, used whatever, scien 
S. currency sent safely 

by mail. P. O. Box .■-..., .i^. ........ v..i'. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST, 

Red Cloud /Hining Stock 


Per Share 

But a few thousand shares more for sale. Mills will be running In 90 days. 
Read this page carefully and see what our stockholders own. 

2 steel boilers, 130-horse power; weig-ht 17,000 lbs. 
1 Corliss enffine, 130-horse power; weisrht 22,000 lbs. 
1 Hardwick water heater; weigrht 3,000 lbs. 
1 rock crusher; weigrht 20,000 lbs. 

1 rock crusher; weight 4,000 lbs. 

2 sets Cornish rolls; weight (each) 17,700 lbs.; 

weight, 35,400 lbs. 
1 smelter, capacity of 100 tons; weight 45.000 lbs. 
1 28-horse power gasoline hoist, with 700 feet wire 

rope; weight 10,000 lbs. 
1 30-horse power boiler; weight 8,000 lbs. 
1 25-horse power engine; weight 7,200 lbs. 
1 lot shafting, pulleys, beltings, etc ; weight 20,000 

1 Lane slow-speed mill. 
1 new Standard concentrator. 
1 double set stamps. 

3 miles 3-inch water pipe. 
1 mile 2-inch water pipe. 

1 lot small machines, pumps, etc. 

1 general store, 24x40 feet- 

1 drug store and physician's office; also a numbi-r 
of nice cottages, bunk-house, cook-house, tool- 
rooms, harness rooms, etc., at Mill Camp 

1 warehouse at Salton, 24x40, roof and sides covered 
with corrugated iron; also 1 bunk-house, 1 hay 
and grain room and 1 corral. 

At Dos Palmos, six miles from Salton, on the way 
to the mines, we have 160 acres of land, about 40 
acres of which are enclosed with a barb wire 
fence, and used as a pasture for our team.-; also 
have here: 

1 warehouse, cottage, bunk-house, corral, and 

1 large spring with 65-iiich flow of water. 

At Dry Camp, Corn Springs and Mill Camp our build- 
ings, mills and machinery are covered with corru- 
gated iron. 

All our buildings are modern and substantial. 

The Red Cloud Mining Company owns a great many 
horses, mules, burros, stages and wagons. 

We have built many good roads and trails through 
the desert and over the mountains. We have lo- 
cated several hundred acres of oil lands, sandstone 
quarries, gypsum beds, iron claims, etc. 

At Corn Springs there is a spring of soft water from 
which the supply is greater than the mills will pos- 
sibly use. In connection with this is a five-acre 
garden on which are grown many vegetables. 

Having enumerated for the benefit of our stockholders 
a list of the many things which our company owns, 
we will call attention to some things we do not have. 

There are no saloons in our camp, no liquor or beer 
being allowed upon our grounds There are no 
gambling or dance-houses. The Sabbath Day is 
observed and no work allowed except in cases of 

Our miners are all American citizens, intelligent and 
gentlemanly. Everyone who has visited our mines 
has been favorably impressed with the class of 
miners we employ. They are quiet and peaceable, 
and we confess we feel proud of our employees, for 
they are good workmen. 

Stock in the Red Cloud Mining Co. is selling for a 
short time only at 50 cents per share. We believe 
this is one of the best investments that can be made. 

Call at our offices, or send New York draft, Postoffice 
money order or registered letter at once, if you wish 
to invest, i3ir~ADDRESS AS BELOW. 

Red Cloud /Wining Co. 

218 S. Broadway 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

S. p. CREASIN6ER, President 

W. L. ELDER, Secretary 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

The only perfected piano player in 
the world is the Pianola. We are 
sole agents in Southern California. 
The Pianola is bringing to life 
many silent pianos. 


An Art 



are Ideally perfect. In Tone, design 
or construction they have always been 
far in advance of the "commercially 
good " pianos of the same period. 

Never has its standard of excellence 
been lowered in the slightest degree 
to meet the competition of price. To- 
day one of the world's greatest pi?->os 
Is the Vose. 



210-ai8 West Third St., 

We are the largest dealers in small 
musical instruments in the South- 
west. We can make the lowest 
prices and sell any instrument on 
the easiest tertns. 




Satisfaction | 




Are the 




"The Fox" 

In the Middle States and in the 
East where " The Fox " is bet- 
ter known, it is " The Leader." 
and EASY ACTION have 
made it the STANDARD. : : : 




104 Front Street 


Hummel Bros. &, Co. furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mentipn that You Saw it In OUT WEST. 


Bef ore Locating in California 

MaKe a XHoroxi^K 
Investigation of 

San Joaquin County 

It has the most fertile lands in the State at the lowest prices. 

It has a navigable river and numerous railroads, causing the lowest trans- 
portation charges in the State. 

Its markets are constant and active for all farm produce. 

It offers the best opportunity for the farmer or home-seeker that can be 
found on this coast. 


Call on or address Stockton Chamber of Commerce, Stockton, Cal., or the 
Cham-hefs Branch Office at 66 Bryson Block, Los Angeles, Cal. 

I San Joaquin (Bounty 

I Is the Place for You 


I Fruit, Vineyard, Alfalfa, Vegetable and Grain Land for sale at prices 
I SO low you will scarcely believe it possible* 

I We have the BEST BARGAINS in Farm Lands to be found in the 
I United States, 

S San Joaquin County is the center of agricultural California. Nothing 
I can stop it from becoming the center of the States' population, | 


n. C. NORRIS & Co., 247 Wilcox Block, Los Angeles 

Or write to our Correspondents, EATON & BUCKLEY, Stockton, Cal. 

V( ' "" ' ' ' jg 

T T'l^~rT 'Cr t^in^A ^ EDTT a CETCD ^°^ pancake Griddles, Bread, Biscuit, Cake and Pie 
-L-i / i L^C^ KJ ClVl \J tX. CL ^ J IL tX Pans. Metal and Wood combined. Everlasting kitchen 
necessity. Postpaid to you for 14 cents. HOUSEHOLD SPECIALTY CO., Los Angbles, Cal. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



A Monthly Magazine of Photographic Information. Supp. Illustrated. 



MANY writing machines break down 
in their youth, but Remingtons 
have tough constitutions and, no mat- 
ter how hard the work they do, they 
are sure to reach a hale and vigorous 
old age. 

Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, 327 Broadway, New York 113 S. Broadway, Los AngelCS, Cal. 


preventK early wrinkles. It is not a freckle coatinr ; It re- 
moves them. ANYVO CO., 437 N. Main St., Lo« AngelM. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


Buy at Headquarters 
and take no chances. 

4'8-pa^e photo-illustrated cata- 
logue, 15 cents, which may be 
deducted from first order. 

All kinds, 


= Orang-e, 

Lemon, Walnut and everythinsr else. Best- 
grown and larcest stock of street and ornamen- 
tal trees in Southern California. Roses, shrubs, 
etc. Best varieties, lowest prices. 

J. E. MORGAN, 4584 Pasadena Avenue 

uly Florlcultural Magazine published on Pacific Coast 


Devoted to the care and ornamentation of the home 

grounds. Published monthlv, $1.00 per year. 


Street, los Angeles. Cal. 

WITH "OUT WEST" - - - $ 1 50 

Cox Seed Co. 

4n-413-415 Sansome St. 
San Francisco, Cat. 


Garden and Flower Seeds, A lfalfa, 
Clover, Kentucky Blue G rass, 
Australian Rye Grass, Orna- 
mental Trees, Roses, Fruit 
Trees and Small Fruit Trees, 
French Prune on Almond Root, 
French Prune on Peach Root, 
Blenheim and Royal Apricots 
on Peach and M3'^robolan Root. 

Send for 1902 Annual Catalogue, 
beautifully illustrated, free by mail. 


W t t U O *■ WORLD^ 

Send for our large, beautifully illus- 
trated Seed and Plant Catalogue. 


326-330 S. MAIN ST. 

Oldest and Most Reliable Seed tlouse In So. California 

The Farmer 
The Gardener 


The Housewife 

They cost a little more. They 
' are wortti a great deal more 

than the ordinary kind. Sold 
everywhere. 1902 annual free. 

D. M. FERRY & CO. 

Detroit, Mich. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Open Runabout 

Nothinir on the Market 
Equals it for the Money asked. 



49 its own wear. Equipped with J ^ inch Cushion Tires, Choice of 
2 Colors in Trimming and Painting. 





Two to Six-Gang: Wallcing, Subsoil, Sulky, Steel, 
Chilled, Shovels, etc., to meet any want. 

Haivleyf King & Company 

Farm Implement Department : 

49 r64-168 N. Los Angeles St. 


Dealers in Fine Carriaires and Harness: 

501-505 S* Broadway S 




Air Compressors, 

Pipe Casing, Drive 
Pipe, Cordage 




Every man his own Doctor 
without medical fakery of any 
kind. The Schaefer Healing- 
Apparatus will cure where 
everything else fails. It will cure all dis- 
eases of the lung's, stomach, liver, kid- 
neys, bladder, nerves, skin and blood. 
If you want to cure yourselves, or 
want to cure others, and have a good 
paying business, then write for testi- 
monials and other literature to the in- 
ventor. Dr. Geo. Schaefer, 315 Mad- 
ison St., Buffalo, N.Y. ^°i1e rt^'o.l'c"! 




Oar Prices are Very Attractive 

Baker & Hamilton 

Sm FraicKro nd Sacramfiito 

Help — All Kinds. See Hummel Bros. A Co., 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 




We invite you to write for a little book treating on Costa 
Rica and its opportunities, sent free on request 

Two years ago this Company entered the business of cultivating' rubber 
and cacao. The Company has special advantages, resulting from the loca- 
tion of its property, which lies between two navigable rivers. The soil 
is deep, rich, and its adaptability to rubber and cacao is shown by the abund- 
ance of wild trees which were originally found upon it. The territory con- 
sists of 7,500 acres. The Company have planted 75,000 rubber trees and 
10,000 cacao trees. 

Any individuals desiring a safe and profitable in- 
vestment are invited to investigate this enterprise. 
Its stability and the ability and integrity of its 
officers are a perfect assurance of the greatest suc- 
cess. Stock may be purchased on Installments. 

5j( % 5.00 down and $5.00 per month buys 500 shares. 

% 10.00 down and $10.00 per month buys 1.000 shares, 

a 20.00 down and $20.00 per month buys 2,000 shares. 
V( Stock sells for 50 cents per share. 

S Address — 

I Costa Rica Development Co. 203 Currier Bidg,, LOS angeles, cal. 


L. W. BLINN, President 
C. S. HOGAN, 1st Vice-Pres't 
W. B. RAYMUND, 2nd Vice-Pres't 
J. B. HENDERSON, Secretary 
E. B. MERRILL, Treasurer 























erside, Cal. 





We deal in all kinds of Real Estate. 
Orchard and Resident Property. 
Write for descriptive pampiiiet. 

232 W. Second St., Room 208, Los Angeles, Cal. 


We will send you 100 Visiting- Cards with yourname printed 
in the latest style and an elegrant black Seal Grain Card 
Case for only 64 cents, postpaid. Satisfaction (fuaraateed. 
Send for free samples and our catalogue. 



BUYS a beautiful orange ranch in the 
only district in California where the frost 
does not reach the fruit. Abundance of g-ood 
water piped all over the place. Large two- 
story modern eight-room house, hard finished, 
cost $3000 to build, good two-story barn, 
horses, farming implements, etc. — a complete 
outfit, all ready to step right into. Soil very 
fertile, yields an income of $1000 yearly from 
ground cultivated between the trees. Place 
gives easily an income of $2000 yearly. A 
good industrious man or woman could easily 
make a fortune on this place in a few years. 
I am getting old and want to retire and am 
not willing to allow place to depreciate, and 
offer to sell at the above ridiculously low 
figure in order to get the place into good 
hands. For further particulars apply to 

337 Douglas Bidg. Los Angeles, Cal. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



27 Hours 



I Pacific Coast Steamstiip Co 





M Leave San Francisco : SANTA ROSA Sundays, 9.00 a.m. 

^ STATE OP CAL Wednesdays, " " 


fe Leave Los Angeles : SANTA ROSA Wednesdays, 10.00 a.m. 

^ STATE OF CAL Saturdays, " " 

^ Operate Steamers to and from Mexico, Humboldt Bay, British 

1^ Columbia, Seattle and Alaska 


B 328 S. Spring St. GENERAL AGENTS 


Hummel Bros. & Co. furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 






THE COLLEGE. Faculty of 16. Ample equipment. Students 
may pass from any class to the State University or any 
in the East. 

THE PREPARATORY SCHOOL. As "Chaffey" stood amone the 
highest accredited schools in the State, ytmost pains taken 
with physical development, manners and character, as 
well as with the intellect. 

University Station. Dean Wm. T. Randall, A. M. 



New Building's. Gymnasium. Special care of health. 
Entire chargre taken of pupils during- school year and 
summer vacation. Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges. 
European teachers in art and music. 12th year began 
Oct., 1901. 

Occidental College 


Three Courses : classical. Literary, Scientific, 
leading to degrees of A. B., B. L., and B. S. Thorough' 
Preparatory Department and School of Music. 

First semester begins September 25, 1901. 

Address the President, 

ReT. Ouy W. TV^adaworth. 

Pomona College 


Courses leading to degrees of B. A., B. S., and B. L. Its 
degrees are recognized by University of California, Stan- 
ford University, and all the Eastern Universities. 

Also Preparatory School, fitting for all Colleges, and a 
School of Music of high grade. Address, 

Dr. Geo. A. Gate«, Pr««ldeut. 

Formerly Casa de Rosas. 

Girls' Collegiate ScKool 

Adams and Hoover Sta., 
I<os Anseles, Cal. 

ALICE K. Parsons, B.A., 
Jeanne W. Dbnnen, 



EIOHTII YEAR, I90I— 1902. 

A select Boarding and Day School. Pre- 
pares for colleges, government schools, 
technical schools and business. Faculty 
large, competent, experienced ; all depart- 
ments thoroughly equipped; location near 
all city advantages, yet suflSciently iso- 
lated to be beyond demoralizing influence 
and dangers. 

Before deciding upon a school investi- 
gate the advantages we offer. Special rates 
during vacation. Illustrated catalogue upon 

Telephone Main 1556. 




(Graduate Vienna Military Academy.) 

The Harvard School 



An English Classical Boarding and Day School for Boys. 

Head Master. 

Reference : Chas. W. Elliot, LL. D., President Harvard 
Hon. Wm. P. Frye, Pres't pro tem. U. S. Senate. 


flNE ARTS (sr «b 

At Beautiful 




Circulars on application. 


Is the oldest established, has the largest attendance, and is the best equipped business college 
on the Pacific Coast. Catalogue and circulars free. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 




Incorporated 1871 

Capital .... $500.00U.OO 

Surplus and Undiyided Profits. $878,000.00 
Deix>sits . . . , $6,300,000.00 


I. W. HBI.LMAN, Pres. H. W. Hbllman, Vice-Pres. 

J. A. Ghaves, 2nd Vice-Pres. Charles Sbylrr, Cashier 

G. Hbimann, Assistant Cashier 

W. H. Perry 
H. W. Hellman 
A. Haas 


I.W. Hellman, Jr. 
J. A. Graves 
J. F. Francis 
Wm. Lacy 

O.W. Childs 
I. W. Hellman 
C. E. Thom 

Drafts and Letters of Credit issued and Teleifraph ic and 
Cable Transfers to all parts of the world. 
Special Safety Deposit Department and Storajre Vaults. 

W. C. Pattbrson, Prest. P. M. Green, Vice Pres, 

Frank P. Flint, Second Vice- Prest. 

W. D. WOOLWINE, Cashier 
E. W. COE. Assistant Cashier 
D. J. WlGDAL " 

lie in mm mtiQi Boni 

Cor. First and Spring Streets 

Capital Stock 

Surplus and Profits over 


This bank has the best location of any bank in Los 
Ansretes. It has the largest capital of any National bank 
in Southern California, and is the only UNITED STATES 
DEPOSITARY in Southern California. 



Largest National BaRk Ir Soytbeni Cillfinili. 

Capital Stock S 400/100 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over jso.oao 

Deposits 5.775,000 

J. M Elliott, Prest. W. G. Kerckhoff. V.-Pre«t 

J. C. Drake. Second V.-Prest. 

W. T. S. Hammond, Assistant Cashier 


J. D. Bicknell H. Jevne W. G. Kerckhoff 

J. M Elliott F. Q. Story J. D Hooker 

J. C Drake 

All Departments of a Modern Banking Business Conducted 



Noah fmnm Morrison 





Genealogies and 
General Literature 

No. 893 Broad Street, 

Newark, N. J. 

Libraries and small collections of books pur- 
chased from executors and others. 
Refers by permission to the editor. 

ELECTRIC INSOLES— Cures cold feet, rheuniatisin, 
cramps; restores circulation. Give size of shoe worn. U.S. 
currency sent safely. Price $1, postpaid. P. O. Box 643, 
Atlanta, Ga- 


Write to N. H. TIMBY, Book Nunter 


Phone Main 635. 

^iJolft ^!ft^ SIRS'?* 


No matter how frayed or sharp-edg-ed the g^oods, this 
machine finishes them more smoothly and comfortable than 
when the ^oods were new. 

Our place is convenient of access, modernly equipped, 
and courtesy and methods prevail. 

If you cannot call, phone. 



SathfactiM GaarMtreil 


i?9>9'¥9>9>¥¥^¥¥$^9>iE^¥$^$¥$$tF9^¥¥¥¥$'$¥$^9> 1? $9^¥9>9>9>$¥$'$^ 


prevents early wrinkles. It Is not a freckle coating; it re- 
moves them. ANYVO CO., 427 N Main St., Lo« An ««!«•. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


W6 Sell Oranoe Orctiards 

That pay a steady investment, with 
grood water rigrhts. "We have them in 
the suburbs of Pasadena, finely lo- 
cated for homes, also in the country 
for profit. 



J 6 S. Raymond Avenue, PASADENA, C AL. 
Los Angeles Office : 3 J 7-3 1 5 Bryne BIdg. 



We Sell the Earth 


We deal in all kinds of Real Estate, Orchard and 
Residence Property. Write for descriptive pamphlet. 

Room 208, 202)4 S- BROADWAY 




209 Orange Street 

For reliable information as to cost, 
care and culture of Redlands 
Orang-« Groves, call on or address 


Redlands, Cal. 




t outlook, near to E 

inds, with 

Come to Porterville ! 

car line, modern house, elegrantly furnished, 
all modern conveniences, wide verandas. 

Where Oranges and Lemons 

plate g-lass windows. For sale at half its 

are grown free from Smut 

ORANGE eROVE— $20,000 buys 145^ acres 

and Scale. 

in full bearinsr. $6,000 house, barns, etc., 
situated near electric car line, having- masr- 


nificent view of Redlands and the mount- 

equalled Climate. To in- 

ains beyond. 
Redlands is unsurpassed for salubrious 

vestigate means to invest. 

climate, magruiflcent scenery, excellent 

For information, address 

schools, churches, libraries and society. No 

Call upon or address: JOHN P. FISK, Rooms 

secreiory Boofii oi irofle. 

1 and 2, Union Bank Block, Redlands, Cal. 

Porienfiiie. Goiilornia. 

Southern Califonia 


not fall to see 


24 miles from lyos Angeles, on the 
Kite-shaped track of the Santa F^ Ry. 


It has first-class hotel accommodations, good drives and fine scenic surroundings. 
Its educational, social and religious facilities are complete. It, is surrounded by the 
most productive and beautiful orange and lemon groves in the world, and as a place of 
residence is warmer in winter and cooler in summer than many other famous orange 
For especial information or complete and handsome illustrated literature, 

Write ° "ifurcaJf^^r^ Chamber of Commerce 

Hummel Bros. & Co, furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

^ ^r The most profitable varieties on the best soil, in^\^ y^ 
the finest condition. I have more than I want to 


The most profitable varieties on the best soil, in\^ u^ 




take care of, and will sell part in ten-acre tracts at prices 
<^X \ below present conservative values. Write me for >/ ^ 


,^^ X particulars. Better yet, come and see property 

%\ A. P. GRIFFITH, Azusa, Cal. 






It contains strongly American Editorials, Letters from Washing-ton, 
New York, London and Paris by trained correspondents ; its short 
stories are famous and are widely copied throughout the United States ; 
its selected Departments, both verse and prose, are edited with the 
greatest care ; Art, Music, the Drama and Society notes are handled by 
experienced writers. 

The ARGONAUT is acknowledged by all to be the best Weekly on 
the Pacific Coast and one of the best in the United States. Persona 
once having formed the habit of reading The ARGONAUT find they 


Send us a postal card and we will forward you, postage paid, some 
sample copies. 

246-5utter Street San Francisco, Cal. 


oohn A. Smith, Burnt Wood Novelties, Hardwood Floors, Grille-work. 456 S. Broadway. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Imperial FRESNO 

The richest county in California. Produces a greater 
variety of products than any other county in the State. The 
only county that can produce RAISINS and FIGS successfully. 

Its orange and lemon industry is still in its swaddling clothes, 
but its citrus fruits can be shipped from two to four weeks 
earlier than from any other section. 

I have some exceptionally rich orange land, fully protected, 
that will increase in value from 100 per cent to 1000 per cent 
within the next few years. Alfalfa finds its HOME in Fresno 
County, producing more FULL crops than any other section. 

Its mineral resources are yet UNDEVELOPED, but they will 
compare favorably with other counties of the State. 

I will execute commissions of purchase and sale for non- 
residents ; investigate and furnish special confidential reports on 
Fresno city and country property ; take the entire management 
of vineyards and other property and estates. 


References upon application. 


The Real Estate Merchant 

Northern California Office: Central California Office : Southern California Office: 

10 Montgomery St., San Francisco 1031 J St., Fresno 123 S. Broadway, Los Angeles 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 





No Nature lover 

To all who love Nature and 
the Country 

We make a special introductory offer of 

The New Nature Library 

7 superb volumes re- 
tailing: for $18.00 
And a year's subscrip- 
tion to "Country Life 

in America," 3.00 


All for $2 down 
and $2 a nxontK for 

8 months, 

if accepted immediately and 
this magazine mentioned. 

" Country Life in America - 

is a beautiful, practical and season- 
able mag-azine of every sort of 
work and pleasure under the 
open sky. Size 10jixl4>^ ; all 
•'' X. coated paper. Libbkty H. 
Bailey, Editor. 

Bound in polished Buckram, -with 
Leather Title Labels and Gilt Top. 

O. Howard. 16 colored and 32 black 
and white full pasres, taken direct 
from the insects themselves, and 
nearly 300 text cuts. Price $3 net. 

W. J. Holland. 48 plates in colors 
and many text cuts. Price $3 net. 

ers). By Neltje Blanchan. 32 
full-pag-e plates in colors, 48 black 
and white. Price $3 net. 

Nina L. Marshall. 24 colored 
plates, 24 black and white ; over 
1(X) text cuts. Price $3 net. 

Blanchan. 48 colored plates. Price 
2 . 

GAME BIRDS. By Neltjk Blan- 
chan 48 colored plates. Price $2. 

BIRD HOMES. By A. Radclyffe 
DuGMORE- 16 colored plates and 
50 other pictures. Price f2 net. 
7t),(xjo .sold at these prices. 

Send your order at once, using this coupon and enclosing $2. 

The bool($ will be sent by prepaid express, and the sub- 

r^ ,, - ^, scription to the magazine will start with the first 

<t?-5>°'V>> (November) number. If cash is remitted with 

%/% ov^^^ order 5 per cent may be deducted, making the 

'''-"'-r^eX'-., price $17.10 net. If the books are not 

e. ^i-.i satisfactory on examination they may be 
•v*^ . ^^SA returned and the $2 will be refunded. 

Out Wkst 202 

The right is reserved to withdraw 
this offer any time without notice. 


34 Union Square, E., New York 

siqi ^noqiiAv 




P. S.— We are plannlnir a " Personal Edition " of Shakespeare's Works similar to tho vi-ry anccesafnl Personal Eliot. 
There will be 12 handsome volumes, with introductions dealinir with the Shakosin-are and the places made famous 
by him, and with remarkably beautiful photonrapliic illustrations. Wt> liave decided to offer a</;',i«i<v subscribers a n-duced 
rate on this work. If you order /xjic we will send you the set when ready and a year's subscription to The World's Work 
for t^—fust half the retail price of the u Tohimes •.vithoiit the'i'ie. The set irill not he sold for this prieeafier it is puhtishrd. 

Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. A Co., Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


Camera SKots 
at Bi^ Game >^ 


Introduotion by ■ 

the:odori: roosevelt 

y^ MOST remarkable collection of photographs of 
deer, antelope, elk, cougar, wild cat, bear and 
other animals of our great West, taken from life in their 
native wilds. 

As MR. ROOSEVELT says. tHis col- 
lection can ne-ver be duplicated. ^ >jF 

Large paper and type, with 21 photogravures and 40 full-page 

Price $10.00 net. 


Doubleday, Page &. Co., 34 Union Sq., E., N. Y. City 

I enclose %Vdm, for which send me CAMERA SHOTS AT BIG GAME. 

Out West 202 


John A. Smith, Burnt Wood Novelties, Hardwood Floors, Grille-work. 456 S. Broadway. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


Laxakola Is the only laxative that acts 
as a tonic to the whole female svatoia, 
BtrenKtlioninir the orprans and purifying? the 
blood. It will cure tho most confirmed case 
of constipation after every other remedy 
has fiiileri. 

With your hovFols and stomach free 
from refuse and impurities; with your 
kidneys and liver working naturally, and 
your blood pure and rich, backaches, head- 
aches, weak nerves, blotchy, muddy, fal- 
low complexions and all similar troubles 
will vanish, and you will feel and look 
Strom,', healthy and vigorous. 

Because of its puriiy, pleasant taste, 
■yid f^entle, yet cfTective, action, infants 
un/' the most delicate invalids can take it 
without any disagreeable or harmful after- 

lAxakola combined two medicines, Tiz: laxatlra 
«ii<l tonic, and at one prioi . No other remedy (riVM 
■o much for the money. At dnnrfrists i&r and 
6«f., or free sample of THE I.AXAKOLA CO., ISt 
llasiwu Street, N. Y. or SSO Dearborn Street, CUcatftk 

HEARING RESTORED if theeardrnra is not perforated 
—painless, harmless, or money refunded after three 
months' dilisrent trial. Printed instructions with appli- 
ances, for Sl.uo. U. S. currency sent safely by mail. P.O. 
Box 643, Atlanta, Ga. 



till pri'Ki-nt you with the flrst l&yoa 
taki- In to Htitrt von In a ifood paying huiij- 
neHH. tsend lU cents for full liiu) of SMiiplai 
and dln-ctlonH how tu tn-ifln. 

MAKE $3.00 TO $10.00 PER DAY -,^-f ,,, 

Photo-Jewelry and Novelties. A sample button from any 
picture with illustrated catalogue and full particulars for 
10 cents. L. Kelman & CO., 5541 Fifth Ave., Cbicaffo. 111. 





For sale at lubs than half price. We want an agent in 
every town and city in the U. 8. Send 36c. (uruLmpU 
opal worth |2. Good agents make $10 a day. 
Kezican Opal Co., 607 Frost Bldg., Los Angeles, Cat 
Bank reference. State Loan and Tnist Oo 

Send lOCts. and get this, 
beautiful solid rolled gold ' 
Lovers Heart Bangle set i ' 

with aMort«4l itont... Or our ' 
oil* eye r\ng\ It'i the be.1 bmr- 
L'.ln y^u ever f^ot fi,r 10 cent.; ft tyremlam ftbeo- 
lutelv FRKE Cfttalotne tnf, rfnp wvrranU.4 
.'v!^n 1 w.lVy Co., 87-89 Wuhingtoii SL, Chicagu. IIL 


The simplest remedy for indigestion, constipation, 
biliousness and the many ailments arising from a dis- 
ordered stomach, liver or bowels is Ripans Tabules. 
They have accomplished wonders, and their timely aid 
removes the necessity of calling a physician for the 
many little ills that beset mankind. They go straight 
to the seat of the trouble, relieve the distress, cleanse 
and cure the affected parts and give the system a 
general toning up. 


The five-cent packet is enougfh for an ordinary occasion. The family bottle^ sixty 
cents, contains a supply for a year. 

Help — All Kinds. See Hummel Bros. A Co., 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

It has taken a great deal of 
money and care to perfect our 
track and prompt train service, 
but we pride ourselves on 
being- able to offer the travel- 
ing public the finest and 
smoothest track in California, 
with up-to-date trains, having 
all the needful appliances for 
comfort and speed, running at 
convenient hours to the best 
ocean resorts on the Pacific 
Coast. Among the most prom- 
inent are Long- Beach, Cata- 
lina Island, San Pedro and 
Terminal Island. Excursion 
Tickets sold every day. 

^g'Write Agents of the Salt LaKe Rovjte 

for illustrated leaflets and desired infor- 
mation. All inquiries cheerfully answered. 

E. W. GILLETT, GenH Pass. Agi. 
T. C. PECK, Assi. Gen'l Pass. Agt. 




of twenty acres, eight and 
nine year old trees, situated 
within two blocks of the 
city limits of San Bernar- 
dino, Cal. Five inches con- 
tinuous water flow. 


Will sell for cash for $7,500. 

Address: Box A, 

605-607 FROST BLOG. 


I IVIaier & Zobelein 
* Brewery 



For Family use and Export a specialty. 

A pure, wholesome beyerag^e, recommended by 
prominent physicians. 


Tel. Main 91 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



unset JL/imited 



fer Solid "Vestibvile Train Los Angeles to Ne^v Orleans 

^ Leaving Los Angeles 

fc Every Tuesday, THvirsday and Saturday 

^ At &:30 a. m. 




^ Write or ask G. A. PARKYNS, Assistant General Freisrht and Passen- ^S 

^ srer Asrent, 261 South Spring Street, Los Angreles, Cal., for particulars. _^ 






Altitude 5250 Feet 

Drink pure water from the fountains of the mountains. Tents 
and cottages to rent. Excellent store, meat market and dairy. 
First-class hotel, electric light, complete sewer system, mountain 
spring water piped throughout all buildings. Seven hundred and 
thirty-four thousand acres of pine forests for hunting and moun- 
tain climbing. Golf links, lawn tennis, croquet and billiards. 

Round Trip Tickets on Santa Fe, Los Angeles to 
San Jacinto, good on Tuesdays, Tliursdays and 
Saturdays— FIVE DOLLARS. 

Daily stage meets all trains at San Jacinto. Sunset telephone 
for guests. Call up *' Idyllwild." For particulars address '• 


1414 South Hope Street, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. d. Co., Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

California Limited 




Daily Service Bctwecn SdH Francisco 
Los Angeles and Chicago 

641 iVlarket Street 200 S. Spring Street 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


The Delightful Scenic Route 

To Santa cMonica 

And Hollywood 

Fine, Comfortable Observation Cart Free from Smoke, ete 

Cars leave Fourth street and Broadway, Los Antreles, for Santa Monica via. Sixteenth 
street, every half hour from 6:35 a.m. to 6:35 p.m., then each hour till 11:35 ; or via Bellevne 
Ave., for Colegrove and Sherman, every hour from 6:15 a.m. to 11:15 p.m. Cars leave Ocea.n 
Park, Santa Monica, for Los Ansreles, at 5:40 and 6:4U a.m. and every half hour thereafter 
till 7:40 p.m., and at 8:40, 9:40 and 10:40 p.m. 

Cars lea-ve Los Ansreles for Santa Monica via. Hollywood and Sherman via. Bellevne 
Ave., every hour from 6:45 a.m. to 5;45 p.m., and to Hollywood only every hour thereafter. 
■ -(^ For complete time-table and particulars call at oflBce of company. 

Single Round Trip, SOc. 10-Trip Tickets, $2.00. 



'* A^iCliCiiCAAiiCiiC^li C^ A^A AA ' A ' ^ 

The great transcontinental route 
through Salt Lake City and the 


No European trip of equal length 
can compare with it in grandeur 
of scenery or wealth of novel in- 
terest. Pullman Palace and ordin- 
ary Sleepers through to Omaha, 
St. Louis and Chicago daily. 

For information, handsomely 
illustrated pamphlets, etc., call 
upon your nearest Ticket Asrent, 
or address : 

G. W. HEINTZ, Asst. Gen. Passensrer Aarent, 
Salt Lake City. 

F. W. THOMPSON, Gen. Agent, 625 Market 
St., San Francisco. 

t&* )if )if )|f jif jif )k ifcijfii ci tcifcik ^A ^Aji ci ifA^AAM 








SANTA ROSA Wednesdays, 7 a.m. 

STATE OF CAL Saturdays, 7 a.m. 


SANTA ROSA Wednesdays, 11:00 a.m. 

STATE OF CAL Saturdays, H a.m. 

Arrive at San Francisco Thursdays and 
Sundays 1 p.m. 



Ventnra, Cari>enteria, Santa Barbara, Goleta, 
Gaviota, Port Harford (San Luis Obispo), 
Cayucos, San Simeon, Monterev and Santa Cruz. 

CORONA Mondays, 6:30 p.m. 



SANTA ROSA Mondays, 4 p.m. 

STATE OF CAL Thursdays. 4 p.m. 


SANTA ROSA Mondays, 8 p.m. 

STATE OF CAL Thursdays. 8 p.m. 

For further information obtain folder. 

The company reserves the right to chanare 
steamers, sailing days, and hours of sailing, 
without previous notice. 

W. PARRIS, Agent. 328 S. Spring St., Loe 
General Agents, Francisco. 








Yosemtte Hotel 


prevents oarlv wrinkles. It is not a freckle coating ; it re- 
moves them- ANYVO CO.. 427 N. Main St., Los Angeles. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

A California Education 

The bound volumes of the Land of Sunshine make the most interesting 
and valuable library of the far West ever printed. The illustrations are lavish and 
handsome, the text is of a high literary standard, and ot recognized authority in its 
field. There is nothing else like this magazine. Among the thousands of publica- 
tions in the United States, it is wholly unique. Every educated Californian and 
Westerner should have these charming volumes. They will not long be secured at 
the present rates, for back numbers are growing more and more scarce ; in fact the 
June number, 1894, is already out of the market. 


Vols. 1 and 2. July, '94 to May, '95, inclusive $3.9o 

3 and 4. June, '95 to May, '%, 
5 and 6. June, '96 to May, '97, 
7 and 8. June, '97 to May, '98, 
9 and 10. June, '98 to May, '99, 
11 and 12. June, '99 to May, '00, 
13 and 14. June, '00 to June, '01, 
15. June, '01 to Jan., '02, 


is interested and should know 
about the wonderful 

Marvel 1'^°' 

If your druggist cannot 
supply the MARVEL, 
accept no other, but write us for 
Illustrated Hook, sent free — 

sealed. It gives price by mail, 

particulars and directions in\n'u- 

able to ladies. Endorsed by Pbystclnns. 

MARVEL CO., Room 33, Times Building, N.V. 



ing the cause. CUKES DYSPEl'SIAby 
aiding digestion. CLEARS THE COM- 
PLEXION, by purifying the blood. 


These pills act quietly on the bowel*, removing the pestilent matter, 
stimulates the liver into action cresting a healthy digestion 
dyspepsia and sonr stomach For pimply, pale or sallow people, they 
imp'Ft to the face that wholesome look thnt indicates health Sold 
by druggists or hy mail. 25c a box. Samples free. 

DR. BOSANKO CO., Philadelphia. 

Iladelphia, Pa. S 


How tofirrow beautiful as we grrow older, and how to re- 
move wrinkles and sallow complexion, for a smooth fair 
face. Scientific research g-ives the correct wav to do mas- 
sag-e to accomplish it. Printed instructions sent for $l.(iO. 
U. S. currency sent safely by mail. P. O. Box 643, Atlanta, 


E V E R Y V^ H E P? E 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


"Conquest of Arid Amcrica" 

is pronounced by reviewers " one of the few really 
best books on the West. A book every American 
should read." "One of the most interesting, one of 
the truest, most prophetic and most vital." "It is as 
readable as a novel and has more brains in it than a 
whole library of modern novels." 

By special arrangement with Mr. Wm. E. Smythe, the 
author of the above famous book, we are permitted to 
offer it as a premium together with a year's subscrip- 
tion to Out WbsT for $2.00, inclusive of postage. The 
price of the book at all dealers is $1.50, or with postage. 
$1.60. The price of a year's subscription to Out West 
being $1.00, 



$2.60 for $2.00 

Beginning with the July issue, 1901, this magazine 
has regularly devoted some twenty pages to 
Irrigation, Cooperation and Colonization, under the 
personal supervision of Mr. Smythe. Those who desire 
to keep in touch with the really big things of current 
progress and interest, or enjoy the great variety of 
articles which will appear in this department from the 
pens of the foremost thinkers and writers of the West, 
should take advantage of this premium oflFer. 

Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. 

Phone Ureen 1274 
I2\y2 South Broadway, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



^PiPVatoma Toilet5?ap 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Your choice at Half-price 

Half-tone and Line-etching Cuts 

We have accumulated over 
2000 cuts of Western subjects 
which have been used but once in the Land of Sunshine or Out West. 
They are practically a* ^oorfaj w^Tv, but will be sold at half-price, viE.,8Mc 
a square inch for half-tones largrer than twelve square inches and $1 for those 
under that size with 40c additional for vig-nettes. Line etching's, 5c a square 
inch for those over ten square inches and 50c for those under that size. 
If you cannot call at our office send $1.50 to cover express charges on 
proof book to be sent to you for inspection and return. The book is not for sale 
and must be returned promptly. If you order cuts to the amount of $5 
the cost of expressage on the proof book will be refunded. 

land of Sunshine Pub. Co. ^ZZl^yT^'i^^. 






Succeeding J^ 

CSL Nevaner Co. 

Printers and 
Binders of 


I^ine of 

S. Broad^vV 


PRINTE:RS JEf ^^^^, 



Phone Main -417 


Help — All kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co., 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


HcAdquartcn for all Touriiti 

to the 

great Lick Otaervatory 

Charming Summer 
and Winter Resort 


This beautiful hotel is sit- 
uated in the wonderful 
Santa Clara Valley, "the 
Garden of California," at 


In a word, the Vendome 
is Modern, Comfortable, 

Is First-class in every res- 
pect, and so are its patrons. 

Write for Ratbs and 
Illustrated SotrvBNiK. 

GEO. P. SNEll, 




I was born the 

he New 5^,, 20-Year Qold Bonds cf the 

Equitable Life 
Assurance Society 

the stronsrest financial institution in the world, 
will provide an income for your family, if you 
should die; or for yourself in old age, if you live. 

Bonds sold on installments allowing you 20 
years to pay for them. 

Fill out the coupon and mail it to 

A. M. JONES, Qen'I Agt. 

A. M. JONES. Gen. Agt . 414 Wilcox BIk.. Los Angeles 

Pli';!--!' s»Mi(l full iejforni.ition about 
tlie new 5'l Gold Bonds to 

Street No. 


day of .. 


Vol. XVI, No. 3 

MARCH, 1902 


Copyiiytuea iaOi oy i ne Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. 



Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Hotel Westminster.... 


American and 

European Plans 



Send for Booklet on 

Los Angeles and environs 


Lo8 Angeles 

Every Modem 
Comfort and Convenience 
that can be found in 
3 any Hotel. 

Unsurpassed Golf Links. 

F. O. JOHNSON, Proprietor 

TOURISTS and others iroine Eastward 
will find that a stop off of a few days 
at Salt Lake City can be most pleasur- 
ab;y sjient. "The Knutsford" is the only 
new fli '-proof hotel, for the t>etter class 
of trade, 'n the city. Every place of in- 
terest is nee ~by this hotel. Do not be 
misled, but ch\ -k your baffiraffe direct to 
"The Knutsford. ' Salt Lake City. 

N.B. — An intereSk'ng- illustrated book- 
let on "Zion," will be mailed to anyone 

G. S. HOLMES, Prop., 

Salt La'-«t do 


The Angelusei^ 

opened Dec 28, 1901, by 

G.S. HOLMES, p«.p. 

On the corner of Fourth 
and Spring Streets, ^ J* 

The " Knutvforrt" HoTrl. S.nlt Lake City. 

Please Mention that You Saw it In OUT WEST. 

Stylish Spring Clotliing 


There is style in every point of every garment ottered 
in our high-class clothing for men and youths. .'. Well 
selected patterns that are refined and pleasing. These 
garments at our "regular" prices are better values than 
are usually ofliered elsewhere at '* special prices." 

Suits or Overcoats, $10 to $25 

/Hullen & Bluett Clothing Co. 

N. W. Cor. First and Spring Streets 







651 S. Broadway, Los Angeles 


TKere are many -wortHy people 
^ not needing more tKan ^ 


to write the amount of their available assets, who would like a home in California, but are deterred on 
account of the mistaken idea that they cannot buy land there or make a start without a fortune already 
in hand. SucV- people should investig'ate the 


in Fresno and Kingrs Counties, California, where you can buy some of the best and most fertile land in the 
State at $35 and $40 per acre. Land on which can be raised not only all the California fruits, but all the 
cereals, such as they know how to raise in the East, including' the three great money-making products, 


If you want to change your location, if you are tired of cold winters, cyclones and blizzards, come to 
L-AGUNA DE TACHE.. If you have $1,000 or even less, and an ambition to work, you can 
succeed. Write to-day for descriptive printed matter. A postal card brings it. 


Mention Out West. EATON, Fresno Covinty. CAL. 






President of Stanford University. 


Chicaaro University. 


The Historian of California. 


Autlior of Tiie Led-Horse Claim," etc. 


Author of Stories of the Foothills." 


Author of The Sister of a Saint," etc. 


Author of A Forest Orchid," etc. 


Author of Thistle Drift," etc. 


The Poet of the South Seas. 


Author of SOUK'S from the Golden Gate," etc. 


Author of The Man With the Hoe." 


The Poet of the Sierras. 


Author of "The Life of Aarassiz," etc. 


. Author of " The Shield of the Flenr de Lis." 



Author of "The Conquest of Arid America,"eic. 

The greatest Western Painter. 

Ex-Prest. American Folk-Lore Society. 

The Historian of Coronado's Marches. 

of the Smithsonian Institntion, Washington. 

Literary Editor S. P. "Chronicle." 

Author of " In This Onr World." 

Author of " The Story of the Mine," etc. 

Author of "Rod and Gnn in California," etc. 

A Director of the California Academy of Sciences 




Authors of " Our Feathered Friends." 


Contents— March, 1902. 

A Ballade of Wild Bees (poem), Eugene M. Rhodes ^^^^^^^K. 243 

^Studies in Floral Portraiture, illustrated, O. V. Lange ^I^l^llr -■*** 

'jtOranges 250 years ago, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 255 

APomo Indian Baskets, illustrated, Carl Purdy 262 

In Western Letters, illustrated, with original portraits, C. F. L, 274 

Dodder (poem), Julia Boynton Green 282 

The Mascot of the Grays (story), Henry Wallace Phillips 283 

The North Wind in California (poem), Herbert Miiller Hopkins 292 

Early Western History — from documents never before published in English — Diary of Father 

Jun(pero Serra from Loreto to San Diego, 1769 y^^ 

The Sequoya League, " To Make Better Indians " 

The Landmarks Club .i. k>4 

In the Lion's Den (by the editor) u\l..»...^.. 305 

That Which is Written (reviews by the editor and C. A. Moody) .312 

The 20th Century West, conducted by Wm. E. Smythe .317 

Looking California in the Face — The Kings River Conquest, illustrated 323 

Wyoming Decisions on Irrigation 229 

California Constructive League 332 

Ideas From The Mail Bag .vU 

San Diego, illustrated, by H. P. Wood .>36 


Copyright 1902. Entered at tiie Los A nireles PostoflSce as second-class m.ittor. (skk publishek's paqk.) 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 




Modern hotel with steam heat and open grates ; surf bathing- all the year ; hot and cold salt 
water baths ; fine g-olf links ; tennis ; boating- and fishing- ; delig-htful drives. 




An ideal home by the sea ; 200 rooms heated with open grates ; hot and cold water in every room ; 
private baths ; splendid bowling alleys. Redondo Beach boasts of having- the best fishing- on the 
coast ; the largest carnation gardens in the world, and tennis courts and golf links second to none. 

Both these 
Hotels are 
(18 miles) 

Los Angeles 
and possess 
the finest 
Climate in 
the World. 

For Rates and 
further Infor- 
mation address 

A. D. Wright 





In the foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains near Redlands. 
For information address The Loma Linda Association, Loma Linda, California. 

Los Angeles Office : 1319 South Grand Ave. 
Tel. IfOma Linda, or West 10, Los Angeles. 

Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. & Co., Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Barker's''' is Synonymous with "Good Furniture''' — Since iSSo 


is the standard of California, and the standard 
by which all furniture is judged. 

We do not stop with simply selling furniture, 
carpets and draperies, but broaden our use- 
fulness to assuming all responsibility in 


We have every facility and every wanted 
thing to make good our assertion. Five 
floors and basement filled with the 
Sw' newest and best. 


A20-424 S. SPRINQ ST. 

Banner School iind (liurcli Furnlsliin^ (o. 


,.xLL KINDS School, Church and Office Fur- 
''O-X nishingfs. Pacific Coast Agents for Olm- 
stead's Artificial Stone Slate Black Board, 
Burlington Venetian Blinds. School 
Boards' Attention is called to the above board — 
can be put up without seam or joint. Guaranteed 
satisfaction. Best board on the market. If you 
are building a Church, School House, or furnishing 
an Office or Lodge Room, it will be of interest to 
you to get our prices. 



Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Revolving Book-cases 

Compact, convenient, to stand next your desk or in a 
corner. The famous "Banner" Revolving- Book-case is so 
well built and so well balanced, a touch of your finger 
turns it. A revolving- Book-case puts your whole library 
within reach of your hand. The}" come in fourteen 
different sizes — varying in height and width. Some have 
an adjustable shelf for dictionary, all made to help a 
busy man quickly find the book he wants. 

225-227-229 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Opposite City Hall 



THIS annotfticement is addressed 
especially to those readers who 
are familiar with the best fur- 
niture assortments in eastern cities. 
We assure you that there is just such 
a display on our floors and would like 
you to come in and test our state- 

Three floors arc gfiven over entirely 
to the furniture display, the fourth 
floor being devoted to carpets, rugfs 
and draperies. 

Niles Pease furniture Co. 

439-44T-443 S Spring St., Los Angeles 

Send for our new booklet of ideas — //'* free 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

THe PNEUlMflTlc iviauress 



Always retains its shape, has no furrows, holes or humps, never has to be turned or beaten, requires 
no sprinirs, furnishes no hidinu places for vermin, can be cleaned with a six>nife, and can be taken 
with you to your summer house or camp. It costs no more than any other g-ood mattress, and does double 
duty— in house and camp; for you can deflate it and pack it in your trunk or roll it in a shawl strap. 
Weifirht of two-part mattress, 24 pounds. 

PRICE— Full size, one piece, 6 feet 3 inches by 4 feet 6 inches - - $32.00 
" — In two parts, divided in center, lentrtliwise - - - - 35 00 
" — Ji size, one piece, 6 feet 3 inches by 3 feet 6 inches - - - 25.50 
" — % size, one piece, 6 feet 3 inches by 3 feet .... 22.(X) 


the Pneumatic Mattri'ss is invaluable. After use in cases of contasrious 
disease, use a kettle full of hot water and clean the mattress with a 
sponife or hose. Can be washed with boilinir water or cleansed with dis- 
infectants. No bed sores will ever be caused by it. 


FAD THF RARV It is hygrienlc, harburinir no g-erras. It rests all 
1 vn I IIL UMUl parts evenly, conforminsr to the shape of the 
tender little body with every movement. It never grows musty, and can 
be w:ishi-d and dried in a few minutes. It is not dusty, and you can take 
it with you wherever you take tlie baby. 

PRICE CRIB MATTRESS (4 feet by 2J4 feet), 911.00 

Weight, deflated, 7 pounds. 


FAD THF PAMP Wherever night overtakes you, you have only to throw it on the ground or 
I vw I 111. v>A^lTll Hoor, inflate it, and in five minutes you have a dry bed as soft as down (or hard 

if you choose). 

No. 1, Rbckbation, b feet 3 inches by 2 feet 1 inch, $18.00 
No. 2, " 6 feet 2 inches by 2 feet 3 inches, 21.00 

Weight of No. 1, deflated, 10 iHiunds. 

With pillow, $».00 

I carried oae of your air beds through Alaska with me, and it trave excellent satisfaction 
I would advise everyone to obtain one of them if they antici|>ate a sea or land voyage. 

P. H. HUKSTIS. Boston. 

If I could not get another, I would not swap It for a farm. Kverv sj»<>rtsman oui;ln i. 
have one. JOHN A. DELANOY. Nkw ^ 

If I had had one when I first went West, 1 would have saved years of rhouin;!: 

Since returning from the mountains, we have used the pneumatic mattress in preleinu . 
to our hair mattress, and do not hesitate to recommend it to all our friends. 

O. P. BI(;EL0W, ok OtiDEN State Bank. Oodkn, Utah. 

"Nothing SO rare as resting on air." 
Manufactured by THE PNEUMATIC MATTRESS AND CUSI1I0N CO.. 2 and 3 South St.. N. Y. City 

*(»-' 'II-H^S rKATKI) C.VTAI.OiifK IKI 1 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

^ The name "SILVERWOOD" on an - 
^ an article means the same as the - 
^ "STERLINU" mark on silver. 



Our reputation and 
full guarantee stand 
back of every hat 
we sell. If you can- 
not get a SILVER- 
WOOD HAT In your 
city send us your 
lieight and size of 
hat worn ; state 
color and If a stiff 
or soft hat is want- 
ed, and we'll send 
youthe latest shape 
express prepaid 

$3.00 i 

^•- You certainly gret as much style, as much -"^ 

^r- wear, as much satisfaction, out of a Silyerwood -^ 

^~ Hat at three dollars — then why pay five? ~^ 


^ 22 J S. Spring St. LOS ANGELES, CAL. z^ 

AT $3.50 

Most stores only show one or two 
styles in shoes at $3.50. Some stores 
get every $3.50 shoe they sell from one 
factory. Not so with us — we have 
more than a dozen styles and kinds that 
all sell at the one price of $3.50. We 
go to the different factories and get the 
best shoe at that price the factory turns 
out. We can fill mail orders with the 
best $3.50 shoes in the market for dress 
wear, for street wear — for any purpose. 
Mail orders given our personal atten- 

C. M. Staub Shoe Co. 


The interior 
fittings determine the 
coziness of the home. 
Rich carpets, handsome rugs, 
inviting draperies, portieres 
and curtains. Come in and 
take advantage of our ex- 
perience in fitting up 

...ftltractlve Homes 



like Cut 




24-inch - - $5. BO 

These suit cases are guaranteed 
to be genuine cowhide. OLIVE, 
ors. Made on a steel frame ; 
brass trimmings. 
We sell the genuine at the same 
price as others sell imitations. 
Ask for Whitney's Genuine Cow- 
hide Case of your dealers, or 
send for Illustrated Catalogue 
of trunks and bags 


343-345 S. SPRING ST. loS ANOELCS, CAL- 

Help— All Kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co., 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


We are authorizttd fiscal ai^ents 
for three of the larirest and best 
mininir corporations in Washinff- 
ARE GOOD MINES ton, to-wit : 



Eleven copper-jfold claimn, 2,00() acres cokini; coal lands, both produciiiK': 175 men employed, bunkers 
completed, railway built, Montezuma postoffice established; only blacksmithinir coal on the Pacific 
Coast; his'h-K'radecokinir coal, best by Government test; two quarterly dividends paid, and will come 
resrularly hereafter; an Al investment stock. A small block left at 32 cents a sliare cash, or 37 cents 
on installments. 




This bifir company Is just orgranized for the operatintr of mines, smelters, rolling mills, lumlierinir and 
shipplndf business. It owns extensive iron mines on Texada Island, B. C; Barclay Sound, B C , and 
in Skatrit County, Washinsrton; also owns 7,000 acres rich cokintr coal lands in Washinjrton. Its 
''Marble Bay" mineon Texada Island is now producing copper-trold ore to the amount of $12,000 net 
.monthly, and output will be larsrely increased by new manatrement. This company will control steel 
business of the Northwest, to which country it will be what the trreat steel concerns are to the East. 
Manag'ement the best. It will sell a little stock for development purposes, and we are authorized to 
offer a limited issue at 12^ cents cash, or IS cents on installments. We predict these share.s will pay 
dividends by January next. 

Copper King Mining Syndicate 


The Copper King- Mining- Syndicate owns and controls 65 adjacent claims in the Carbon River district. 
The considerable development work done indicates the presence of veins of high values. Reports arc 
most satisfactory. To obtain funds for machinery and extensive development, shares are offered for 
a short time at 5 cents cash, or 6 cents on installments. These shares are honest speculation, and will 
soon be worth several times the price asked. 

S'.<K;'™;2;:.s^i"s:,i,;js THE AMERICAN guaranty and trust CO. 







SUBSCRIBED CAPITAL -.---". - $12,000,000 

PAID-IN CAPITAL - ---- 2,150,000 

PROFIT AND RESERVE FUND - - - - - 275,000 

MONTHLY INCOME, OVER -.--... 100,000 


To help its members to build domes, also to make loans on improved property, the 
members giving first liens on their real estate as security. To help its stock- 
holders to earn from 8 to (2 per cent, per annum on their stock, and to allow them 
to open deposit accounts bearing interest at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum, ordi- 
nary, and 6 per cent, per annum, term. 

HOME OFFICE: 301 California St , San Francisco, California 

WM. CORBIN, Secretary and General Manager 

Studies in Flokai- Poktraiti'kk. 
The Kosk 

Pholo hy l.O. I.„IIA.. 


TKe Land of SiansKine. 



WM^&m iT^fe?? m 


Vol. XVI, No. 3. 

MARCH, 1902. 

A ballade: or wild bees. 


AR, in a dim and lonely land, 

Where desert breezes swoon and die, 
She dwells, and waves of drifting- sand 
In leag-ue-long- silence 'round her lie ; 
She hears the wild bees humming- by 
In drowsy minor melodies ; 
She calls them friends — yet scarce knows why — 
My Lady of the Honey Bees ! 

She loves at eventide to stand 

And watch the sunset flame and die. 
Shading her clear eyes with her hand 

She marks her cheerful comrades fly 

Athwart the golden glory nigh ; 
She hears the night winds in the trees ; 

She jo3^s in God's fair earth and sky, 
My Lady of the Honey Bees ! 

Dear, have you learned to understand 

The wild bees' lore and mystery ? 
The love that makes all labor grand, 

The grateful heart, the patient eye, 

Copyright, 1902, by Land of Sunshine Publishing Company 


That from a barren land and dry 
Can gather sweets and song — like these 

Your wise wee kin, whose courage high 
Is 3' ours— my Queen of Honey Bees ! 


Brave heart 1 Too strong for moan or sigh, 
You shame us in our slothful ease ; 

Sing on ! The grudging fates defy, 
And learn life's lesson — from the bees ! 

Tularosa, N. Mex. 


By V. O. LANGE. 

["California needed you, indeed," wrote a virile writer of the 
new president of the State University at Berkeley ; " but when 
you have been with us for awhile you will discover also that you 
needed California." 

It can be said of the new movement in photography, by which 
it has really entered the domain of art as distinguished from a 
mere mechanical craft, that no State in the union was in position 
to profit so greatly by such transition ; and that on the other 
hand, the art could not find elsewhere such opportunities. Alike 
in summer and the so-called '' winter," the mountains, seashore 
and Valleys fling perpetual challenge to the artist of any grade; 
and to the true artist of the camera few regions of the globe, if 
any, hold out corresponding inducements. The climatic zones 
range from the mists of Scotland on the north coast of Mendo- 
cino county to the perfect Mediterranean translucency of the 
interior valley basins. That in the southern half of the State 
one can actually travel (by electricity) from perpetual rosebuds 
and orange orchards to snow-fields in an hour and a half, with 
the same sunshine prevailing at the different elevations, particu- 
larly invites to out-of-doors, and to "photo as you go." All 
this is fully reflected in the photographic progress of the State. 
The Second Photographic Salon, held in San Francisco in Janu- 
ary, was a really notable one, well deserving the recognition 
implied by its being housed in the Hopkins Art Institute. 

It should surprise no one that art portraiture and landscape 
photography have reached a very high standard on this coast. 
But it may be a more novel thought that there is an adept who is 
to the flora of this State almost as Sargent is to human features, 
in his intuition of the true pose and the typical expression of 
petal and leaf. But so much seems to be fair to say of the modest 
artist whose other photographic work has been known to the 
elect for its extraordinary quality. 

The examples of his floral portraiture here given need no 
eulogy. Unless the writer is mistaken, they are at high-water 

Studies in Floral Portraiture. 
The "Blue-Gum" Blossom. 


mark, uniting true art with mechanics, and science with both. 
Below follows Mr. Lange's statement of his own methods in ob- 
taining these remarkable results. O. C. Ellison.] 

URING some recent experiments in photograph- 
ing seaweeds in the Botanical Department of 
the University of California, I was impressed 
with their natural beauty and grace of outline. 
It occurred to me to try and obtain studies in 
land flowers having extreme simplicity as one 
of the dominant motives. In the course of my 
investigations it soon became apparent that beauty of outline 
and shape in flowers were not the only artistic values to be 
sought after, and that much might be added by the proper 
handling of the source of illumination, so as to give the best 
possible relief in chiaroscuro, thus assisting in the rendition of 
texture, which constitutes much of the individuality and peculiar 
charm of flowers. It will be mj' endeavor to try to prove the 
correctness of the above statements by analyzing and explaining 
the accompanying reproductions of flower studies. The first 
illustration is*a specimen of the single sunflower, which was the 
onl}' one, out of a lot of thirty or more, that had enough artistic 
grace of outline to warrant its being used. One of the first 
requisites in obtaining pleasing effects lies in selection of shape, 
size and color. The shape should have variety, mingled with a 
certain amount of S3'mmetry and dignity. To show this to the 
best a,dvantage, it is necessary to pose the subject at the proper 
angle to the lens, so as to show it somewhat in perspective, 
although not too much, as the petals are liable to be fore- 

The size of the flower, if for an 8x10 plate, should be so 
selected as to need neither much reduction nor enlargement ; for 
then the texture values of the original can be obtained in addi- 
tion to a more natural apj^earance. 

The night-blooming cereus I found a somewhat difficult subject 
to handle, as it was over ten inches in diameter, and had to be 
reduced to fit the plate. The color was a pale green, so that an 
isochromatic plate was not needed. Its cup was fully four and a 
half inches deep; and to avoid getting the interior too dark, it 
had to be turned slightly to a soft, broad light, while a canary- 
colored reflector was found necessary to modify the intensity of 
the deeper shadows. The background used was a plain card- 
board of a light olive tint. By a careful handling of the cur- 
tains a fine gradation from a delicate gray to a pure black was 
secured in the background, thus giving a rich quality, setting^ 
off in bold relief this truly regal flower. 

Studies in Floral Portraiture. 
A California Sunflower. 


The wild "California poppy," although very difficult to han- 
dle, gives most gratifying results on account of its wild, un- 
affected gracefulness, the flowers having such a variety of 
positions upon the stems, together with the slender drooping 
foliage. Most of the wild flowers suggest the idea of freedom 
and absence of all restraint. They must, therefore, be handled 
in a spirit of tolerance to their native characteristics. This can 
be done only by having them free and airy, not bunched up like 
cultivated ones, with stems all emanating from one common 
center in an elaborate vase, thus proving to us from the start 
that they are sorry captives. 

As the wild flower in its native heath usually stands somewhat 
apart, it is necessary, if we wish to preserve its nature, to handle 
the background with much delicacy so as to environ the plants 
with the feeling that they are nodding and bending in a moving 

To get this desirable result, no two square inches of back- 
ground should be of the same tone value, yet each value per- 
forming its function in its proper place. This depends upon 
lighting the ground independently of the flower, and not having 
it too dark or too light, too plain or too spotted, but a happy 
medium between the seemingly visible and invisible. 

The Eucalyptus Globulus, sometimes called the lAustralian 
"Blue Gum," makes a very striking appearance when in bloom. 
The spray that has been photographed hardly does the subject 
justice, because a great deal of its charm lies in the natural color 
of its leaves, and the very fine filaments that the buds are com- 
posed of are very difficult to render photographically. Thus, 
much of the pictorial value in this study lies in the shape of the 
stem and its relation to the flower and its leaves. In the back- 
ground in this case, it will be noticed that the lower part is of a 
light gray, and the upper part very much darker. By handling 
the ground in this way a great deal of relief and atmospheric 
effect seems to environ the spray. 

The tree of the Japanese Magnolia when in bloom has shed 
all its leaves, which come out again after the budding season. 
Therefore in the acccompanying picture these are wanting. On 
account of the position of the magnolia buds on the stem, the 
best way to photograph them is to suspend them from above and 
let them hang in front of the lens. As there is a great deal of 
variety of light-and-shade effect in the buds, a plain black back- 
ground seemed to be the best to show off and enhance the values 
of different light gradations that the petals rendered. It will 
be noticed that the bud upon which the light is concentrated 
most is also the sharpest, while the others, in the more subdued 



V. O. Lange. 

lig-ht, are less sharply focused, giving-, therefore, variety to the 

Of all the flowers, I have found the rose to give the most un- 
satisfactory results — especially the highly cultivated ones, as 
they usually seem to be so painfully prim and proper that they 
lack most of the simple grace and delightful abandonment that 
the wild rose expresses. However, by careful selection, I ob- 
tained a fairly good spray of the Marie Van Houtte ; the arrange- 
ment of the petals in this rose adapting itself very readily to . 

Stitdies in Flokal Portraiturr. 
WHITF Gkranu'm. 

Studies in Floral Portraiturk- 
The California "Wild Poppy.'" 

Studies in Flokal Poktkaitukk. 


Studies in Floral Portraiture. 
The Magnolia. 

254 OUT W EST 

catch high lights, preserve middle tints, and render the deeper 
shadows to good advantage. Consequently, it makes a study 
that is both pleasing and interesting. It will be noticed that 
there is a great variety of tone values in this background. The 
lower left-hand corner is very light, intended to make the darker 
petals stand out from the background. The upper right-hand 
corner is very dark, gradually becoming lighter toward the cen- 
ter. In front of the darker portions of the background the white 
petals stand out in bold relief. The lightening of the back- 
ground relatively to the flowers was done intentionally, because 
by this means the best possible effect of plastic relief was obtain- 
able. In the original print the veins in the petals of the lower 
buds are readily discernible. 

The principal features of the little geranium plant are its 
quaintness of outline and its contrasts in tone values. It may 
be of interest to know that it was taken in its earthen jar. I 
might state here, in passing, that there is a notion that flowers 
should be taken when on the growing plant. On the contrary, 
there are many that adapt themselves better for artistic effects 
two, and even three, days after being cut, as they then become 
more pliable and fall readily into pleasing curves. The light in 
this case was somewhat from above, affording contrast, and no 
reflector was used ; the petals being very white, as much shadow 
as possible was desired. It will also be noticed that the illum- 
inated leaves are against the dark part of the ground, and the 
leaves in shadow against the lighter. This was so arranged for 
the purpose of emphasizing the leaves and bringing them into 
relief so as to keep up the interest, after having studied the play 
of light and shade on the more striking part of the picture, thus 
giving a feeling of unity of effect. Here we see that the leaves 
are much made of, and are quite sharp. 

These jottings on a few flower studies are made with the de- 
sire to awaken an interest in this fascinating branch of the art, 
and to show in humble beginnings the possibilities in the un- 
trodden paths that are before those who earnestly seek to get 
rid of some of the seeming lijnitations, and thus assist in placing^ 
photography upon a higher plane of expression, so that it may 
be accorded the recognition it deserves, as among the sisterhood 
of art, and not a mere mechanical craft. 

Berkeley, Cal. 


JOURTHER condensed translations fromFerrarius's erudite- 
X^ work (printed in 1646) on the orange and other citrus 
fruits, follow : 

"In this place it is proper to set forth the notes of the 
Wild orange. The thorns of this tree are more Incessant, 
very Long and Bristling ; the Globe of the fruit more 
contracted ; the Color of the Pulp more pale ; its Flavor 
extremely sour; its Juice scantier and quick to dry out ; 
its spikes contumacious and facing. But if after the 
ninth or tenth month the fruits are gathered, out of 
thousands, 200 are found dried out; with a few buddings, 
the delaying of the tree detains the juice much longer. 
Wherefore the oranges with sweet Juice — whereof the milder 
flavor of the sweetness is not native to the seed but adventitious 
to the necessary budding — hang juicy very long. Nor do they 
fear the Winter ; inasmuch as the}^ are by habit warmer.'* 

As to planting, propagation^ tra)isplanting and setting out 
[Chap. XX]. " From the cognate trees of the citron and lemon 
the orange varies extremely, inasmuch as it will not root from 
a branch or truncheon — except one [variety] full of citrus oil 
and most retentive of the temperament of the citron. Its hardier 
and more compact structure does not throw forth many roots. It 
befalls sometimes that a buried branch somewhere takes Root : 
but it is unfitting that the provident cultivator trust rare and 
fortuitous cases. Moreover the formulas already prescribed for 
Budding oranges outlast the ages. For the young planted tree 
is moved from the nursery, is fixed in an orchard, movable in 
earthern Pots, dressed along Walls, or tutelary in an enclosure ; 
and branches clinging to the tree — either dug up from the 
ground or set in vessels, with the earth packed around, putting 
out new roots— are brought up unto trees. Those which are of 
tall stature are properly given Libert}^ in spacious soil, or are 
delivered up to clothe Walls. But those of short growth either 
are had in pots or Disposed in humble Hedges to gardens, albeit 
the better oranges, especially those that are of rarer or tenderer 
sort, are better committed to Vases. Thenceforth the}^ are en- 
joyed by names^which name they take from the sweet Skin of 
the fruit, from the citron-like Roughness, from a star-like 
Jointure of the stem, from a distorted Shape, from Curly leaves, 
or from their supposed native land, Sina.* The fruit is distin- 

* This is not in the Latin dictionaries. Perhaps for Sena, a town on the coast of Umbria.. 
Begun in February number. 


.'\-ndcsKoii^'. ^^^rtis Mediccorii 

Ancient Statue ov Uekciiles in tiik (". vkdi-.n.s 


/■;..;« /./;j; ;;,... ;, . 



The "Distorted" Orange. 
(About half life-size.) 

From Ferrarius, 1646. 

guished, also, by the three-fold flavor of the Pulp, as 'sweet,' 
'sour,' and 'middling-,' and more rarely by the Skin as 
* Sweet-skin,' 'striped-skin,' and 'curly-leaved.'" 

As to the " manuring-, ditching, irrigation, and pruning" of 
the orange, the author remarks that "this most fragrant of trees 
delights in fetid food," and should be well manured at least 
every other year — though it responds more g-ratefully to annual 
fertilizingf. It requires ditching- between rows every other year. 
The young- trees need frequent watering; the mature ones not so 
often. The irrigation of the mature trees varies with the 

258 O UT WEST 

localit}'. " The Ligurians minister Water to it ever)' 40th da)" 
throughout the heat of summer ; the Neapolitans either every 
day, or at most every other day, from the beginning: of June till 
the end of September. But the people of Regium* maintain 
that almost no time is Seasonable or proper for irrigating the 
orange or other Apples of the Medes. For in April or May, 
when they begin to Blossom, irrigation causes the flowers to 
fall off. Many others do not irrigate, unless the dryness of the 
summer compels. For if in the summer the orange thirsts, it 
aborts, nor does the flower come to fruit. But if with the first 
rains of autumn it springs anew, growing heavy in unfit 
months — as November and December — then it falls short with 
second-crop or Inferior fruit — particularly in being wrinkled, of 
insipid flesh, and with little Pulp or juice. Antonius Venutus 
Netissus, sound and diligent, a cultivator of the Sicilian fruit, 
in a small book brought forth a hundred years ago, thus wrote 
of the present matter : ' The orange, easily foremost of the 
Median trees, being naturally dry and thirsty, exhausts and 
burns up the fertility of the earth more vehemently than any 
other tree whatever. Therefore, thou shalt not permit the place 
around it to become Grassy, but shalt largely irrigate and fre- 
quently weed around it. . . . Take this advice, salubrious 
and known to Few — during the summer, irrigate oranges by 

" Though Pruning is more rarely done on the orange-tree [than 
on others], do it every other year, or even third ; for this makes 
it fruit more profusely." 

A chapter is given on "Medicine and Safeguarding " of the 
orange tree. Against excessive cold and heat the practice of 
housing the trees — learned in bitterness by Florida of late 
years — was already familiar in 1646 ; and there are several full- 
page engravings which show not only the care of oranges in 
massive buildings, but even extensive sheds or "lath-houses,'* 
with elevations and ground-plans. Among these are the elab- 
orate gardens of the Duke of Parma. 

A chapter on " Maturity " sets the time of ripening for Janu- 
uary — about the average for California. 

Chapter XXIV, Book 4, deals with the uses of the tree. An 
essential oil was distilled from the leaves and flowers, which 
was sovereign for cuts or bruises. A water distilled from the 
flowers was of a "joyous odor," and a remedy for a sluggish 
stomach. Another orange-water was remedial for "pestilent 
fevers accompanied by eruptions." A distilled oil from the 
flowers had not only "a heavenly odor," a "pre-eminent utility 

* Reffffio, in Southern Calabria. 

The Metamorphosis of Leonilla. 

From Fcrrarins, ib4b. 



The "Callous-Skinnbd" OKANtiE. From Ftrrarimt, Hub. 

(About half life-size.) 

and deligfht," but was a wonderful aperient. A fermentation 
of the flowers was a great remedy for heart-disease. Orange / 
brandy was already made ; also a Julep preserve ; candied 



Sweet-kind Orange. Sinas Orange ( Seedless.) 
(About half life-siEC.) 

From FerrariuSy ib4b. 

orange-flowers ; orange troches ; orange balsam and perfumes ; 
orange-butter of five sorts; " angel-water " of four kinds, all 
good for the heart and ventricles. Recipes are given for the 
making and use of all these. 



Chapter XXV of Book 4 deals with the uses of the fruit* 
From the rind a snuff was made which "provokes sneez- 
ing and cleans the head." The crushed pulp, seed and 
rind were roasted in ashes, and used as ointment about the 
navels of children suffering from worms. A marmalade, made 
much as we make it now, was esteemed as an appetizer for 
elderl}' people. The juice of unripe oranges was used as a sauce 
in Crete, and great quantities of it were exported to Turkej'. 
The rind was dried for "a new and most elegant use, to be 
transformed into little vessels, convenient for carrying about, 
for taking through the nostrils (as is the recent custom), dried 
and ground fine into powder, the American henbane which the 
aborigines call ' Petun ' and we call tobacco." 

The matter of lemons, limes, and so forth, must be reserved 
for another chapter. 

[to be continued.] 




E may now proceed to a consideration of some 
of the designs most commonly used among the 
Pomos. Perhaps the commonest is simply a 

This has been interpreted erroneously as a 
"hill" or a "red hill." Throughout Lake 
county and among the Sanel and Yokaia 

Pomos this is the butterfly, the idea being of a butterfly with 

folded wings. Some very beautiful designs are worked out with 

this alone. 

The Calpella and Ballo-kai Pomos call it da-tor-ka-ta or the 

" o/(f/ design," indi- 
cating that they have 

borrowed it. In one 

small tribe it is "^/k'' 

arrow head.'*'' In some 

way it enters into 

three-fourths of all 

Pomo baskets, and 

the name butterflj^ is 

by far most common- 
ly used. The design 

called "lightning 

pattern" by collect- 

.\ L;in-.sK I iSowL. 

I /'/«/*/«] 








1 ^f^^mmmmmmw^^^^^ ,««**-^ 



^^^ll^lJ^'^^f ^'*^»*^'<^«l»»f »»#*Hiiiw»w^ *Jl^ 



Big Arrowhead Design. 

[P/ate /q] 

ors is never known by that name among the Pomos. In 
every tribe it is tsi-ot-sio, or "zig-zag-." In its various modi- 
fications it is used very frequently by them. To squares or 
rhomboids, however arranged, they give the name bu-she-mi-a, 
or "deer-neck," the idea being the angle between the deer's 
head and shoulders and neck; rather a fanciful idea, but one 
which seems to have taken deep root, for every tribe has it. The 
mark like a quarter note in music is the Pomo's idea of a quail 
plume. In Ballo-kai Pomo this is chi-kakh. It is most taste- 
fully used and in some of its adaptations is the prettiest of all. 
Alternate checks of white and color in a circular design is 



universally called 
bai-ya-kau, or "holes 
in a fish-trap." The 
idea is from the alter- 
nate light and dark 
in a fish trap basket 
of unpeeled willow. 
Acute triangles, 
however arranged, 
are arrow-points, or 
ka-cha; plate 26, 
shows how beauti- 
fully they can be 
used. The same de- 
sign is used halved, 
and with a very broad 
base is ka-chai-ma- 
to, or ' ' big arrow- 
head" (plate 19). 

Plate 27 is a de- 
sign known through- 
out Lake county as ka-wil-in (Lower Lake) or ka-na-di-wa 
(Upper Lake) the turtle design. Very similar is that known 
about Clear Lake as ka-na-di-wa-koi, or turtle neck. 

Butterfly Pattern Repeated. 

[PiaU no] 

'BU-8HB-MI\" I>i .;..N, IN Si IKALS. [Plat* tA 




[P/aif 22\ 

An odd idea is embodied in a design known as ka-tuni-tah 
i-bah, or "lizard tail," executed thus [ "^3, the idea beingf of a 
lizard's tail cut off and wrig-g-lingf. 

A common, and one of the finest, Pomo desig-ns in plate 17*, is 
known widely as bu-di-le ; bu is the Indian word for the bulbous 
plant known as Brodiaea, used as food by the Pomos, and di-le 
is forehead. Indians have frequently given me the translation 
"potato head," but I have never got any clue to the connection 
between the name and the design. 

Plate 26 is a ver)^ common design among the Pomos, and, when 
well executed, one of the most beautiful. Among basket col- 
lectors it has long been interpreted as a " hill with pine trees." 

Inquiry of Indians on numerous occasions has elucidated but 

--' *Patre 157, February number. 




'■':"■■' u'smRm 


The So-calleu "Pono-lily" Design. 

Plate 23\ 

one answer, ka-cha, arrow points. The Ponios have no other 
name for it. The Pomos have no portra)'al of trees, hills, 
mountains, rivers or sloujj:hs. I question if they ever attempt 
flowers or leaves. 

A Variation of thk Qoail-toft Pattern. 

\PltU* i4\ 



A ver)" prett}' desig-n, often found on coarse bowls, is a repre- 
sentation of a spotted snake, plate 11*. The Yokaias and Sanels 
call it sa-kal-le or garter snake ; the Calpella and Ballo-kai 
Pomos have the very odd name of ho-do-du-du, also the name 
of a spotted snake. 

Deer teeth, snake, water scorpion, grasshoppers' shoulders 
and ant, and many other designs, I have met, but I have not 
good material for illustration at hand. The figures of men and 

Arrow-point Designs on a "Tsai.' 

[P/ai^ 2j] 

animals are rather rarely used. The}' have been made for a 
very long time, but are more frequently made of late 5'^ears. 


The Indian has a name for each weave (which also may be 
applied to the form most commonl)- made in that weave) and 
other names according to the use. 

The fiat baskets which we generally call placques are used by 
the Indians as we use plates and platters, also as winnowing 
baskets, and as receptacles for cooked food, dried fish, or other 
household goods. I have heard that the Pomos sometimes use 
flat baskets in a gambling game, but have never seen one so 

*Pa(re 151, February number. 



used. The generic name for all placquesof whatever weave, is 
dala, the Indian equivalent of our word "plate." They speak 
of a dala as a bam-tush dala, a ti dala, a tsai dala, etc., accord- 
ing to the weave. 

The bowl-shaped baskets found an infinite variety of uses with 
the Porno. They were his water vessels, and the smaller ones 
his drinking cups. After heating rocks and then brushing away 
the coals he could place on them large baskets filled with meats 
or mush and thoroughly boil the food, or he would heat rocks and 
throw into the baskets of food, and so cook it. The larger 
bowls were used for receptacles for clothing, acorns, etc., as 

Ka-cua— "AkKOW-I'uI.S i- 

[/>/•/« iO] 



"Turtle" Design Repeated. 

[P/ate 2t\ 

were the open wicker-work sha-kans. The Pomo name for a 
bowl-shaped basket used for food was chi-maa, literally " mush- 
basket." The name of the weave migfht be prefixed, but as 
often bam-tush was used alone as the name of a tight bowl. 

One of the most interesting of all baskets was the mu-chi, a 
basket made like a dala but with a strong- rim of willow, and 
with a circular hole in the bottom. This basket was placed 
over a stone and used as the mortars of the Southern tribes are. 
The Indian woman sat flat on the ground and held the mu-chi 
firmly in place by putting a leg over each side while she wielded 
a heavy stone pestle with both hands. 

The mu-chi was usually in the bam-tush weave, with several 
ti courses to give it added strength. In its construction it was 
woven in a perfect cone, and when completed the bottom was 




..... "^^li 


^^^^^^^E^ -' :-\ 











^^^^KiXll _i.i:^ 






An Elegant Bam-Tush. 

iPlate 28\ 




' Ll iN'.-l'dlNT.' 

[P/alc ^] 

cut out and strong fiber woven in to prevent the loose ends from 
wearing-. The meal when ground in a mu-chi was screened in 
a sieve called pas6. This was a basket made in the ti weave, 
only the ribs and ti courses were far enough apart to leave a 
fine mesh. The pas6 answered its purpose admirably. 





Variation of Arrow-point Pattern. 


The conical burden baskets were called hu-gi and the net 
which supported them was called ka-bu. Originally the head 
net was made of native flax, but at the present time hop twine 


IJ'/aie 32\ 

A Ghuci' ok Pomo Uaskkts ok Bam-ti'sm Wkavk. 




is almost universall}^ used for it. The ka-bu is sometimes orna- 
mented profusely with kaia and beautifully woven. 

Three-stick baskets of whatever form are called shi-bu or chi- 
bu according- to the dialect, and one-stick baskets tsai. These 
names are used regardless of whether the baskets are round or 
oblong in shape. The commoner baskets of these weaves were 
used as mush bowls or receptacles, but finely woven and orna- 
mented baskets were the treasures of the family, carefully pre- 
served, presented to guests (who were always expected to re- 

A Batu and Two Baskets in "Chit-sin" Weave. 

[Plate 33] 

ciprocate), or at weddings, and placed with the deceased on the 
funeral pyre. At the last they all found their end in the latter 

A curious use of basketry was in the ba-tu or seed beater, a 
long-handled basket used to beat seed from plants into burden 
baskets. The ba-tu was wielded with one hand while the other 
held the burden basket in a proper position to catch the seed. 
The ba-tu was woven like a bam-tush but of willow sticks. It 
was reinforced by willow sticks passing across the middle to 
the rim on each side and tied down with fibers. 

As with nearly all Western Indians, the Pomo infant was 
wrapped in swaddling clothes and tightly laced in a pappoose 
basket. The pappoose basket of the Pomo is a neat piece of 
weaving, but was never so ornate as those of the Klamaths and 
many other tribes. 

Ukiah. Cal. 



NEW book b}' John Muir is not only a 
Hterarj' event — far more sig^nificant, to 
such as can discriminate, than all the 
Popular Novels of any year, since it has more 
literature in it, and better employed — it is also 
a Reminder to such as forget the Attraction of 
(Gravitation. If there is any name in letters 
that may serve the Westerner for a text, it is 
his ; for he is the ver)' apodixis of what the 
West can do for a man. Another Thoreau in 
the East, he has become out here, between 
bigger horizons, as much more as his Muir 
Glacier overtops a Walden snowdrift. There 
have been, and there are, exquisite writers of 
Nature in the East ; but when one compares 
Ihc Mountains of California^ or the new Out 
National Parks, with the Burroughses, Van 
Dykes and all that delightful school, it is enough to make one 
wish for a despotic law which might drive them also forth into 
the wilderness. For these are men who would Learn if they 
had a Chance — if they might come up at the knee of Nature as 
she is, Titan and All-Mother, not a fine-groomed Gibson Girl. 

A man is known by the company he keeps — and not known, 
only, but made. By the company he has kept these twenty -odd 
years, Muir has become one of the most wonderful personalities 
alive — the companionship with giant glaciers and splintered 
Alps, with trees to which the largest in the East are as child's 
switches, and such outlooks as no man ever saw, for Room and 
Wonder, anywhere east of the Missouri^ — nor ever shall sec. It 
ought not to be a marvel — for God made us all competent till we 
threw the heritage away — but it sounds fairly uncanny to the 
average brave, thoughtful, serious citizen that this thin, wiry 
Scotchman, shrewd as a squirrel in the woods, a very Jeremiah 
when the mood of speech befalls him, a seer in the truest sense, 
a writer of unspeakable delicacy and charm, and of biblical 
power withal - should sleep alone, unblanketed, on riven glaciers 
and untrodden peaks, should fare into the heart of Alpine 
storms, not of bravado but of serene choice and with that deep 



TiiK Jkremiah of the Siekka. 

Photo, hv ( . F. L., iQui. 

trust and love whicli knows Nature just as maternal in temp- 
est as in sunshine ; should shin, for instance, to the 200-foot 
crest of a Sierran pine to be whipt there with the storm that 
bows a forest whose very branches would make giant trees in 
Maine. How far we have fallen from sanity, is perhaps best 
measured by our astonishment when one makes it a business to 
stay sane. For until he lapsed into the worse company of his 

John Mvik at Home. 



Pauline Bradford Mackie Hopkins. 
(Author of "The Washingrtonians.") 

own making-, man was a familiar of Nature. He got the good 
of her, he drew the strength of her, and he was unafraid. 
Whereas now, so sardined are we and crutched one upon another, 
not only the average man, but the average Master of Men would 
be lost, helpless, hopeless and irretrievable, if pitched apart ten 
leagues into the wilderness where Man was meant to be at least 
as competent as a chipmunk. Think of a squirrel "losing his 
way! " Or a wild goose ! It is only the tame breed that can do 
it. The unspoiled animal always Knows. 

Perhaps the hardest shock for the hermetically-civilized man 


is to discover that this outlandish person who has not only kept 
our natural heritage of the Joy of Life, but added to it what one 
may who can really stand on the shoulders of the 20th century, 
instead of under its heel — is not a brawny, urg-ent, two-fisted, 
stentorian, hell-bent rampageousness, but a modest, unplatformed, 
slow-writing man, more refined than most women, more immov- 
able than most rocks. One cannot say of him that he is braver 
than other men ; for he who has not surrendered his eyes need 
not (/arc. But this wise man does habitually for very joy — and 
gets his pay, as so few of us do — what no mere athlete, no mere 
" hero of a hundred battles " could do for a test week. If I know 
anything about either the wilderness or courage — as I have tried 
to study both — this is no exaggeration whatever. 

If there is anything in the West to be proud of — and I seem 
to detect several things — it is John Muir. And not because he 
is Muir, not because he is set to a certain flyspeck on the map ; 
not even because he is one of the few Old Testament person- 
alities that still perdure — but because he is an Example on the 
blackboard. "Of every man according to his strength; to 
every man according to his need " — the West requires and gives. 
And unto him, for one thing, it has given that he should come 
to write as no man has written before of the Out of Doors. 

While the late Collis P. Huntington would not fall within an}' 
category of Western Letters by virtue of his personal fist, he 
doubtless caused more — and more vigorous — Western literature 
than any other one individual text. This, no doubt, is a merely 
empiric connection ; but there is literary suggestion in the ac- 
companying portrait. We put so much into pictures, and get so 
little back ! Out of every million photographs, if there be one 
portrait — we are favored of fate. 

There are some reasons for this — as for most other things in 
the tolerably reasonable scheme we call creation. One is that 
every man has a thousand faces, most of which are accidental 
or casual, and only a few indexical. The man takes this un- 
catalogued assortment with him to a stranger with power to act. 
He doesn't know which face he is wearing, the person who bids 
him look pleasant doesn't know which one he ought to wear. 
And the result, after a few moments of self consciousness and 
taxidermy, is generally what might be expected. It is the man's 
stuffed skin— eyes, nose, and other dimensions but we look in 
vain for the man. 

We can forgive our friends much — even their i)ictures. But 
when we are confronted with the photograph of some great man 

COLLIS P. Huntington. From a Photo, by Win. Keith. 

^^ mMni*r>j y^-^^ l^c^ «*>^^^^^^>»^ ^a^ ^^^ ^^ 

/^ '^-^^ ^y '*'*^ '^'^ ii;^^^— «/-*^«i»u«^ /^ ^^ ;/^^ ^^^ 

V'*^/' Iffi'^*^-'^,^'^^^ /A^u.^^'a^^^t^^^no ^e_Ao/Je.tZiL^yich''ej^, 




^^^^ y^rnay yft'f.--^^ ^^^j^^r <^<:^a>^f<*'*y'=^'^^'^f-t*^^ 

■ ■ .. ' fxiif^ - 

Facsimilk ok a Pack fkom thb Diary ok Jumipbro Sbkra, 1769. 
KSt* pag* aoj.) 


we know but have never seen, we have very generally to wonder 
how a person who looks like that can have done the things he 
has done. In other words, the so-called "portrait" almost in- 
variably fails to account for the man — particularly with our in- 
tellectual modern desire to have the retoucher steal our hide and 
add us to Mrs. Jarley's Waxworks. 

There have been many pictures of Huntington, but no others 
that seem to explain the man. No one has been more structur- 
ally opposed to his policies, no one more irreconcilably convinced 
that his economics were medieval and mistaken ; but I conceive 
that there can be no doubt that his was the mightiest mind 
that ever laid hold upon commerce in the United States ; not 
the wisest but the weightiest, not the best but the most 
dominant, a personality whose strength it would be hard to 
exaggerate. In any place, in any country, he would have been 
a great man ; in some places (and with the mere accident of a 
different point of view) a much greater one. He had all the 
attributes of a king — far more than most kings. 

But what photograph of a stuffy old gentleman with full 
beard betrays this ? Where do you find in that burnished 
platitude any hint of the power that could carry States in his 
breeches pocket, and set foot in front of the wheels of National 
government and block them— with less jar than another man 
would attempt a village school-board withal ? Of all the pic- 
tures of the man, this is the only one I can read him in. It was 
made, a few months before Mr. Huntington's death, by Wm. 
Keith, who painted a life-size portrait no less extraordinary 
than this photograph. The negative — unfortunately not copy- 
righted—has been coolly appropriated by some one else, and 
prints have circulated without credit to the artist ; a dishonesty 
it seems worth while to mention in the case of so extraordinary 
a portrait. 

C. P. L. 
* * 

There are two kinds of "native Californians." One happened 
to be born here and had sense enough — most of them — to appre- 
ciate their good fortune ; the other happened to be born some- 
where else, but recognized their rightful citizenship on sight 
and promptly claimed it. The author of that really notable 
novel, T/ie Washing-tonians, briefly reviewed in the January 
Out WEvST, is of the latter kind. 

Pauline Bradford Mackie was born in Fairfield, Conn., 
twenty-eight years ago. Her father — an Episcopal clergyman 
— died while she was very j^oung. Most of her early life was 
spent in Toledo, Ohio. Her first writing was done for the 



Toledo Blade, and she counts the newspaper training as a valu- 
able part of her equipment. Indeed, a newspaper may be one of 
the best of schools, as it is apt to be one of the worst of habits. 
She wrote "a great many" short stories, of which "all but two 
or three" failed to suit the editors who saw them. Her first 
novel, Madamoiselle de Bcrny found a publisher — the last of 
nine to whom it was submitted — in 1897. Since then have ap- 
peared Te Lyttle Salem Maide, and A Georgian Actress. In 
1899, she married Herbert Miiller Hopkins. The wedding trip 
took them to California, where Mr. Hopkins became assistant 
in Latin at the State University. An invitation to take charge 
of the same department in Trinity College tempted the young 
couple back to Connecticut last year. But both The Washing- 
tonians and Mr. Hopkins' The Fighting Bishop — now on the press 
— were written in California, and Mrs. Hopkins is particularly 
proud of her membership in the Spinners' Club of San Fran- 

C. A. M. 



EAUTY to spare ! this desert parasite, 

The common dodder, sets the wastes alight ; 
Out, far out, where all other color wanes 
The shrubs are splendid with the tawny skeins. 

Jason, no dragon here, unless it be 

The armored cactus ; and the prize you see, 

Hung low in the wild garden, every crease 

And fold as yellow as the famous fleece 

It may be Clotho wearied of her task ; 
" I'll spin no more, it is too much to ask." 
And flung life's tangled web, a shining mas?, 
Upon these wayside brambles where we pass. 

Or else Titania's robes of cloth of gold 
^Just needs be aired ; so, full as they can hold, 
These desert bushes, stiff and briery 
Present the shimmering glory to the sky. 

Redlanda, Cal. 






;HY, yes!" said Mr. Perkins, "I'll tell you all 
about it, if you've got the time to spare. "I 
was managing the Grays — that was the club 
from the west side of the river, you know — 
and we thought ourselves the prettiest things 
that ever played base ball in Dakota; for awhile. 
And then we had hard luck. Our fancy pitcher 
was an ex-soldier named Fitzeben ; a well-built, pale, handsome 
fellow, with lots of style, and no heart. As long as things were 
coming his way, he could put up a game of baseball that would 
make a man forget his religion ; but if they began to find him 
on the other side, Pitz would go to slops on the run. First-base 
was this man Falk you was speaking about. There was a Hoo- 
doo playing second. 'Hindoo?' Yes, that's it. You've got it. 
He'd come a long ways to our town. Nice, pleasant little man 
he was, too, with a name that would have made him an overcoat 
and a pair of pants, and then something left for the babies — 
'Dammerjoodeljubberjubberchah,' or words to that effect. The 
boys called him ' Jub,' so it didn't matter so much about that." 

Mr. Perkins stopped to crook his elbow, as they say in the 
vernacular, and stood awhile in silence as the tears of ecstacy 
gathered in his eyes. 

" Whoo, Jimmy !" said he, " there ought to go a damper with 
that whisky — it's almost too good with the full draught on. 
Blast your seltzer ! Give me water. I like my whisky and my 
water straight, just as God made 'em. Well, I was telling you 
about our outfit. One of our fellers was crooked as a ram's 
horn — Jim Burke, that played short. Darn his buttons ! He 
couldn't keep his hands off'n other people's property to save his 
neck — and gall I Say, that man was nothing but one big gall 
with a thin wrapper of meat around it. One day old Solomon, 
that had the clothing store, comes to me oozing trouble. 

" 'Misder Berkints,' says he, ' Dere ain't nubuddy vich dakes 
more pleasure in der pall-blaying as I do. If you vant ten tollar 
or dwenty tollar vor der club, vy, dake id ! dake id 1 I gif it mid- 
out some words, but I ain't goink to stand such monkey-doodle 

" 'What's the matter now, Sol ?' 

" 'Vot ees der madder ? I tell you vat ees der madder. Dot 
feller Burke, he goom by der store, unt he walk off mid a case. 
A case 1 Mein Gott ! A whole case of zusbenders, und gollar 
puttons, unt so fort ! I find him in Gurley's blace, puddin' it 


oop vor der drinks. I don't vant to sboil der pall blaying, bud 
dot feller ort to bin in chail.' 

" I went with him, and we hunted brother Burke up. I read 
him the riot act, but he was brassy. 

'* 'Why, he gfive me the case ! ' says he. 

" 'Gif you der case!' yells old Solomon, *I! Vich ees me ? 
Dis shentleman rig-ht here ?' tapping himself on the chest. ' I 
gif you dot case ? Gott ! Mein frendt 1 You talk like a 
sausage 1 

" There was no use of my trying to keep my face straight. 
Talking like a sausage hit me on the funny-bone, and I had to 

" But as soon as I could get my head shut, I went for Burke 
bald-headed. I told him I'd knock fourteen different styles of 
doctrine in him if he didn't behave better. 

"There's where that big stiff Falk and I came together for 
the first time. 

" ' What have you got to do with it ?' says he. 'No harm done 
if he cleaned the d — d Jew out entirely.' Well, now mostly I 
hate a Jew as well as the next man, but old Sol was a free 
spender. He'd put up for anything that was going, and, Jew 
or no Jew, it made me hot to hear Falk talk like that. More 
especially as his tone wasn't any too pleasant. 

"'Who the devil are you talking to ?' says I, 'Me, or the 
hired man ? I want you to understand I'm running this thing, 
pardner ! ' 

" ' Little chance anybody has to forget it,' he says with a big 
jarring laugh. Don't you know that dirt}', sneering laugh he 

"Well, I was some warm. First off, I thought I would walk 
off and not make any trouble ; then I thought to myself, 'Here, 
I fought Jack Dempsey sixteen rounds the last time I appeared 
in the ring, and I reckon I'm not going to let any big swagger- 
ing stiff of a Dutchman get away with any such crack as that ! ' 
Those fellers didn't know about my being a profesh. I changed 
my name when I quit, after Dempsey licked me, and I never was 
much of a hand to talk. 

"So without any words, I drove a right-hander into Mr. 
Falk's Adam's apple. You'll hear this and that place spoken of 
as a tender spot, but when you want to settle a man quick and 
thorough, jam him in the Adam's apple. Falk must have 
weighed a hundred pounds more than I did, but he went down 
like a load of bricks. I wasn't taking any chances with such 
odds in weight against me. To be sure, I had the science, but 
the only science I ever saw that was worth a cuss in a street 


fight is to hit the other man early and often, and with all the 
enthusiasm you can bring- to bear. Palk laid on his back, very 
thoughtful, wondering where he was going to get his next 
breath of air from. A crack in the Adam's apple does a good 
many things at the same time : It stops your wind ; gives you 
a pain in the head ; a ringing in your ears ; a cramp in the 
stomach, and a looseness in the joints, all to once. I realized 
that Mr. Falk wouldn't be in condition to do business for some 
time, and as I was right in the spirit of the thing, now that I'd 
got started, I thought I might as well head Burke up. 

"I cut him on the end of his Irish nose, and stood it up in the 
air like the stack of an old wood-burner. Then I whaled him in 
the butt of the jaw for keeps. 

'' He fell all over Solomon, and down the}'^ went together. 

" 'Don'd you mindt me, Mr. Berkints,' says old Sol, as he 
scrambled after his hat ; ' Id's all righd. Dot's for der zuspend- 
ers ; gif him a vew vor der gollar-puttons.' He was a funny 
motzer, that Solomon. It broke me up so the fight all went out 
of me. But I upended Burke and gave him a medicine talk. 

"'I've been too easy with you fellers, and I see it,' says I. 
'From this on, however, there won't be any complaint on that 
score. You'll feel like a lost heathen god in the wilderness, if 
you try any more playing horse with me ; I think that blasted 
stubborn Dutchman is beyond reason — perhaps I'll have to really 
hurt him yet — but I think there's reason in yotc, and you'd better 
use it, unless you want me to spread you all over the fair face of 
nature. ' 

" You see, the citizens of the town had been liberal in coming 
forward for the ball team, and naturally they took the greatest 
pride in it. We were like soldiers going out to fight. Every 
time we went away from home to play, the town saw us off with 
the band, and welcomed us back with the same — winner or loser. 
Now, I was the manager, and of course, everybody looked to me 
to see that things were run right ; consequently, when fellers 
cut up like Burke and Palk, it wasn't to be stood. 

"Well, Burke said he'd give the matter his careful consid- 

" 'All right, see that you do,' says I. 'Now screw your nut 
home, and put your face in a sling till you look better. We don't 
want any such picture of hard times as you are on the ball field.' 

"When Palk got so he could understand language, I gave him 
a few passages of the strongest conversation I had on tap. 

"He listened, to be sure, and didn't give me any slack ; but it 
was a sullen kind of listening — just that he was afraid to do 
different, that's all. 


" I forgot to tell you that these two fellers was really hired to 
play ball. The Superintendent of the division gave them a job 
in the shops, and we paid 'em extra. Falk, he was a painter ; 
and I wish you could see the blue, green and yaller ruin he made 
of a passenger car. The boss painter wasn't onto the game, 
and took the supe's talk in earnest, therefore he starts Falk out 
single-handed to paint the car. The boss painter was a quiet 
man usually, but when he saw that work of art, he let go of 
some expressions that would have done credit to a steamboat 
rooster. More, he heaved a can of red paint on brother Falk, 
and swore he'd kill him too dead to skin, if he dared put foot in 
the shop again. He was a sandy little man, even if he wasn't 
as big as a pint of cider, and had been leaded so man)' times 
that he shook like a quaking asp. The supe had to argue with 
him loud and long before he'd hear of Falk's coming back. 

"Burke went into the round-house, where all the fellers were 
more or less sports, and understood the play. 

"Not square to hire 'em ? Well, it wasn't exactly ; but the 
crowd across the river taught us the game — they did it first. 

" Well, now I'll tell you how we came bj' the Injun — the mas- 
cot. He was an old feller — the Lord only knows how old — who 
used to hang around the station selling Injun trinkets to the 
passengers. He had a stick with notches cut into it to tell how 
old he was, but the boj'S used to get the stick and cut more 
notches when his nibs wasn't looking, until Methusalom was a 
suckling kid alongside of that record. 'Me so old — huh,' the 
Injun used to say, and hand the stick to the passengers. They'd 
be full of interest until they counted up to four or five hundred, 
when they would smile in a sickly way, and go about their busi- 
ness, feeling that they had been taken in shameful, and much 
regretting the quarter, or whatever chicken-feed it was they 
contributed to old Bloody-Ripping-Thunder's support. No, 
' Bloody-Ripping-Thunder ' probably wasn't his name ; but 
that's what young Solomon christened him, 

"Young Solomon was nephew to the old feller, and his pard- 
ner in the clothing store. He was a great sport. A darned de- 
cent young lad. It was his idea that we needed a mascot. We 
sure did need something about that time, for if there was any- 
thing in Dakota that hadn't beaten us, it was only because they 
didn't know our address. 

"Ike Solomon takes Rip — that's short for the aforesaid Injun — 
into his store one day, a bent, white-haired old man, clad in a 
dirty blanket, moccasins, and a hat that looked as if it had come 
off the rag heap, and he works a miracle with him. He wouldn't 
let nary one of t'.s in^^idc until he'd carried out his plans. 


"When we did g-o in, there stood as spruce a young gent of a 
hundred or so as ever 3^ou see. That Injun had on a cheap but 
decent light hand-me-down suit, b'iled shirt and paper collar, 
red necktie, canvas shoes — mighty small they were ; he had feet 
like a lady — pocket-handkercher with red border sticking out of 
his pocket, cane in his hand, a white plug hat on his head and 
a pair of specs on his nose. We were simply dumfoundered; that's 
the only word for it. The old cuss carried himself pretty well. 
Darned if you'd find a white man of his years that had as much 
style to him. And proud I Well, that don't give you any idea 
of it. He strutted around like a squint-eyed girl that's hooked 
a feller. 

" When he started off down the street to give the folks a ben- 
efit, we had our laugh out. 

"Into every store of the place goes Mr. Rip. Walks up and 
down and says 'Huh !' After he thinks the folks have had a 
fair show to take in his glory, ' Huh I' says he again, and tries 
next door. The whole town was worked up over it. The fellers 
would shake him by the hand, bowing and scraping and giving 
him all sorts of steers. 

" Well, we had our mascot now, so there was no particular 
reason why we shouldn't try to get somebody's scalp. 

" We sent a challenge to the Maroons, which they accepted, 
too quick. The game was to be played on our grounds, and 
with the eyes of our friends on us, you bet we meant to do our 
little best ; but luck was against us. Our second base, the Hoo- 
doo, had got snake bit. Rattler struck him in the right hand. 
He had a mighty close squeak for his life. The right field. Doc- 
tor Andis, the nicest gentleman that ever wore shoes, was com- 
ing down with the fever that carried him off. 

"To crown all, just when I should have been rustling around 
the liveliest, I had one of my headaches — the worst I ever had. 
Lord ! For three days I couldn't see, and then a fool of a man 
told me whisky was good for it, and I took his advice. When 
the drink started my heart up, darned if I didn't think the top 
of my head was coming off. I ought to have been in bed the 
day of the game, but of course that wasn't to be thought of. 

Well, the boys were nervous, and I was sick, and though I 
tried my best to put a good foot forward, I'm afraid I didn't help 
matters any. 

"Everybody and his grandmother turned out. The town 
knocked off business altogether. The weather was fine for ball, 
with this exception, the wind blew strong up-field. That was 
dead against us, I mean ; it helped their pitcher mightily, as he 
was weak on curves, and pitching into the wind added at least 


a foot to his range. With our man, Fitzeben, it wasldifferent ; 
he had a tremendous knack on curves ; blamed if he couldn't 
almost send a ball around a tree, and the extra twist threw him 
off his reckoning so badly that he lost all command of the ball, 
and finally got so rattled that we had to put another man in, in 
the fifth inning. They were slaughtering us then — the score 
was fifteen to two. We picked up a little after that, and in the 
ninth it looked as if we might tie them, if we had barrels of 
good luck. 

" Falk went to bat. I cautioned him to wait for his chance ; 
but you know what a band-stand player he was ; he had the gal- 
lery in his eye all the time. He was a big, fine looking feller, 
in a way, but stuck on his shape beyond all reason ; so, instead 
of taking it easy, he swipes at everything that came, keeping 
up a running fire of brag all the time that made everybody very 

"Just before the last ball crossed the plate, he gave the folks 
to understand that he was going to belt the cover off it, and the 
remains would land down by the river. He made a fierce pass 
at it ; missed it a mile, caught his toe and waltzed off on his 
ear. He got a dirty fall and everybody was glad of it. We all 
laughed 'Haw ! Haw !' just as loud as we could. Falk got up, 
boiling mad. He looked at us as if he'd like to eat us raw ; but 
there wasn't any one round there he felt safe to make trouble 
with, until his eye fell on old Ripping-Thunder, sitting up 
straight in his new clothes and specs and plug hat and cane, 
and laughing as fine as anybody. Then that big Dutchman did 
the cowardliest thing I ever saw ; he walks up and smashes poor 
Rip in the face, just as hard as he could drive. ' Now laugh ! 
you d — d Injun !' says he. There was a riot in a minute, and I 
had to keep the fellers off of Falk, though the Lord knows my 
mind was different ! The other Captain refused to play the game 
out. He didn't want any truck with such people, he said, and 
while our boys were crying hot we couldn't do a thing but let 
'em go. 

" I picked up old Rip and asked him if he was hurt. He tried 
to smile — although his mouth looked like an accident to a bal- 
loon, where that big lubber hit him — and told me no, not hurt. 

"But his eyes were on Falk all the time, following every move 
he made. I tell you what, my son, never you hit an Injun un- 
awares. No matter how old, or helpless he may seem, it ain't 
safe. An Injun's not out of it till he's dead, and then it's just 
as well to be careful. I know one buck that lashed the trigger 
of his rifle to his arm with his dying hands, and blew a hole 
like a railroad tunnel through the feller that tried to take his 


gun away from him ; as well as changing the appearance of 
the next man behind, which was me ; you can see the mark run- 
ning back from my eyebrow. I'll tell you about that skirmish 
sometime. It was the liveliest I ever got into. Well, the In- 
jun's eyes were a little bleary from age before, but they were 
bright enough now. I know I thought it won't be well for you, 
brother Palk, if the old man gets a crack at you ; but being so 
disgusted with the way things come out, and sick besides, I 
didn't pay much attention. 

"The next day was prairie-chicken day. Fifteenth of August 
the law's up, ain't it ? I can remember the day all right, but 
I'm never quite sure of the date— and all of the fellers turned 
out in force to reduce the visible supply of chicken ; me and my 
friend Stevens among the rest. We got a later start than most 
of the boys, and it must have been ten or after before we reached 
McMillan's flat, where we were going to do our shooting. We 
drove around here and there, but we never flushed a feather. 

"'Now, Jay,' says Stevens, 'let's cut for old man Simon's 
shack ; there is likely to be some birds in his wheat stubble.' 
So off we went. We were sailing down the little sharp coulee 
which opens on Simon bottom when we heard a gun-shot to the 
right, and not far off. 

" 'Hello !' says Stevens, ' there's a fellow in luck ; we'll give 
him a lift if he's got more than he can handle.' 

Sounded more like a rifle to me, Steve,' says I. 

" 'Well, let's investigate anyhow — what the blazes is that ?' 
For just then riz up a wild howl, ' Don't shoot ! Don't shoot ! ' 
it says. 

" ' I could swear that that was the voice of that sweet gentle- 
man, Mr. Palk,' says I. 'Tie up, and we'll creep to the top of 
the bank and see what's going on ; if Palk's in trouble, I 
wouldn't miss it for anything.' We made our sneak and looked 
down. Beneath us was a sort of big pot-hole, say forty foot 
across. On one side was brother Falk, his face as serious as 
though he was playing a rubber with the gent that always wins, 
but stepping it high, wide, and frolicsome. Gee ! what pigeon 
wings and didoes he cut ! And the reason of it sat on the other 
side of the pot-hole watching him — Brother Ripping Thunder, 
with a rifle in his hand, enjoying himself much, and smiling as 
good as the damaged condition of his mouth would allow. 

Hunh !' says he, ' that's plenty dance — now stand on head.' 

" ' I can't !' says Falk, ' I don't know how ! ' 
Learn !' says the Injun, ' now good time.' 

" Falk started to make some objections, but old Rip raised the 
rifle, and Falk, with a wild, despairing cuss, up-ended himself. 


He was a big man, as I've told you, and when he keeled over he 
come down so hard it jarred the earth. 

Wakstashonee !' cries Rip, ' that worst I ever see ! Got to 
do better, or I shoot anyhow ! ' 

"So up goes Falk, and down he comes, and up he goes and 
down he comes, in all kinds of shapes and styles till Steve and 
me, we had to jam our hankerchers in our mouths for fear we'd 
snort out loud and spoil the game. 

Holy sufferin' ! ' says Steve, 'but ain't he just everlastingly 
run up against the worst of it this heat ! We couldn't have 
wished no better if we tried. Jay ! ' 

"Well, I should say that there wasn't a piece as big as a quarter 
on Palk that wasn't black and blue when at last he seemed to 
get the knack of it, and held himself up in a wobbly sort of way. 

"'There,' say Rip, 'that's more like business. Just keep 
feet still — I going to shoot heels off boots. ' 

"Falk hollered murder. 

"Old Rip shook his head. ' You make such noise I get rattled 
and shoot hole through foot,' he complained. Falk shut up 
like a clam. 

Here we go fresh !' says Rip ' Now don't move feet.' 

"Blam! And the right heel zipped into space. Blim ! And 
away went the left one. 

" 'Good shooting for old man ! ' says Rip. ' Now you rest. 
Bimeby we have some more fun.' 

"You should have seen Falk's face as he sat there resting, with 
the pleasant future in his mind. He wasn't happy, and he showed 
it. As soon as he got his wind he tried to bribe Rip, but it 
didn't go. He promised him money and ponies and whisky and 
tobacco, and every thing under the sun. Rip simply shook his 
head. ' Don't want ! ' says he. ' Having plenty good time 
now. Don't talk any more. Want think what do next.' 

" So there they sat, and whenever Rip looked at a place, Falk, 
he looked too, for he had a large interest in the matter, and it 
was pretty medium hard to figure out what was passing through 
Rip's head. 

" There was a mud-puddle with about six inches of water and 
six foot of mud at the end of the pot-hole. Rip took that in 
very earnest. 

Hunh,' says he, 'you rested now ! ' 

" 'No, I ain't !' cries Falk, with the sweat starting out all over 
him. ' I ain't rested a little bit. Now, just wait a minute — 
honest, I'm all played out ! ' 

No ask question — tell you about it. I say rested, you 
RESTED,' answers Rip, in a tone of voice that wasn't to be 


arg-ued with. Palk knuckled. ' For God's sake ! What's it 
going- to be now ? ' he asked. 

" 'You ^s^,' says Rip. 'Plenty dam big fat fish, you !' He 
pointed to the puddle. ' Now swim ! ' 

"I may have mentioned that Falk was stuck on his appearance? 
Well, he was — powerful. So when it came to wallowing around 
in a mud-puddle with his brand new hunting clothes on, he 
beefed for fair. Moses ! How he cussed ! 

"Then old Rip raised the rifle again, and there was a bad light 
in his old eyes. I can't give )^ou no idea of the satisfaction he 
expressed as he simply repeated the one word, ' swim !' 

"Brother Falk ground his teeth till the slivers flew ; Rip moved 
his fore-finger. That was enough. Into the mud, ker-sock ! 
goes Falk, and the slime splashed a rod around. 

"All this time the Injun had been sort of quiet and sneering, 
but now he entered into the spirit of the thing. He capered 
like a school-boy. ' Leelah ouashtay ! ' He hollered. ' Swim, 
fish ! Kick, fat fish 1 Kick I Make hand g-o ! Make head go ! 
Make foot go ! W)^upee ! Chantay meatow leelah ouashtay- 
da ! ' Then he took to spanking Falk with the butt of the rifle. 
It was 'a animated scene,' as the poet says. You don't often 
g-et a chance to see a two-hundred-and-twenty pound bully lying- 
on his stomach in a mud-puddle swimming for dear life, so Steve 
and me made the most of it. 

"There was Falk hooking mud like a raving maniac — fount- 
ains and geysers and water spouts of mud — while Rip pranced 
around him, war-whooping and yelling, and laying it on to him 
with the rifle-butt until each crack sounded like a pistol-shot. It 
seldom falls to the lot of man or boy to get such a thorough, 
heartfelt, soul-searching spanking as that ugly Dutchman re- 
ceived. My ! I could feel every swat clear down to my toes, 
and there isn't a shadow of doubt in my mind that Falk did too. 

"And that Injun looked so comical flying around in his high 
hat and specs and new clothes and shiny shoes ! It was a sight 
to make a horse laugh. By and by Steve couldn't stand it and 
he roared right out. That stopped the matinee. Rip looked up 
at us and grinned. 'I got openers, this pot,' says he, tapping 
the rifle. ' Play nice game with friend — stand up, big, fat 

"Well, we had a conniption fit when Palk made himself per- 
pendicular. He WAS a sight 1 If there ever a man lived whose 
name ought to be Mud, 'twas Falk. His hair was full of it ; 
his face was gobbed with it, and drops of it fell off the end of 
his trickling Dutch To say nothing of them nice 
new clothes 1 Steve hollered, and I hollered, and the Injun hoi- 


lered. We moreen hollered ; we rocked on our heels and laid 
back our ears and screeched — Falk looking from one to the 
other, oozing slough-juice at every vein, and wishing he had 
been buried young. 

"At last he kind of whimpers out, ' Well, what are you going 
to do with me now ? ' 

" ' Kika-lap !' says Rip, ' fly.' 

"And Falk flew, like a little bird ; up the side of the pot-hole, 
over the coulee and across the prairie — vanished, vamoosed, 
faded, gone forever. He didn't even stop for his clothes. The 
first train out was soon enough for him. 

" So now you say he's fallen into a bushel of money, and has a 
fine house, and drives his trotters in New York ? Well ! By 
Gum ! But this t's a strange world ! Why couldn't some decent 
man have gotten the rocks ? I tell you what we ought to do ; 
we ought to take a nice photograph of that pot-hole, of which 
the general features are impressed on his memory perfect enough 
not to need no label, I guess, and send it on to him with the 
compliments of Bloody Ripping Thunder, for him to hang as 
the principal ornament in his art gallery ! Old Falk a million- 
aire ! Well, wouldn't that cramp you ! I've got to have some- 
thing to take the taste of that out of my mouth. Yes, the 
same, Jimmy, with plain water on the side. Well, here's luck, 
young feller, even to old Falk !" 

Richmond, N. Y. 



OW, to the wonder of the waiting night. 

The arid North comes stealing o'er the hills, 
First in slow puffs, and then the whole house 
With steady blows of that mysterious might. 
How strange to hear, beneath the hot starlight, 
The same wild note that comes with driven snows 
Against New England panes, where warmly glows 
The dark green holly and its berries bright ! 
And what the meaning of the wild refrain. 

And what the message that the North Wind brings ? 
It sings of cactus on a desert plain. 

Of bones that bleach beside the sand-choked springs, 
Of strange red mountains, unre freshed by rain, 
A land of gruesome and forgotten things. 

Hartford, Conn. 



From Documents never before published in English. 

Diary of Junipero Serra ; Loreto to San Die^o, MarcK 

28— June 30, 1769. 

MONG other contents of the invaluable "Ra- 
mirez Collection " is a holograph diary of his 
journey from the Mission of Loreto, Lower 
California, to San Diego in our present State, 
by that great apostle and founder of California, 
Father Junipero Serra, on his first entrada. It 
fills 34 close folio pages of finely written manu- 
script, a sample of which is given in facsimile on page 280. 
This account of the hard journey — few are bold enough to 
make it nowadays — that resulted in the founding of the first 
Mission and the settlement of California is a most human 
document. It is full, not only of the humility and faith and 
quenchless courage of the greatest missionary who ever trod 
the soil of the United States ; it is also vital with his quiet 
humor. The "Ramirez Collection" is now part of the prob- 
ably matchless library of Americana of Kdward E- Ayer of 
Chicago ; to whom we are indebted for the chance to present this 
critical translation. 

Governing- as Bishop of the city of Guadalaxara the Senor Don Diego de 
Rivas ; governing this Kingdom of New Spain as Viceroy Don Carlos 
Francisco Croix ; under the Coinniandancy-in-Chief the Most Illustrious 
Seiior Don Joseph de Galvez, of the Council of his Magesty, and Inspector- 
General of the Kingdom ; being Guardian of the Apostolic College of San 
Fernando of Mexico the Rev. Father Fray Juan Andres, Apostolic Preacher; 
and being President of the Missions of the Californias the Rev. Father 
Fray Junipero Serra, Reader and Fx-Professor of theology of the Univer- 
sity of Mallorca ; being chiefs of the expedition by land from the Royal 
Presidio of Our I^ady of Loreto first in command Don Gaspar de Portala, 
Captain of Dragoons, and Governor of California ; and second the Captain 
of said Presidio, Don Fernando Rivera y Moncada — the latter in the first 
division of Soldiers of the Presidio, to the number of 29 ; the former with 
ten leather-jacket Soldiers. They undertook [the journey] by order of His 
Magesty (whom God guard) Don Carlos Third. Said Expedition was under 
the protection of St. Joseph. 


[Of the expedition] to the ports of San Diego and Monte Rey by land ; 
which for the greater honor and glory of God, and the conversion of the 
Ynfidels to our Holy Catholic Faith, the said Father President, Fray Juni- 
pero Serra, undertook from his Mission and Royal Presidio of Our Lady of 
the Loreto in [Lower] California (after having visited the Missions of the 
South, and there agreed and communicated extensively concerning the ex- 
pedition with the Most Illustrious Seiior Don Joseph de Galvez, of Hi^ 



Magesty's Council and Chamber, Inspector-General of this New Spain, 
and Principal Director and Commandant of these Conquests) on the 28th 
day of March, the third day of Resurrection Easter in the year of 1769. 

NOTE 1st. 

That on the 6th day of January of this same year, finding myself in the 
Port of L/a Paz with His Eminence the Senor Inspector, I blessed the 
Packet named the " San Carlos," sang the Mass aboard her, blessed the 
Standards ; the Litany was sung, and other devotions to Our Lady. And 
His Eminence made a fervent exhortation with which he kindled the spirits 
of those who were to go in that vessel to said Ports of San Diego and 
Monte Rey. These embarked on the 9th, at night, and on the 10th set sail. 
The Commandant determined upon for the Expedition by Sea was Don 
Vicente Vila, a Pilot famed on the Seas of Europe ; the Engineer, Don 
Miguel Costanso; Chief of the troops of (25 men, and with the Lieutenant, 
26) Don Pedro Fages, Lieutenant of the Company of Catalonian Volun- 
teers. And for Missionary of the Expedition, and for one of the Missions, 
I fixed upon the Father Preacher Fray Fernando Parron, who had been my 
Companion in Loreto since we arrived in California. And all together 
1 they set forth joyfully on the said 10th day of January. 

NOTB 2nd. 

That on the 15th day of February, I having already returned toward 
Loreto, the same duties were performed at Cape San Lucas in blessing the 
Packet " San Antonio," alias the " Principe," which set out the same day 
for said Ports. And there embarked in it for the same end the Father 
Preachers Fray Juan Gonzales, a Biscayan, and Fray Francisco Gomez ; 
the 1st recently arrived from Mexico ; and the 2nd had been Minister at the 
Mission of the Passion, which, by order of His Eminence, had been ex- 
tinguished, and its Indians transferred to the [Mission] of Todos Santos. 
And with this the Maritime or Naval expedition was complete. 

NOTE 3 k D. 

That for the expedition by land His Eminence determined that what was 
necessary of Cavalry [horses], beasts of burden, and all kind of provision 
and food, should be provided by the Seiior Captain of the Company or 
Presidio of this Peninsula, Don Fernando de Rivera y Moncada ; the same 
who was in the time of the Fathers of the Company [of Jesus], and was 
much traveled through all the Missions with his Eminence's orders for the 
Missionary Fathers of them ; and the temporal concerns of these [Mis- 
sions] were already in his charge. And for this, and to journey afterward 
to said Ports, at the request of His Magesty, on the 28th of Sept. I sang 
the Mass of supplication to St. Joseph, who had been chosen patron of 
these two expeditions, by sea and by land. And two days later he [Rivera 
y Moncada] set forth from Loreto to the [Mission] of San Xavier, to com- 
mence his Operation of taking out from it, and from the other [Missions] 
next it, whatever he might choose of what was in them. Thus he did ; 
and altho' it was with a somewhat heavy hand, it was undergone for God 
and the King. And with the collection of articles which seemed to him 
competent, he set forth, after having recruited his toasts sufficient time in 
the place called Vila Catha (which now is a new Mission ; it was founded 
on the day of Pentecost), with 25 Soldiers and three muleteers, with a suffi- 
cient number of Indians on foot, the 24th day of March ; carrying with 
him for Missionary Father of that division of the expedition the Father 
Preacher Fray Juan Crespi, Minister until then of the Mission La Purisiiii.i 
de Cadegomo. God upl>ear them well : and may they arrive happily. 


NOTE 4th. 

That for the fulfilment of the expedition by land His Eminence ordered 
at the beginning- of the month of March that the Governor Commanding 
this Peninsula, Don Gaspar de Portala, should set forth with the Mission- 
aries that remained of them that were designated, as Commandant-in- 
Chief of both divisions of the expedition by land, with the residuum of 
the Soldiers, the victuals and other necessaries for so arduous and exten- 
sive an enterprise. And in fulfilment of said Order, the aforementioned 
Governor set forth from his royal Presidio of L/oreto on the 9th of March 
with his retinue. And altho' I was always minded to follow this expedi- 
tion, I could not set forth so soon ; proposing and promising to do it with 
the utmost possible haste (as I afterward did). And in the interim I desig- 
nated to follow these Travelers the Father Preacher Fray Miguel de la 
Campa, who had been Minister of the frontier Mission called Santa Maria 
de los Angeles ; where it was necessary that they make a long detention to 
await the victuals which had to come by Sea to the Bay of San Luis Gon- 
zaga, near that last [mentioned] Mission, and to arrange the herd, and 
other arrangements — until I joined the retinue there, as I have said later. 

1*. On the 28th day of March, third [day] of the Resurrection of Our 
Lord Jesus Christ, of this year of 1769, after having celebrated all the func- 
tions of Holy Week with all possible solemnity and devotion, and having 
sung the Mass on the day of Easter and preached in it my farewell discoiirse 
(on the day which punctually fulfilled an Ecclesiastic year of my having 
preached to them [since] the first time when I took possession of spiritual 
matters at said Mission and Church); and on the two following [days] hav- 
ing celebrated [services] to Our Lady of Loreto, beseeching her protection 
for a journey so difiicult — I set forth after Mass of the said third feast. And 
my day's journey was to arrive at the Mission of San Francisco Xavier de 
Biaundo ; on the which [journey] there befell me nothing worthy of note ; 
and as it is a road and land known to all, I say nothing about it. And the 
same I will observe with respect to the line of the old Missions. 

2. The 29th, 30th and 31st of the same month I tarried in said Mission 
for many motives. Reason enough for said detention was the very especial 
and mutual love between myself and its Minister, the Rev. Father Reader 
Francisco Palou, my Disciplef ; Commissary of the Holy Office, and elected 
by our College:}: to succeed me in the Presidency of these Missions in case 
of my death or long absence. This last circumstance was the principal 
motive of said detention, to confer [with him] as to what was best with re- 
gard to what remained in his charge during my absence, for the stability of 
these Missions and of those that were to be founded, and to clear matters up 
for the coming of the Most Illustrious Seiior Inspector-General to Loreto, 
the which was expected shortly. The third — and to me the [reason] most 
worthy to be noted, albeit in token of thankfulness — is the fact that from 
my Mission of Loreto I did not take more provision for so long an excursion 
than one loaf of bread and a piece of cheese. For I was there all the year, 
so far as temporal matters go, as the mere Guest for the crumbs of the Royal 
Commissary, whose liberality at my departure did not extend further than 
the aforesaid. But the said Father supplied that lack with so efficacious 
arrangements — in the way of his provision of food, clothing for my use, 
and comforts for my journey— that not even I myself could have managed 
to contrive them, tho' for my sins I do not cease to be fond of my conveu- 
ience. May God repay so much charity. 

3. On the 1st day of April I bade farewell with much sorrow to said 
Father, my Beloved since his childhood ; and starting at break of day I 
traveled toward the next Mission, [that] of San Joseph Comondu. To the 
which (tho' it is distant more than 12 leagues) I came at about eleven 
of the same morning, so early was the start I took. And I found myself 
there without [meeting] the Ministering Father there, who was — and is — 
the Father Fray Antonio Martinez, my old-time Companion ever since we 
came together in the City of Cadiz to come to our College ; and since my 
Fellow-Missionary in the Sierra Gorda. For the said Father had gone on 
to the Mission of Purisima, of which he was left in charge because of the 
absence of its Minister, the Father Preacher Fray Juan Crespi, who had 
gone forth to the first division of the expedition, as has been said. But 

*The paragraph numbers mark day's journeys- 
+Serra's successor and biographer. 
iXhe Colleg'e of San Fernando, Mex. 


nothing was lacking' for me, thanks to the provision which the said Father 
Martinez had made against the chancel of my arriving in his absence. 

On the 2nd, which was Sunday, I sang the Mass in Albis, and preached 
to them of the Pueblo or Mission. On that day, had it not been for my 
arrival, they would have gone without the one or the other [mass or ser- 
mon] ; so with this, and the various confessions I heard, my tarrying was 
not idle. The 3rd was also a festival day, the Annunciation of Our Lady 
being celebrated. Because it fell on Holy Saturday, I took the same pains 
to sing the Mass, etc., and in the forenoon the Father Missionary arrived, 
already advised of these events at his Mission. 

The 4th (and part of the foregoing day) went, with us, in arranging 
certain things pertaining to my outfit, which could not be made up at San 
Xavier. Meanwhile, the arrieros arranged the harness, for they came in 
bad shape for want of sweatcloths, hay, reatas, etc. And there everything 
was put in good order, thanks to the liberality of the said Father, who re- 
peatedly asked me to see if some other thing of whatever he had there 
would not be useful. God repay him. 

4. On the 5th I set forth, accompanied by the said Father, for the Mis- 
sion of the Purissima, at which, without special novelty, we arrived the 
same morning. The first and only Minister of ours* [therej had been the 
Father Preacher Fray Juan Crespi, another esteemed by me since his child- 
hood. Who, at his going away, left various things prepared for my outfit in 
charge of the Soldier Don Francisco Maria de Castro, Mayordomo and Es- 
cort of that Mission, that he should deliver them to me, with whatever else 
might serve me. With [thanks to] this providing, and to the conscientious- 
ness of the said Soldier, we were received with a dance of the Indians with 
all the solemnity possible to be secured in such places. The 6th and part 
of the day before was occupied in arranging that which the mules had to 
carry, among which were four loads of biscuits, which by order of the Senor 
Captain, and care of Father Crespi, had been allotted for the sustenance of 
the Religious of the expedition. Flour, pinolef , wheat, raisins and what- 
ever else might serve for their relief — everything which, by the forethought 
of the Father [priest] of San Joseph, as I have said, the .said Mission had 
in its charge — was put in order. And all ray outfit, and that of them that 
went with me, was supplied with much more abundance than I could desire 
or imagine. Blessed be God. 

The 7th, having bidden farewell to the Rev. Father [priest] of San Joseph, 
who remained at the Mission to go forth, a little later, to his own [Mis- 
sion], I took my way at early daybreak for the next [Mission] of Guada- 
lupe. I walked all day, except a little halt which I made at middaj' to take 
\some fesTand a rribiftnful. And when night came on, I arrived at the place 
of the Teasel, where I tarried on the ground. There I talked with some 
ten families of Indians, men and women, boys and girls. And when I 
a.sked them for the reason of their being there, they told me with much 
sorrow that they were of the mission of Guadalupe, and not of any rancheria 
but of the head place itself ; and that the Father, for want of provisions, 
had found himself obliged to send them out to the mountains to seek their 
food ; and that as they were not accustomed to this, they were not handy 
at it; their hardship was much, particularly in seeing their babies suffer 
and hearing them cry. I felt sorry enough, and tho' it was somewhat un- 
fortunate that the pack-train was tiehind and could not arrive that night, 
they were not left without some alleviation. For with a portion of pinole I 
carried they made themselves an olla of good Atole, which was for the 
women and children. And afterward the same diligence was repeated, 
filling it a second time for the men. Wherewith they were consoled — the 
more, when I told them that they should travel to their Mission; that 

glready corn was on its way to the FatJier by sea Canoe from Mulege, by 
rder of the Most Illustrious Inspector. I took my rest, and [had] them 
pray in concert ; and they concluded by singing a very tender song of the 
love of God. And as they of that Mission have (with reason ) the fame of 
singing with especial sweetness, I had a good bit of consolation in honring 


•That is, Franciscan. The J-'-^iiit-^ li ail been cxpelloil two years before. 
I (t A meal of parched Com. 

. 297 

" Xo MaKe Better Indians." 


Dr. David Starr Jordan, Prest. Stanford University, Cal. 

Dr. C. Hart Merrian, Chief Biological Survey, Washing-ton 

Dr. Geo. Bird Grinnell, editor Forest and Stream, New York 

D. M. Riordan, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Richard Egan, Capistrano, Cal. 

Chas. Cassatt Davis, attorney, l/os Angeles 

Chas. F. lyummis, L/OS Angeles 


Mrs. Phebe A. Hearst, University of California 

Hon. J. Sterling Morton, Nebraska 

Archbishop Ireland, St. Paul, Minn. 

U. S. Senator Thos. R. Bard, California 

Maj. J. W. Powell, Director Bureau of Ethnology, Washington 

Edward E. Ayer, Field Columbian Museum, Chicago 

Miss Estelle Reel, Supt. all Indian Schools, Washington 

W. J. McGee, Ethnologist in Charge, Bureau of Ethnology 

P. W. Putnam, Peabody Museum, Harvard College 

Stewart Culin, University of Pennsylvania 

Dr. T. Mitchell Prudden, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York 

Dr. Geo. J. Engelmann, Boston 

Miss Alice C. Fletcher, Washington 

F. W. Hodge, Smithsonian Institution, Washington 

Hamlin Garland, author, Chicago 

Mrs. F. M. Doubleday, New York 

Dr. Washington Matthews, Washington 

Hon. A. K. Smiley (Mohonk), Redlands, Cal. 

(Others to be added) 
Treasurer, W. C. Patterson, Prest. Eos Angeles National Bank 

§EQUOYA, " the American Cadmus," was the 
onl)'^ Indian that ever invented a written lan- 
guage ; the only aboriginal leader of his 
people toward what we call education. In the 
name of the noblest trees in the world — the Se- 
quoia Giganteaof California — science has honored 
this truly great Cherokee; and a League '"to 
make better Indians" may appropriately honor 
him as well. A brief sketch in the February 
number gave the salient points in the life of this 
remarkable Indian; and further details will follow. 

The Big Tree grows nowhere in the world except in Cali- 
fornia; the Sequoya League, while native to California, will 
take root wherever there are People who Care. Its scope and its 
plans are national. 

It was deemed vital that the name of the League be short, 
easy and significant. "Catalogue" titles are a weariness to the 
flesh. Two words — one, if possible, an Indian name of the 
right significance — were felt to be enough. Of all the names 
suggested, in the consensus of the people most competent to 
suggest, Sequoya had an overwhelming majority. Among 
others, Edward Everett Hale, David Starr Jordan, Mrs. Hearst, 
Miss Fletcher, Prof. McG^e, and a majority of the Executive 
Committee favored it. The objection that it might be con- 
founded with a League to preserve the Big Trees, is easily an- 
swered. There could be worse causes to be confounded with, 


under almost any title ; and, having a right significance, the 
public may reasonably be trusted to learn what the name does 
mean. The Primrose League in England is not exactly to raise 
primroses ; but the English — and some others — have discovered 
what it does stand for. 

Papers are now being drawn for the incorporation of the 
League ; and in spite of vexatious and unavoidable delays the 
work is being pushed on. A harp of a thousand strings — and 
some of them thousands of miles long — cannot be played upon all 
in a minute ; and the League means to make no grave mistakes. 

The League itself is a national affair. Local councils will 
be formed all over the United States, deriving authority from 
the national organization, and pledged to carry out its policies. 
It cannot be too constantly remembered that the contract is an 
enormous one. The first struggle will be not to arouse sympathy 
but to inform with slow patience and long wisdom the wide- 
spread sympathy which already exists. We cannot take the 
Indians out of the hands of the National Government; we can- 
not take the National Government into our own hands. There- 
fore we must work with the National Government in any large 
plan for the betterment of Indian conditions. The League 
means, in absolute good faith, not to fight but to assist the In- 
dian Bureau. It means to give the money of many and the 
time and brains and experience of more than a few to honest 
assistance to the Bureau in doing the work for which it has 
never had either enough money or enough disinterested and 
expert assistance to do in the best way the thing it and every 
American would like to see done. 

The plans of the League have been outlined, in personal con- 
versation, to the President, the Secretary of the Interior and the 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs. All three welcomed these 
plans, and promised every assistance in their power. In sincere 
cooperation with such men, the League can reasonably hope to 
be of service to the Indians and to the Government. 

A draft of the League's constitution, subject to amendment, 
follows : 


This Corporation shall be known as the Sequoya League. 

Its object shall be "to make Better Indians," and t)etter-treated ones. 
1. By cooperating with the Interior Department and the Indian Bureau 
of the National Government to devise, secure legislation for, and carry out, 
policies based on patience, common-sense, steady pressure, and exact 
knowledge of the facts at issue — the Indian, his nature, his needs, his pos- 
sibilities, and his environment. 

A. By furnishing specific, responsible, authentic and disinterested 

B. By maintaining a friendly watchfulness over the manner in which 
agreed policies are carried out in the field ; by knowing precisely what 
agents, teachers, and other employee* of the service are doing, and what 
its results are ; by assisting and defending good employees from malicious 


or partisan attacks ; by preferring charg-es agaiast unfit emploj'ces — in 
neither case as irresponsible gossip, but in such form as would be com- 
petent in a court of law. 

C. By assisting to awaken public sentiment along these lines, and by 
all proper means to influence legislation to these ends. 

2. By direct, practical and familiar dealing with the Party of the Second 
Part. It is better and cheaper that the Indian shall understand what the 
Government means to do, and shall assent to it, than that he shall have to 
be crushed by costly wars or coercions into a sullen submission to whatever 
it may see fit to do. A function of the Iveague, therefore, will be to gain 
the consent and cooperation of the Indians in measures for their benefit ; 
working through persons whom the Indians know and trust, and not 
through strangers and interpreters. 

A. By assisting the Indians to security in those rights of home, of in- 
dividuality and of family which must be the basis of successful dealing by 
statecraft with any race. 

B. By encouraging the Indians to acquire as much " education " as they 
can reasonably use, and in the directions in which they can possibly use it. 
To any such plan, the family and the tribe must be made allies, instead of 
being treated as enemies. 

C. By reviving, encouraging, and providing market for, such of the 
aboriginal industries as can be made profitable. In the case of tribes which 
had no such industries, to assist in securing those that shall be best suited 
to their abilities and their market. 


The management of this Corporation shall vest in an Executive Com- 
mittee of seven, elected by the incorporators ; with full power to act, to fill 
vacancies in its own number, and to increase that number — in each case, 
by five-sevenths vote. 


The Executive Committee shall annually appoint an Advisory Board, at 
present of 25 members. The functions of this Board shall be to advise 
the Executive Committee ; and in general to forward the aims of the 


The only officers of the League, besides the said Executive Committee 
and Advisory Board, shall be a Secretary and a Treasurer. The Secretary 
shall be paid a reasonable compensation for his services. All others shall 
give their services to the League without pay. The Treasurer shall furnish 
bond in $10,000. 


Membership in the League shall be open to any person who shall sub- 
scribe to the constitution and pay the annual dues. These dues shall be 
$2 per annum, in advance, delinquent January 15 of each year. '* Junior 
Membership," for boys and girls under 16, shall be 50 cents per annum, in 
advance. Life Memberships shall be $50. 


Local Councils, taking their charter from the League, may be formed in 
any town or city in the United States, on petition of three responsible 
persons. Acceptance of the charter shall pledge the said Council to ob- 
serve the provisions of this Constitution, and to work within lines approved 
by the League. 


Membership in local Councils shall be by application, and in accordance 


with the by-laws of said local Council. The annual fees shall be $2, of 
which sum one-half shall be remitted by the Treasurer of the local Council 
to the Treasurer of the I^eag-ue. And at least one-half of all moneys col- 
lected by any local Council, in excess of $1 per annum local membership 
fees, shall be converted into the treasury of the League for the furtherance 
of its national work. "Junior memberships" in local Councils shall be SO 

This Constitution may be amended by a five-sevenths vote of the 
Executive Committee. 

* * 

In November a memorial was presented to the Indian Bureau 
urging the appointment of a commission to examine into and re- 
port upon the condition of the Mission Indians of Southern Cali- 
fornia (see this magazine for December). Not only does the 
acute case of the 300 Indians now subject to eviction from War- 
ner's Ranch, and with no place on earth to go to, require im- 
mediate attention ; there are few of the 35 reservations under 
the Mission agency where conditions are not in serious need of 
improvement. Inadequate lands, worthless lands, lack of water, 
insecurity of title — these are among the matters requiring in- 
vestigation. The status of the whole matter is not a credit 
either to our humanity or to our business methods. A commis- 
sion of well known, competent men, familiar with local con- 
ditions, should not only investigate and recommend what can 
best be done for the immediate relief of the Warner's Ranch 
Indians, but should report a general plan for the final disen- 
tanglement of the collective snarl ; a plan not necessarily to be 
carried out at one fell swoop, but to be worked toward logically 
step by step. 

Following the memorial, I went over the subject in person 
with the Interior Department and the Indian Bureau ; the com- 
mission was promised, and steps were taken for its appointment. 
Since that time an Indian Inspector has examined some of the 
many tracts of land offered for sale for the location of the War- 
ner's Ranch Indians, and has recommended that the government 
purchase the Monserrate Rancho for $70,000. 

So far from removing the need of a commission, this merely 
emphasizes it. The Monserrate Rancho is a beautiful piece of 
scenery ; but the consensus of opinion among experienced Cali- 
fornians who are familiar with it is that it would be a mistake 
— and many use a stronger word — to put the Indians there. In 
going over the ranch myself, recently — though with no thought 
of it as an Indian location — I saw nothing which would con- 
vince me that this adverse opinion is mistaken. To prove its 
fitness for the purpose would at least require a far more thorough 
investigation than the Inspector has given it. It would make a 
handsome stock-ranch ; but for obvious reasons the Indian can- 
not be a stock-raiser here; nor is it desirable that he should. He 
should be a farmer, tilling the soil ; and to till the soil here he 
must have irrigation. The ranch is said to have been sold at 
foreclosure, some years ago, for $25,000 ; and the history of its 
transfers is curious. 

On the other han^ I probably know no more about the matter 


than the Inspector does, and have no wish to condemn the land. 
Neither of us knows enoug-h It is precisely why the Sequoya 
League urg-es the appointment of the Commission to go into the 
matter thoroughly. It has been rather the misfortune than the 
fault of our Indian Bureau ever since its organization that it 
has had to depend on peripatetic, unfamiliar, and more than oc- 
casionally incompetent, inspectors. With the results of follow- 
ing their advice, we are all more or less familiar. Now that a 
commission of men of national standing and of familiarity with 
the facts are willing- to g^ive their time and services, without 
compensation, to straighten out the matter thoroug-hly and 
authoritatively, it would seem the most businesslike way to per- 
mit them to do so. 

* * 

The receipt of $70 in various contributions for the benefit of 
the Indians has already been acknowledged. Further gifts are: 
Mrs. Peter Goddard Gates, Pasadena, Cal., $5 ; Miss Molly 
Dillon, Los Angeles, $2.50 ; Dr. David P. Barrows, Manila, $2 ; 
Juliette Estelle Mathis, San Francisco, $1. 


* * 

The " Hair-Cut Order," over which the press of the country 
has made so merry, was not a newspaper invention. A copy of 
the ofl&cial document follows. In view of the fact that the sup- 
plementary order practically nullifies the original — since it for- 
bids giving the Indians "any just cause for revolt," and any 
enforcement of the original would be unmistakable and inevit- 
able cause for revolt — the Leag-ue has no desire to pursue the 
matter. It may be accepted as a certainty that in the event of 
some stupid agent trying- to enforce the order for hair-cutting- 
and the suppression of feasts, a test case would be carried up to 
the Supreme Court of the United States — where of course plain- 
tiff would win, as there is no law to force any American, even 
an original one, to cut his hair. But it is not probable that the 
wealthy champions who have expressed this determination will 
have any need to carry it out. The order will probably be al- 
lowed to die its natural death. The copy is printed here merely 
as a matter of the archives. 

Department op the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, 

Washington, Jan., 1902. 

Sir — This office desires to call your attention to a few customs among- 
the Indians which, it is believed, should be modified or discontinued. 

The wearing of long- hair by the male population of your agency is not 
in keeping- with the advancement they are making-, or will soon be expected 
to make, in civilization. The wearing of short hair by the males will be a 
great step in advance, and will certainly hasten their progress toward 
civilization. The returned male student far too frequently goes back to 
the reservation and falls back into the old custom of letting his hair grow 
long. He also paints profusely and adopts all the old habits and customs 
which his education in our industrial schools has tried to eradicate. The 
fault does not lie so much with the schools as with the conditions found on 
the reservations. These conditions are very often due to the policy of the 
Government toward the Indian and are often perpetuated by the agent 
not caring to take the initiative in fastening any neV policy on his admin- 
istration of the affairs of the agency. 


On many of the reservations the Indians of both sexes paint, claiming 
that it keeps the skin warm in winter and cool in summer ; but, instead, 
this paint melts when the Indian perspires, and runs down into the eyes. 
The use of this paint leads to many diseases of the eyes among those 
Indians who paint. Persons who have given considerable thought and 
investigation to the subject are satisfied that this custom causes the 
majority of the cases of blindness among the Indians of the United States. 

You are therefore directed to induce your male Indians to cut their hair, 
and both sexes to stop painting. With some of the Indians this will be an 
easy matter ; with others it will require considerable tact and perseverance 
on the part of yourself and your employes to successfully carry out these 
instructions. With your Indian employes and those Indians who draw 
rations and supplies it should be an easy matter, as a non-compliance with 
this order may be made a reason for discharge or for withholding rations 
and supplies. Many may be induced to comply with the order voluntarily, 
especially the returned student. The returned students who do not comply 
voluntarily should be dealt with summarily. Employment, supplies, etc., 
should be withdrawn until they do comply, and if they become obstreperous 
about the matter a short confinement in the guard-house at hard labor, 
with shorn locks, should furnish a cure. Certainly all the younger men 
should wear short hair, and it is believed that by tact, perseverance, firm- 
ness, and withdrawal of supplies the agent can induce all to comply with 
this order. 

The wearing of citizen's clothing, instead of the Indian costume and 
blanket, should be encouraged. 

Indian dances and so-called Indian feasts should be prohibited. In many 
cases these dances and feasts are simply subterfuges to cover degrading 
acts and disguise immoral purposes. You are directed to use your best 
efforts in the suppression of these evils. 

On or before June 30, 1902, you will report to this ofifice the progress you 
have made in carrying out the above orders and instructions. 

Very respectfully, 



Dbpartment of thb Interior, Office of Indian Affairs. 

Washington, Jan., 1902. 
Sir — Prom criticisms that have appeared in the newspapers and from in- 
formation that has reached this office from other quarters, it appears that 
the recent circular letter issued, directing the modification or discontinu- 
ance of certain savage customs prevailing among Indian tribes, has been mis- 
understood. This letter is therefore written to remove any doubt on the 

The circular letter referred to was simplj' a declaration of the policy of 
this office and indicated what should be carried out by those having charge 
of the Indians, using tact, judgment and perseverance. It was not expected 
or intended that they should be so precipitated as to give the Indians any 
just cause for revolt, but that they should begin gradually and work 
steadily and tactfully till the end in view should be accomplished. Let it 
be distinctly understood that this is not a withdrawal or revocation of the 
circular letter referred to, but an authoritative interpretation of its meaning. 

Very respectfully, 






J. G. Mossin. 
Henry W. O'Melveny. 
Rev. M. S. Liebana. 
Sumner P. Hunt. 
Arthur B. Benton. 
Mareraret Collier Graham. 
Chas. F. Lummis. 
1033 Santee St. 


President, Chas. F. Lummis. 
Vice-President, Marg-aret Collier Graham. 
Secretary, Arthur B. Benton, 114 N. Spring St. 
Treasurer, J. G. Mossin, California Bank. 
Corresponding- Secretary, Mrs. M. E. Stilson. 
812 Kensington Road. 
Chairman Membership Committee, Mrs. J. G. Mossin, 

INCE the last issue, two pleasant fortunes have befallen 
the Landmarks Club. At Pala, where extensive repairs 
have been undertaken, one of the inscrutable blunders of 
a far-off government had alienated the Mission properties from 
the church many years ago. The chapel and g-raveyard had 
been deeded back by the homesteader ; but he reserved the rest. 
It would be unlike the club's notion of "business" to repair 
building's on private lands which might be sold tomorrow ; and 
it has arranged and carried out a plan by which all the ruins 
revert to their proper ownership — so that the Club can now, as 
means permit, safeguard all the buildings with entire security, 
under a long lease. 

Eschscholtzia Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, has joined the Landmarks Club as a Chapter, feeling that 
there can be no more patriotic work than that which the Club 
is attempting to do. The joint excursion of Club and Chapter 
to the Mission of San Juan Capistrano, Feb. 22nd, was handi- 
capped by rain. A score, however, of the less easily daunted 
passed the day delightfully at this peculiarly beautiful spot, 
where the Landmarks Club has done extensive work. 

Funds are urgently needed to enable the Club to carry out its 
work. Membership is but $1 a year, and is open to all ; life 
membership is $25. 

Previously acknowledged, $4,637.50. 

New contributions — Mrs. Mir a Hershey, Los Angeles, $25 ; 
Jeremiah Ahern, U. S. Geological Survey, $25 ; Eschscholtzia 
Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, Los Angeles, 
$20 ; Frank C. Chase, Ethanac, Cal., $5. 

$2 each — Mrs. J. E. Meeker, Miss A. L. Meeker, Julia A. 
Meeker, Pasadena. 

$1 each— Mrs. M. F. Woodward, Buffalo, N. Y.; Adolph 
Petsch, Mrs. Jennie S. Price, C. B. Boothe, Mrs. C. B. Boothe, 
Los Angeles ; Oliver Hewlett Hicks, Mrs- Oliver Hewlett Hicks, 
Mrs. Peter Goddard Gates, Pasadena ; D. M. McDonald, Miss 
A. E. Wadleigh, Los Angeles ; G. H. Buek, New York ; R. J. 
Vesque, Terre Haute, Indiana ; Dr. T. Mitchell Prudden, Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, N. Y. 



Probably the greatest common denominator of phrase in the 
multitudes of letters which come to this Den monthly is: "I 
do not ag-ree with everything the Lion says, but — " 

When most people shall agree with everything the Lion says, 
he will cease to say anything. He can use himself more profit- 
ably in building his serial stone wall than in saying what no one 
needs to hear said. 

The main object of speech is to express our disagreements. 
If everyone thought and knew the same thing, a vocabulary of 
1000 words at most would be a Morganesque sufficiency for the 
needs of the human race. The savage has few words because 
he needs few, being always orthodox. As we become civilized, 
language multiplies, because we find every day some new point 
to wrangle over. A modern language has to have 50,000 words 
wherewith to explain to most of its natives a few of the things 
they do not know. As we who talk English are the most dis- 
agreeing people on earth, our dictionary has mounted up to 
some 275,000 words — and some of us would need every word in 
the lot to express adequately our dissent from some others. 

Among savages, children and Chautauquans, the prime object 
of speech is to express thought — such as it may be in the specific 
case. Among the mature its most important function is to 
evoke thought. And — in a fashion naturally limited by its limi- 
tations — that is the main object of language in this Den. It is 
not compulsory that we think alike ; the only vital point is that 
we shall think. 

THB COURT Two months ago these pages expressed a conviction 

OF i^sT ^jjg^^ there was going to be a revival of discipline in the 

army and navy ; and that, among other small but typical 
things, the discreditable Schley episode would be closed accord- 
ing to the law and the evidence, and not according to the news- 
boys and the emotions of them that have a chronic cold in the 
back of the head. 

This did not at all flatter the administration. It has proved 
itself all it was expected to be. President Roosevelt's summing* 
up of the Schley appeal to him is a model of justice, clearness 
and " horse sense." It is an example of how simple a proposi- 


tion that the crowd have befog-ged becomes in the hands of a 
man of honesty, courag^e, common sense and the historical 
training. Summarily shaken free of the dust the newspapers 
have raised, the matter becomes almost absurdly plain. 

Sampson laid the plans on which the battle of Santiago was 
fought and won. Only the popular intelligence which pictures 
Grant leading every charge in the Wilderness could have for- 
g-otten this. Schley, precisely like the other subordinates, 
fought the battle according to his lights at the moment. He "com- 
manded" nothing. No other ship obeyed any order from him. 
With Capt. Cook, he handled the "Brooklyn." The "Brook- 
lyn's" famous "loop" by Schley's order was, in Roosevelt's 
words, "the one grave mistake made by any American ship 
that day." Schley says he made it to avoid " dangerous prox- 
imity" to the Spanish ships ; but " Teddy," who never shirked 
a Dangerous Proximity himself, remarks with a certain deadly 
quiet that if the proximity was dangerous for Schley it was 
also dangerous for the Spaniards — a retort courteous to which 
the fact that about as much American blood was shed in this 
" great naval engagement" as is sometimes shed in a prize-fight 
adds poignant edge. Furthermore, remarks the President, the 
danger Schley avoided was not so great as that which Wain- 
wright eagerly sought in his cockleshell, nor even so great as 
that to which Schley's loop exposed our own ship the " Texas." 

President McKinley settled the Santiago matter once, and 
settled it right. President Roosevelt in clearer and more defini- 
tive fashion, has settled it right again. Himself a soldier and a 
historian, Roosevelt has adjudicated the case as history will 
write it. If we may now be spared any more sorehead proces- 
sions, Thanksgiving Day cannot come around any too soon. 

The observance of Washington's birthday by a fist- fists and 
fight in the United States Senate (another potential other 

volume, by the wa}^ for the Rev. Cyrus Brainsend 
Towdy's projected series of All the Fights as Ever Was) is cer- 
tainly hot " to be proud of." Yet as jugs are almost the only 
things known to science whose handle is all on one side, it may 
be well to remember a few things which "rank" even Senatorial 

It is fit to hold the two South Carolina Senators in contempt 
of the Senate. Let us hope the}'^ shall be adequately fined or 
imprisoned — or both — for usurping the prerogative of the people- 
at-large. Senator Tillman, in particular, is one with whom the 
Lion has no shred of congenital sympathy — ^partisan, sociologic 
or de gustihus. He talks too much, too hard, and too soon. He 
is an unreconstructed limb of the society which has suffered in- 


comparably more by Negro slavery than the Negro did — the 
chivalry which learned from slave-owning that work is only for 
Slaves, and forgets the wisdom of the ages that the only Free 
Man is the man who Works. 

But on the other hand, Mr. Tillman seems to have a soul of 
his own, such as it is — and any sort is a good deal, nowadays. 
I do not know of any advantage he can gain — or can think to 
gain — by his diatribes. Certainly there seems to be no lead- 
ing up to contracts in them. Many of them are ill-judged; some 
of them are absurd. But it is something, in these days, for a 
man to dare to protest — and to care to protest; for certainly there 
are more that dare than that care. 

The Lion has no prevalent regard for the Southern idea of 
"honor" — the duello code which a year or so ago we seemed 
about to adopt in national affairs It is mostly a matter of 
maturity. But the Lion can understand it, having once been 19 
years old himself. He is not yet wholly past the capacity to 
find the next man's nose, under due provocation ; he still be- 
lieves there are noses and cases whereunto any other logic is 
inadequate ; he would be sorry ever to become so senile that he 
had not a fist for occasion. But he would be sorrier yet to have 
no panacea for every ill but a swat. Man is first and last an 
animal, and at the very last must fall back upon the only animal 
argument. But bet ween- times, how far he has improved upon 
the common run of animals is best proved by his alternatives. 
The man who can fight, and will fight if must be — but won't 
fight if his brains are a successful Third Party — is the man the 
world hinges on. The man who Fights Anyhow, because he 
knows no other way, is at least an animal. The featherless 
biped who canH fight on occasion is neither man nor longer even 

Indecent as the Tillman-McLaurin discussion was, there have 
been unmanlier things done in the United States Senate. Not 
to mention worse aspects ; not to dwell on the *' trades " which 
are made in that august chamber every day ; not to be humor- 
ous over the Senate's virtuous horror when the uncouth Tillman 
mentions one of them — calling names is only a more timid form 
of fisticufi's. It may be "culture" that keeps the gentlemen 
from physical contact, or it may be cowardice — and this is a 
differentiation we doubtless all have to think of for ourselves as 
we grow older and less impetuous and less competent. Civili- 
zation (another name for age) has enabled us to find a consoling 
difference between being called parliamentary liars and plain 
liars. But it is as well to remember that there is some draw- 
back in bein£r a liar, even in an economy where "everything: 


While we Have Pun watching- each political division our 
of Burope forg-et its ancient digfnities in an endeavor to sense of 

establish that it was Our Only Friend in Time of 
Trouble ; while recent events have proved that Eng:land (not 
the English People, on whose blood friendship we may reason- 
ably count, but the same litter of Eng-lish politicians that hoped 
to "do" us in 1776, in 1812, in 1861) was not our "friend" in 
1898 ; while we have now learned from the oflScial papers — a 
little late but sharply enough to make up — that instead of stand- 
ing- off all Europe it was England that took the initiative in 
opposing our Spanish war, and would have rallied the nations 
in protest if Germany had not "sat down upon" the proposi- 
tion ; while the American Sense of Humor has its due exercise 
with these international funninesses — it is just as well not to 
forget the deeper fact that every civilized power on earth (includ- 
ing England, which tried to say so ; including Germany, which 
kept England or anyone else from saying so) felt that we were 
unjustified in our war with Spain. And while our cheap poli- 
ticians now thumb their nose at the "consent of any other 
nation," this country was founded (as everyone knows who ever 
read the Declaration of Independence) and will endure only 
"with a decent regard to the opinions of mankind." 

It has also been proved that our Spanish War was needless. 
It has been proved that Spain made every concession we asked ; 
that it revoked the Reconcentrado policy ; that it ordered in 
Cuba " an immediate and unconditional cessation of hostilities 
for six months." It is proved that Prest. McKinley did not in- 
form Congress or the country of this vital fact. It is proved 
that a downhill Congress declared war on Spain "for not doing" 
what Spain had already done — and would have done thrice over 
if we had asked it and given her a chance. 

But she was given no chance. The Newspapers which could 
sell copies ; the Promoters who could get franchises ; the Con- 
tractors who could poison American soldiers with Alger-Egan 
beef ; the Congressmen who could play to the gallery — these 
had to have War Anyhow. War is a Warm Market. It sells 
papers and canned meats — and Boys who know no better. 
Bands play and girls cry, and the Boys march. I personally 
saw the vast majority of them that sailed for the Philippines, 
and found out what they were thinking ; I personally have 
talked with thousands of those that have come back. I have 
yet to meet a single one who Liked his Job. That this my 
personal experience is no accident is best proved by the noto- 
rious fact that the American boys in the Philippines do not re- 


enlist. We need soldiers there ; but"they are willing: to let 
someone else have the job. 

It is earlyfto write history ; but it is not too soon to remember 
some of the truths from which history will be written. 

TOO QUICK In the Golden Age of New Mexico and Arizona, there 

ON THB were some hasty gentlemen (the Lion knew two of them) 

for whom the course of Nature and the expedition of 

Col. Colt were too slow. They could not wait to go off even at 

half-cock ; but lashed the triggers of their six-shooters back 

to the guard, and " fanned " the hammer with their left hand. 

This made impressively immediate shooting, and many times 
caused popular resorts to become void in short order. But the 
Lion never knew it to hit anything, save on the historic occasion 
when Wm. Martin, Esq., walked into the only ball of six he 
could find at a six-foot range, took it in good part and a short 
rib, and dispassionately cracked the " fanner's" skull with his 
fist. Perhaps to make plain how eloquent was this his comment 
on "fanning," it should be added that Mr. Martin probably 
never struck anyone before or since. His native tongue was a 
pair of six-shooters, with which it was his familiar diversion to 
crack twelve bottles in ten seconds at thirty feet, and with 
which his little tally of twenty-three men had been mostly — if 
not altogether — made. This one pugilism was his verdict, too 
contemptuous for words or lead, as to persons too hurried to 
shoot straight. 

The people who have, as to national affairs in the last three 
years, tied back the trigger and fanned their tongues, are far 
more numerous but no better shots. If the capacity to blush for 
misses generally went with this sort of fiddling with fire-arras, 
there would be by now a rubicund cast around most of the hori- 
zon. I am not referring at all to the born buzzards who look at 
a national policy only to see what pickings there may be in it. 
These are not numerous enough in any country in the world to 
do any special harm if half the decent people do half their duty 
— as they are numerous enough in every country to prostitute it 
if we permit them. The p'int of this lies in the application on't 
to the people who in their heart know better but who have raged 
perfunctorily at the tail of the torchlight procession of the pro- 
moters. They talked mob ; they would have been a mob if they 
had not lacked courage and conviction. But they got no farther 
— because they really did not believe themselves— than perfectly 
secure boycotting of such people as insisted that the country 
should save a shred of honor. 

And now they find themselves with their "guns " empty and 
no one hit. They are spiked, silent, inconsequent. No one 


cares — not even themselves — what they thought they thought. 
The world has gone on and left them. The promoters are still 
there ; but they have awakened to a slow consciousness that 
they do not belong with the promoters. 

It is no longer " treason" to quote the Constitution or we have 
the Declaration of Independence. Even the newspaper changed 

mind no longer suffers epilepsy about "copperheads." 
The " traitors " have become so many and so big that the word 
falls back down cautious throats — and they are always cautious 
alone who roar loudest in their own crowd. 

" Treason doth never prosper. What's the reason ? 
Why, if it prosper, none dare call it treason." 

And now it prospers. President Roosevelt, in his first message 

to Congress, not only calls the Philippine war " a great burden" 

but says : 

" We do not desire to do for the islanders merely what has elsewhere 
been done for tropic peoples by even the best foreig"n governments. We 
hope to do for them what has never before been done for any people of the 
tropics — to make them fit for self-government after the fashion of the really 
free nations." 

"What does this mean," comments Dr. Schurman, president 
of McKinley's Philippine Commission, in his magnificent ad- 
dress,* "but that the Filipinos are to be taught to govern 
themselves as Americans or Englishmen govern themselves ?" 
It means nothing else. It means Filipino Independence 
whenever they can handle it. It means that we are not 
"going to keep them." It means that the Flag is going to 
Come Down when it has done its work ; as it came down in 
Mexico, as it came down in China. It means that in spite of 
the ranters and the cormorants. Old Glory is not to be a flag of 
Conquest. It means an American sobering-up after our opium- 
dream of Expansion. It means that the Beveridge sophomorics 
are outgrown. 

With this unmistakable forecast we who have fought the tem- 
porary madness that would have misused the war, may forbear 
to twit further upon the initial blunder. We all make mistakes. 
But if out of this mistake we may build up a real advantage to 
humanity, let us cease harping and begin to help constructing. 
With a united nation at his back, Roosevelt's noble words can 
be made to come true. As soon as Americans can be sure that 
this is really our policy, our ranks will close up. As soon as the 
Filipinos can be assured of the same thing, there will be no 
war, no disgraceful sedition law, no reconcentration, no water 
cure, "no nothing" for anyone to be sorry for who desires free- 
dom for himself or for others. 

* Now pnblished in book form by Scribaers, New York. Price 60 cents. 


°^® The kind of intelligence it takes to be a Congressman 

KIND OP ^-^ ^ long-suffering public needs any diagram) is ably 

delineated by Congressman Weeks, of Michigan, who 
has recently been over to the Philippines to "investigate." 
"For over three centuries," says this legislative Sleuth, 
" there has never been a land title on record [in the Philippines] 
outside of the church. . . . The archives of the church 
are the public archives of the Philippine archipelago." And 
more of the same sort. 

If this is what Mr. Weeks learned by junketing 7,000 miles, 
he could have saved money and credit by staying at home. 
Even if he had spent his vacation in feeding his mind on news- 
papers, he could not have emerged more ignorant. 

As a matter of fact, no land title in the Philippines was ever 
recorded inside the church. Land titles in the Philippines have 
as much to do with the church as they have in Washington or 
Cheboygan. "The archives of the church" are as much "the 
public archives of the Philippine archipelago" as they are the 
archives of the U. S. Land Office. Just so much and no more. 

An American Congressman " investigating" in Manila must 
be an industrious person to evade this truth. I chance to know 
that Congressman Weeks was in a room whose walls are lined 
with cases of land titles, and that they were pointed out to him. 
They were part of the archives of the Philippine archipelago ; 
they are part of the archives of our government. They were 
not looted from churches by Gov. Taft. 

To anyone who knows anything about the subject such ignor- 
ance might seem incredible — except that the same men who 
know these things have mostly had experience with the Con- 
gressman Abroad; and those who have had experience with him 
are prepared for anything — though Mr. Weeks may well stagger 
the most prepared. It is hardly necessary to add that this 
Wise Person finds the Filipino race "crafty, treacherous and 

CROWING The advantages of a short memory to one about to 

^°° brag are recalled by estimates from the Treasury Bureau 

^^" ■ of Statistics. "In gold, silver [and several other 
metals] the product of the United States exceeds that of any 
other country, and in every instance, except possibly copper, 
surpasses her own record in any preceding year. These esti- 
mates put the gold production of 1901 at $80,218,800, against 
$79,171,000 in 1900, which was the highest record in gold pro- 
duction that the United States ever made. They put the silver 
production of 1901 at 59,653,788 ounces." 

Indeed ! In 1893 the silver production of the United States 


was 60,000,000 ounces. In 1892 it was 63,000,000. As for gold, 
the one State of California in the year 1852 produced $85,000,000 
— which is nearly $5,000,000 more than the figures now alleged 
to be the highest the whole United States ever touched. The 
present tendency of our national bird to sit up on the top rail 
and crow is all well enough in its way; but there are dangers in 
the Rooster Habit. 

"December has been a good month for education," from the 
writes Miss Gilder in the Critic. "Thirty million center of 


dollars from Mrs. Stanford to the University of Cali- 
fornia, and ten million dollars from Mr. Carnegie for a Uni- 
versity at Washington." 

Any month is a good month for " Education " in the West ; 
but it is hard to perceive that December differed from any other 
month in its effect on the intelligence of the East. Maybe Mr. 
Carnegie's University will remedy all this, when it gets to go- 
ing — if those shall attend who most need to. 

In Berlin, Manila and Sidney, it is known that the Leland 
Stanford, jr.. University was founded ten years ago ; that it 
is about twice as well endowed as any other university in the 
world ; that its president is David Starr Jordan (who has also 
been heard of there); that it turns out graduates as well equipped 
as any ; that the Stanford millions are in the Stanford Univer- 
sity and in no other ; that there is a University of California 
many years older, presided over by the not unknown Benj. Ide 
Wheeler ; that it is one of the largest and best State Univer- 
sities in America ; that it is supported by the State and by 
private benefactions ; that not so many years ago as to be be- 
yond the ken of such as know or care anything about "Edu- 
cation," Mrs. Phebe A. Hearst instituted a competition, open to 
all the architects of the world and on princely lines, for a com- 
plete architectural plan for the University of California, and 
that a plan of extraordinary beauty and scope (whose buildings 
will cost ten times as much as all the buildings of any univer- 
sity in the East or in England) wOn the prize. There is also 
more or less awareness in Hongkong and Buda-Pesth that Mrs. 
Hearst and Mrs. Stanford are not aliases for the same person ; 
that Jordan and Wheeler differ in avoirdupois ; that Berkeley 
and Palo Alto are not like some Mexican land-grants, two or 
three deep in the same township. In a word, that California 
has two Universities, both big, both successful, both deserving 
success, both with sinews of war ; in proportion to population 
about four times ahead of any State east of the Missouri. 

And now and then someone complains that the Lion is hard 
on the complacent illiteracy of the East. 

Chas. F. Lummis. 





To " view with sneemess" the 
Rev. Cyrus Townsend Brady's recent 
secession from the pulpit so that he mig-ht 
"^ ' ■' have leisure to write more than three books a year — 

all about various breeds of " Fighters" — clearly does not pertain to any 
who wot not what sort of a parson he was. If his ministry resembled hi» 
writing, he doubtless hath chosen the better part. 

Mr. Brady has points. He writes eagerly, sympathetically, sometimes 
vividly — though in a somewhat popgun rhetoric. He could do work that 
would be worth something if — this is hard to have to say of a clergyman, 
even past the ex-, but it is true — if he would learn that there are morals 
even in the making of books. 

By compulsion of duty I have read all Mr. Brady's " Works;" the only 
one to remain on my shelves is his latest — and that because of its peculiar 
noxiousness in a field I know, and as to which my library must retain not 
only the dependable books but the " terrible examples." His — partly be'- 
cause of his position and quondam calling, partly for its sheer ignorance — 
is prominent among the latter. 

To a rough lay Westerner there is a certain curiosity in the phenomenon 
of a preacher to whom the only " heroes" worth writing about — in a very 
incontinence of books — are all "killers." I have seen more killing than 
Mr. Brady has seen or is like to; and am quite as fond of a good fight ; and 
have known and loved more good fighters. But I never knew a real fighter 
who could not talk, write, eat, breatlR or dream anything but Gore. Those 
symptoms are generally confined to such as suffer from a disease compara- 
ble to senile desire. And I would a little rather see even a person who fights 
on paper find occasionally some other of the topics which might give him 
scope. Most people who hunt real hard can find something to hit, nowa- 
days, a little more consequent than a bloody nose. But this is purely a 
matter of taste, proverbially not to be disputed — particularly with those 
who have none. 

When, however, Mr. Brady, to gratify his plush bellicosity, takes to 
" historical" throat-cutting — as he does more or less in all his books, and 
most disastrously the latest, Colonial Fig'hts and Fighters, it is time for 
some one to remind him. For here he meddles not with taste alone but 
with facts eternal. He deals, through nearly one-third of this book, with 
Spanish-American history ; and he was not ready. He has the confidence 
to say, over his own signature, in his prefatory note, "I have freely made 
use of every source of information which would throw light upon the sub" 
ject." But he will doubtless retract that foolish statement. Mr. Brady 
knows that he has not made any use whatever of one per cent, of the 
sources that would throw light upon the subject. If he doesn't know it, 
he simply doesn't know what the sources are — which is doubtless the case. 
The one source he names is Parkman — truly the greatest of American 
historians, but certainly no encyclopedia of authority on the history of 
Spanish-America. As a matter of fact, Mr. Brady not only never has read, 


he cannot now read, any vital source which " throws light" on the first 
nine chapters of his book. If he will prove me wrong, he shall have (with 
the reader who has prior claim) the humblest apology I can learn to give. 

De Soto and De Gourgues indeed ! What does the Reverend author think 
he knows about them ? Who informed him that de Soto was the " best of 
the Conquistadors^^ — and in what language did he learn that able word? Has 
he so soon forgotten, since he swapped the ministry for a tickling of other 
warriors-in-law, that as soon as he had eaten of the Tree of Knowledge 
even that primordial person Adam was ashamed of his nakedness ? Even 
so shall Mr. Brady be, if he is ever tempted and Eats. 

His ambitions (so he tells us) look "to the completion of a Battle History 
of America, in which the stories of all the conflicts, wars, and adventures, 
which have taken place on the continent will eventually find a place." The 
"language" and the modesty are Mr. Brady's; the italics mine. Of 
course, even Mr. Brady's crepitatious typewriter will never be so much as 
aimed at the ten-thousandth part of " all the wars, conflicts and adven- 
tures" on this continent. But a " Battle History" — any kind of a history 
— from Mr. Brady ! This is really a little too much, even in a day when 
words are about as precise as bean-bags. How much too much, every vol- 
ume he has printed shows. Mr. Brady is not solitary in his concept of the 
functions of the historian — that one need only take a few short-order meals 
of predigested food, and atone with adjectives for the rest. Of the historical 
digestion he is innocent as a babe — that heaven-sent stomach which takes 
fish, flesh, fowl and Welsh rabbit, throws off their dead matter and turns 
their virtues to blood and tissue and bone wherewith to go and Do Things. 
In this, his present book, the impression is of about every fifth word an 
epithet. If he has in his life consulted one original source, the fact is 
neither mentioned nor indicated in his writings ; but he has already enough 
adjectives to serve all the historians in a generation. 

It is not worth while now to make categoric fun of Mr. Brady's innocence 
of Spanish-American history ; nor to mock overmuch at his guiltlessness 
of History all-and-several. The vital point is that not even by throwing up 
the pulpit can a man elude responsibility ; and that history is no less con- 
consecrated a temple than the one he has quit. Let him take his hat off be- 
fore he goes in. 

A man who writes only because he has something to say, on the 
subjects it is worth while to say something about — and who says reai^ 

it, withal, in a medium unanilined as the Word — is nowadays one thing. 

of the rarest bipeds without feathers. It would be a little of an impertin- 
ence to "review" John Muir's Our National Parks. It doesn't need it. 
There are only a few people alive competent (by equal parts of knowledge 
of the theme and an equivalent literary gift) to appraise it. But all that 
have the Breath of I^ife in them are competent to read it and grow by it ; 
nor will any of them find it hard reading. It is the very antithesis of 
Sheridan's epigram. And it is one of the books everyone should read who 
cares for beauty either in nature or in letters.* Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 

That extraordinarily able and meatj' little editorial weekly, The Public, 
will raise its price, April 12, to $2 a year. It is already worth it. Of late 
I find myself disagreeing more and more often with Mr. Post's theories ; 
but the pleasure of reading his fine, direct and powerful English, and of 
noting his moral courage, continues sufficient excuse for a busy man to give 
its due time each week to The Public. Chicago. $1 a year. 

The long-expected magazine Records of the Past, edited by Rev. Henry 
Mason Baum, D. C. L., has appeared in generous and attractive form. Its 
plan to present the results of investigation and discovery in the history of 
man, giving especial attention to American antiquities, will commend it- 
self to the thoughtful. Washington, D.C. $2 a year. 

C. P. L. 

* See page 274. 

314 OUT W EST 

KIPLING If every other line that Kipling has ever written were blotted 

HIMSBI.F out, his fame would rest securely on Kim alone. This latest book^ 

indeed, shows a sustained power, a largeness of grasp, and a 
breadth of conception almost up to the hopes of his most judicious ad- 
mirers, and incredibly beyond the level of most of his recent work. Nor i» 
this extension of his horizons set off by any loss of intension. There i» 
the same micro-photographic eye for detail, the same relentless mastery 
of vivid, nervous English, the same sure instinct for the points of a breath- 
less story that made his earlier Indian Tales a revelation and a delight. 
He has returned to India in this maturer work— and the reading world 
may be thankful. For, solely as a panorama of life in that Motherland of 
Nations and quite apart from the fascinations of the story, it is a rich and 
lasting addition to literature. And, on the other hand, the story of Kim- 
ball O'Hara — an Irish Gavroche, orphaned in India — how he became chela 
to a Tibetan lama, how he qualified for the " Great Game" of the Indian 
Secret Service, and how he took his first trick in the playing of it — these 
need no further excuse for their telling than the absorbing interest with 
which Mr. Kipling has invested them. Whoever has not already made the 
acquaintance of the " Little Friend of All the World ;" of the red lama. 
Abbot of Suchzen before he set out in search of the River of the Arrow 
which should wash away all sin ; of Hurree Chunder Moodkerjee, that 
"most fearful man" whose occupation leads him constantly into "damn- 
tight places ;" of the scarlet-bearded Pathan horse-dealer; of the Mahar- 
anee of Saharunpore and the Woman of Shamlegh — should make haste to 
introduce himself to that goodly company. 

Yet Mr. Kipling must gain something, and lose more, if he is ever to 
rank — as some of us have hoped — among the Immortals. Some of his work 
will doubtless endure, but the man himself will be but a name. He sees, 
within the limits of his vision, with almost supernal clearness — and enables 
us to see with him. But he rarely makes us feel Bit all. It is a cold heart 
that has no love for Gavroche — Kim, with all his cleverness, wins from us 
no more than interest and admiration. As for love between man and 
woman — which enters not at all into the present book — Kipling seems to 
regard it as a sort of trap into which every man is bound to fall one or 
more times — generally many more — and from which he is lucky to escape 
only scarred. And his mingled fear and hatred of Frenchman, Russ and 
whoever else not of "Anglo-Saxon" blood, lest they may essay to bear a 
part of the " White's Man's Burden," shows no sign of abatement. 

All the same, Kim is a great book, and one no reader can afford to miss. 
Doubleday, Page «& Co., New York ; C. C. Parker, Los Angeles. $1.50. 

IF HE Compressed without crowding or omission, appreciative without 

ONLY over-enthusiasm, balanced without coldness, George Rice Carpen- 

^^^ ■ ter's Study of Longfellow, in the " Beacon Biographies" is a 
thoroughly admirable piece of work. Here is a taste of it, peculiarly apt 
for quotation in these pages. The reference is to the time of his second 
marriage, at 36: " Could his good angel have translated him to the Far 
West, where in the open stinging air he could have toiled hard and fought 
long with man and nature; . . . could he have married some vigorous 
Western girl who had small patience with his books and his foreign tastes; 
... it would either have put an end forever to his versifying or have 
made him a poet of far higher rank, one who sings not of the past, but of 
the present and future, not of distant lands but of home, not of gentle pas- 
sion, but of the real warfare of life." The frontispiece portrait is wholly 
satisfying, though it is not of the silver-haired singer who is within the 
memory of this generation, but of the scholarly Harvard professor of fiftj 
years ago. Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. 75 cents. 


A savage and relentless book is The House With the Green born of 
Shutters — a book apparently inspired by bitter personal hatred GALiy and 

and contempt. What did any Scotch village do to George Douglass BITTERNESS, 

that the young Oxonian should paint it in his first book as a veritable 
Place of Torment, without charity, without affection, without sympathy, 
without a single high aspiration or uplifting purpose. A powerful story it 
is, without doubt — one of the strongest and most pitiless studies in morbid 
psychology ever written — and both artistic and true in the converging of 
the ways of heritage and circumstance and choice to lead the Gourlay 
family down to the pit of utter and shameful destruction. But the artist 
in color who chooses for his models the inmates of a cancer hospital, an in- 
ebriate asylum and a sanitarium for consumptives, neither has made a wise 
choice nor can represent physical humanity truly in any large sense. No 
more right has the artist in words to picture men by their sins and follies 
and failures alone. Mr. Brown has it in him to do work of the first order, 
but he must first purge his heart, curb his passion and clear his eyes. Mc- 
Clure, Phillips «& Co., New York ; C. C. Parker, Ivos Angeles. $1.50. 

" Historical fiction " is at once a tempting and a betray- GOOD 
ing field for the teller of tales. It looks easy to a fluent and as to 

imaginative writer to cut and shape the cloth of fact into a BOTH, 

fit robe for the form of fancy. But quite too often the garment proves 
to be no more than a clumsy and bedraggled skirt, quite useless 
except to get under the feet of the story at every few pages and 
throw it out of its stride. Allen French's The Colonials does not 
fail thus — nor, indeed, in any other way. Dealing, after the few open- 
ing chapters, with Boston in the earliest days of the Revolution, the history 
is careful, undistorted and clearly demarked from the fiction, without 
impeding it. The story is vigorous, rarely overpassing probability and 
not too bloodthirsty. Even a reader somewhat surfeited with death at 
the swordpoint finds the duel-scene between Bllery and Sotheran worth a 
second reading. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. $1.50. 

It was not enough for Clara Morris to have been the NEW laurEI<S 
most compelling emotional actress of her day. She for an oi,d 

must now, as the shadows lengthen, give the world favorite. 

such a book as many a veteran of literary struggle . would sur- 
render half his laurels to be able to write — and make the best bargain of 
his life in doing it. Her Life on the Stage is a wholly delightful volume of 
reminiscence and autobiography. Fascinating as a romance, clean as a 
prayer-book, simple and straightforward as a child's tale, yet informed 
with a wide and clear-eyed experience, the only fault I find with it is that 
it stops at page 399 — and at the beginning of her fullest and most successful 
years. For this offense the only fitting penalty is adjudged to be that she 
shall forthwith proceed to write another volume just like it — only more so, 
McClure, Phillips «& Co., New York ; C. C. Parker, Ivos Angeles. $1,50, 

Most people find their own photographs interesting, and made 
Anna Farquhar's Her Boston Experiences h3.s doubtless sold in 

largely in Boston. It may fairly be described as a kind BOSTON, 

of glorified guide-book of fads and foibles as well as streets and 
buildings, illuminated by undeniable cleverness, illustrated with 
good half-tones, and reprinted from the Ivadies' Home Journal. 
The "rich verdancy" of a mind not blessed with a Bostonian's share of "a 
large percentage of hereditary intelligence " may well enough extract 
useful additions to its working vocabulary from this book. " Viand booth," 
for example, seems a pleasing variant of lunch counter. !<. C. Page & Co., 
Boston. $1.25. 

Books of " popular science" are quite too commonly neither EOHIPPUS, 
popular nor scientific. Frederick A. Ivucas's Animals of the hesperornis 

Past is scientific and ought to be popular. It is a successful at- and others. 

tempt to put into form suited for the average digestion the latest expert 
knowledge and conjecture concerning the animal life of geologic periods 
prior to our own. The very full and careful illustrations are especially 
notable, and the book is admirable in many respects, McClure, Phillips & 
Co., New York, $2, net. 


The third number of Country Life in America is devoted larg^ely to Cali- 
fornia, and is quite up to the high standard of previous issues. The half- 
tone reproductions are of really remarkable quality. 

Albert Lathrop Lawrence has made a readable story of Juell Denting. 
His young- Canadian hero has a narrow shave with "brain fever" in Illi- 
nois, another with a bullet wound in Cuba, and a third with a fall over a 
cliff in South Africa, and comes dangerously near to marrying the wrong 
woman. He escapes all these perils, and none of his experiences shake his 
belief in a coming " Anglosaxony" which " shall be bounded as the world 
is bounded." A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. $1.25. 

In Maggie McLanahan, Gulielma Zollinger tells the story of a fifteen- 
year-old orphan girl who has to solve the problem of supporting herself and 
a three-year-old cousin, with just five dollars for a starting point. The 
spirit with which she attacks it may be gathered from her cheerful reflec- 
tion when there is little else to cheer her, " Sure, and the air's good, any- 
way, and there's plenty of it, too." It is a bright, amusing, and entirely 
wholesome tale, in which the little heroine fully earns the homely success 
she wins. A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. $1, net. 

Mrs. Salzscheider's Pandora is a reasonably well looking book with un- 
reasonably small excuse for being. The Whitaker & Ray Co., San Fran- 
cisco. $1.00. 

Probably Sam C. Dunham would not ask to have his verses published 
under the title of The Goldsmith of Nome, judged as poetrj-. But there is 
a good deal of grim humor about them, the sure touch of a man who is 
saturated with his subjects, and the breezy, rough-and-ready swing that 
belongs with Cape Nome and the Klondike. Their main text- the failure 
at Washington to provide fit government for Alaska — is driven home. The 
Neale Publishing Co., Washington ; The Whitaker & Ray Co., San Fran- 
cisco. $1. 

Vol. VI in the '* Western Series of Readers" is Stories of Our Mother 
Earth, by Dr. Harold W. Fairbanks, of the State University. Its purpose 
is to put into form to interest and instruct a child some of the elementary 
facts about the form, structure and composition of the earth's surface — 
most successful when the effort to " write down " to the child's comprehen- 
sion is least in evidence. The Whitaker & Ray Co., San Francisco. 

Ivionel Josaphare has a musical ear, a profuse vocabulary, an imagination 
that works overtime and at high pressure. But it sadly needs a governor. 
There is some golden poetry in his Turquoise and Iron — and a good deal of 
brazen nonsense. For example, an enquiry why human life should be, in 
one line, a " hideous, tortured cripple," and in the next " a serpent's fangy 
jole. And the foldings of its tail still in the cursed future roll " might well 
enough make anyone want an explanation "Why my haunted crisscross brain 
In this manor should be dwelling while my heart flies in the rain." A. M. 
Robertson, San Francisco. $1.20, net. 

An edition de luxe of dear old Mother Goose would have seemed to the 
author of that epic a richer absurdity than any of its own. But W. W. 
Denslow has perpetrated precisely that thing, and done it with entire suc- 
cess. The illustrations simply hit the top-notch of artistic comicality. The 
child who fails to see this will clearly have been defrauded. McClure, 
Phillips & Co., New York ; C. C. Parker, Los Angeles. $1.50. 

Carolyn Wells's jingles and Peter Newell's illustrations in color, aided by 
excellent work on the publisher's side^ have made Mother Goose's Men- 
agerie a book to be gloated over by the very little people. Noyes, Piatt & Co., 
Boston. $1.50. 

Evelyn Sharp's Youngest (rirl in the School is a lively and interesting 
story of English school-girl life and manners. It is a little startling to 
find the talk to his sister of the gently-bred son of a lecturer on philosophy 
larded — within two pages — with "rotten," " rottenest of rotters," "got 
in a funk," and "such rot." But this may be only uuexpurgated re- 
porting. The Macmillan Company, New York and London. $1.50. 

C. A. M. 


^O^Ccifcl»ny ^e.^t 

Conducted by WILLIAM E. SMYTHE. 



HAT'S the thing-; and, while we are doing- it, 
to build it plumb and true ! And when I 
say the State, I am not thinking of Cali- 
fornia alone, but of the whole broad West, 
which is our heritage. Nor would I confine the 
expression to the West. The State of which I am 
thinking is the Republic, and never for one mo- 
ment would I admit that it is of more consequence 
to the people of California, Nevada, Colorado or 
any other Western community, that we should 
build a civilization among these valleys and moun- 
tains than it is to the people of the Atlantic seaboard and the 
Mississippi Valley. These questions with which we are deal- 
ing, in working out the economic and social institutions of the 
New America, possess a sharp significance for every man who 
dwells within the United States, whether he is employer or work- 
man, banker or borrower, prosperous or pinched with poverty. 
Two hundred years ago men and communities were, in a large 
measure, independent. Now they are absolutely interdependent. 
They are like a row of bricks: push one and all the rest topple 
over. Stagnation in the West means depression in the East. 
We are all producers and all consumers. When the outlet for 
our products is blocked, we suffer from industrial congestion. 
So it comes that in building the State, in the broad and compre- 
hensive sense of the term, we are making the future of all our 
people between the two oceans. 

To one who has studied the Greater West with pas- 
sionate interest during the last dozen years — who has 
held his ear to count the heartbeats of Arid America — 
the slow and halting steps by which progress has been made are 
painful to contemplate. True, the raining industry has ex- 
panded by strides and bounds. Railroads have been somewhat 
extended. Large cities have grown larger. But what of the 
growth of civilization in its higher aspects ? Are more people 
becoming independent ? Are homes multiplying upon the soil ? 
Have the cooperative forces, which worked such wonders in the 
way of consolidating industries and transportation lines worked 
out equally important results for those who toil with hand and 
brain in humble occupations? Have we raised the common 
standard of living and ennobled the lives of those average peo- 




pie who make up the masses of our population ? Have we 
softened the rough edges of our frontier life — twined the honey- 
suckle over the door and filled the air with the fragrance of the 
rose? In a word, has our social progress kept pace with our 
material achievement? Frankly, it has not. Private fortunes 
we have made, but the public fortune has been neglected. And 
still the West stands vacant, voiceless, waiting — waiting for the 
electric touch which shall speak a mighty civilization into being 
to the gain of our common humanity. Whence shall the im- 
pulse come ? 

THE MIGHT OF The impulse must come from the body politic. We 

oKGANizED have been trying to accomplish things by private enter- 

prise which largely belong to the sphere of government. 
By means of private enterprise we tried to irrigate the arid 
lands. The effort was a failure. By the same means we tried 
to colonize lands which we had managed to irrigate, and that 
was mostly a failure, too. By the same means we tried to 
organize our producers into working cooperative bodies. This 
effort has been attended with much success, yet it stops far 
short of the realization of its possibilities. By private means 
we tried to avoid constant strife between workman and em- 
ployer. Our effort in this direction was an abject failure, with 
consequences that cry aloud for reform. We have outgrown our 
day of little things. We stand awed and cowed before the maj- 
esty of great things. Their problems defy the pun}- efforts of 
individuals and small associations of individuals. But what no 
one of us can do alone, and what no small group of us can ac- 
complish, the people organized in the form of government are 
able to do with ease and success. The American people can 
store all the floods that now go to waste in the Gulf of Mexico 
and the Pacific Ocean. The President of the United States 
says they should do so by a system of public works, to take the 
place of that system of private works which has confessedly 
failed. So the people of the West, backed by the nation, can 
solve the problem of giving the masses of men easy access to the 
soil. That is the essence of the colonization problem. They 
can also decree that strikes and lockouts shall be no more, by 
putting compulsory arbitration in place of force. Indeed, they 
can solve the economic problem of the time, which, in simplest 
terms, is this : How shall we give the largest number of people 
the greatest possible prosperity ? This is only another way of 
phrasing George Eliot's philosophy, as she put it into the 
mouth of Felix Holt: "The greatest question in the world is 
this — how to give every man in the world a man's share of what 
goes on in life ? " 

THRKR To be more specific, the problem presents itself in 

cHuciAi. these new Western States, with their tremendous unde- 

yuESTioNs. ygiQpgd natural wealth, in the following pointed way: 
First, how shall we get the water on the land ? 
Second, how shall we get the man on the land ? 
Third, how shall we make the man prosperous — secure in his 
living and his home — after he has gone upon the land ? 

Answer these questions, and we solve the problem of prosper- 


ity, not merely for an agricultural population, but for those 
^nofagfed in the manifold employments of the town, and for 
those who move the people and their products over land and sea. 

The first question is already on the highroad to solu- o^ thb 
tion. About all of us have recovered from the fever of ^'^'^solution 

speculation in water and are now prepared to subscribe 
to the doctrine of public ownership of irrigation works. The 
President's message marked out a comprehensive plan for re- 
claiming the public domain. In California we have another as- 
pect of the question, with which we must deal ourselves. We 
have millions of acres of lands which have been long in private 
ownership, reclaimed to some extent by numerous conflicting 
private canals. Here there is a demand for better titles to water, 
for improved methods of distribution, and for the storage of the 
floods. The most striking example of this sort of situation is 
found in the Kings River country, with which another article in 
this number deals quite fully. The reader who has followed the 
irrigation discussion in these pages must, I think, begin to see 
that the only logical answer to the first of our three questions is 
a system of public works and the exercise of public authority 
over the distribution of the water supply, even where the own- 
ership of canals continues in private hands. 

For the answer to the second question the New Zea- new zeai<and 
land institutions offer the best suggestions. The two ^^thbTway 

articles on those institutions which have already ap- 
peared in these pages tell us how the man can be got upon the soil 
and how the workmen remaining in the town may be relieved of 
the agony of strikes. Whatever the public may think of the 
New Zealand plans there can be no question that the State must 
use its great power in directing scientific colonization and com- 
pelling peace between labor and capital. Nothing is more 
clearly beyond the reach of private enterprise ; nothing more 
closely related to the prosperity of the community. 

V But we still have left the third question : How shall conditions 
the man be made prosperous after he has gone upon the prosperity 

•soil ? He must have a profitable market for what he 
produces. He must have a means of purchasing his supplies 
on the shrewdest terms. He must be able to borrow money 
when he needs it for a productive purpose or as a means of hold- 
ing his crop until the favorable moment for selling. If he can- 
not enjoy a large measure of independence in all these respects, 
he will surely be the victim of those who control the sale of his 
products, of those who furnish him with supplies, and of those 
who lend him mone)" to meet his urgent needs. The farmer is 
a business man. He must sell at the highest price, buy at the 
cheapest, and borrow money on the best terms. Otherwise he 
will soon find himself working for the enrichment of other men 
rather than of himself and his children. 

The answer to this third question may be found in a ^^^ word 
single word— cooperation. That is to be the most won- 20TH^cm 

derful word in the bright lexicon of the twentieth cen- 


tury. The law of cooperation among- human being-s is stronger 
than any man-made statute. It was enacted in the Legislature 
of the Infinite. It will never be repealed while the stars move 
in their courses. The fruit exchanges of California have their 
troubles, but they must be triumphant in the end. Not only so, 
but the principle which they represent must be extended in all 
directions until it shall furnish a broad foundation of economic 
freedom for the entire industrial life of California and the West. 
And here again we encounter the unavoidable necessity of exer- 
cising the powers of government for the benefit of society. 
Back of cooperation there is a long and gallant history. No 
other force has done so much during the past sixty j'ears to 
change the face of the times, particularly in those European 
countries where industrial conditions had reached their lowest 
ebb — where the impoverishment of the soil by centuries of culti- 
vation, the incubus of a landed aristocracy, and the burden of 
great standing armies had brought millions almost to the bitter 
choice between starvation and revolution. The time has come 
in the West, when — through the action of State or nation or 
both — government must reach forth its strong arm to secure the 
success of cooperation and thus preserve the small man from 
economic extinction at the hands of forces too powerful for him 
to withstand alone. 

ROSY TINTS ^ In the spring of 1898 I spent a memorable week at 

^^ ^ECONOMY. Dublin. I had looked forward with some dread to the 
misery to be seen in that land of historic woes. To my 
surprise and delight, I found Ireland swimming on a wave of 
optimism, and all because it had discovered the magic charm of 
cooperation. A few years previous, Horace Plunkett had begun 
to preach the gospel of industrial regeneration by means of mu- 
tual self-help. In 18% he induced the government to create a 
body of investigators, called the Recess Committee, to look into 
the methods and achievements of cooperation on the Continent. 
The results of these studies were just at hand when I reached 
Ireland and I had a most unusual opportunit}' to examine them 
and to participate in their discussion by men who were bent, 
with desperate zeal, upon the economic redemption of their 
downtrodden country. Among those who did the work of the 
investigation were Thomas P. Gill, formerly one of the right- 
hand men of Parnell in Parliament ; M. G. Mulhall, the famous 
British statistician ; and M. Tisseraud, Director-General of 
Agriculture in France. In pursuing their work they had the 
cordial assistance of every cabinet and high economic authority 
in Europe. Would that every high school and college in the 
West might introduce that luminous report of the Recess Com- 
mittee as a text-book for their students to learn by heart ! It 
would be as much more valuable to them than the dead lan- 
guages as bread and meat are more important than silver-topped 
canes and picture hats. 

TRIUMPHANT It is impossible in the space now available to give 

a)"-oPERATioN. "^^^^ *^^" *^^ barest outline of the policy pursued 
by European governments in making cot>peration effec- 
tive among all classes of their people, particularly' those who 


till the soil. But it is one of the most important features of 
their internal administration. First of all — and this is the 
point that ought just now to be most deeply impressed upon 
the minds of our people — they lend the whole moral weight of 
the nation in favor of organization among the producers. In 
Europe there is no one left to argue that cooperative effort is 
chimerical and certain to result in failure. The government 
officially declares that cooperation is the thing. It then pro- 
ceeds to organize an educational propaganda to show the people 
how to make a succesg of the undertaking in the various depart- 
ments of their life. It maintains lecturers to go from place to 
place urging the farmers to organize, and preaching that by 
this means alone may they hope to maintain and increase their 
prosperity. It furnishes plans and specifications, so to speak, 
for the organization of cooperative bodies centering in a national 
council, but reaching out through all the provinces to the re- 
motest hamlet. It shows the farmers how to cooperate in con- 
verting their raw material into all sorts of finished food prod- 
ucts ; how to cooperate in purchasing supplies at wholesale 
rates ; how to cooperate in selling their goods to the best ad- 
vantage at home and abroad ; and, possibly best of all, how to 
cooperate in borrowing money at four per cent, per annum (No, 
this is not a misprint for four per cent, per month!). The 
government also secures a minimum transportation rate on the 
railroads. Of course it constructs public works for water and 
unwatering lands, even when it must do so at an expense of 
$270 per acre, as in the case of Holland's great labor in pump- 
ing out the Zuyder Zee. Aside from this purely economic work 
the government makes cooperation effective in educational and 
social ways. Does an3^one imagine that the Raisin Growers' 
Association would have any difficulty in making binding agree- 
ments with its members if the government of California pursued 
the same methods ? Decidedly not ; and the time has come 
when the government of California and other Western States 
could be engaged in no more profitable business than in that of 
making cooperation successful. In future numbers of this 
magazine European methods and results will be given in more 

The wheat-growers of the great central valley of fate 
California have at last seen the logic of the situation. w^eat men 

Probably there is no other industry presenting more 
difficulties to successful combination. And yet they realize 
that the alternative is simply this : Cooperate or perish ! Wit- 
ness the following quotation from a circular recently issued by 
their chairman : 

Nearly twenty million dollars' worth of farm property in California is 
now held by the banks of our State. Many millions more have passed 
from the hands of the orig^inal owners, through forced sales. Not less than 
one hundred million dollars is now loaned on farm property in California. 
Unless something- be done to make the business of the farmer more re- 
munerative much of that property will be lost by the present owners. 
Thousands of families now enjoy their farm homes only because of the 
fact that the holders of the mortgagees on the places cannot so handle the 
property as to secure a fair rate of interest on the money invested. Dan- 
gerous ground that ! The banks do not want our land, and in time they 


will not want our securities, unless we can do something to enhance and 
maintain their values. The latter we can only do by increasing the value 
of our products. 

And how, pray, do they hope to increase the value of their 
product ? Listen again : 

For many months past we have paid from eight to eleven dollars per 
ton on our grain to Liverpool. The shipping of our crops was considered a 
good business when we paid but five and six dollars per ton. Combinations 
have been formed that are seriously crippling us. The profits from our 
produce, which legitimately belong to us, now go to others. Combination 
did it. Combination begets combination. The challenge is out. Shall we 
accept it ? Organize and have a royal battle, with the prospects of success 
in our favor ? Or shall we continue to be the slaves of those with foresight 
enough to organize and properly prepare for the contest ? 

Brave words, Mr. Wheatgrower, and we hope you may win. 
But if you had at your back the entire moral influence of Cali- 
fornia, and the whole-hearted official support of the government 
of California, the coming- struggle would not be " a royal 
battle" — it would be a walkover for the men who raise the staff 
of life against those who only raise the ocean freight rates. 

FACE THE A movement has been organized to discuss these ideas 
Li^K ft^N with the hope that definite action may result. Person- 
ally, I do not believe in alwa3'S talking and never doing ; 
in always preaching and never practicing. It is well enough 
to write and make speeches, but the best writings are those in- 
scribed on the face of the earth, and the most eloquent speeches 
are those uttered by the voice of prosperous industry. The 
happiest day in the intellectual life of the American people was 
the day of Horace Greeley, the Weekly Tribune, and the village 
lyceum. In that day the public was interested in public ques- 
tions. Then, they were discussed at every fireside, every cross- 
roads, every country store. The giants of that day were the 
men of thought rather than the men of money. Shall we revive 
that tradition of the mid-century and set our people to talking 
and thinking of these great economic questions on the solution 
'of which our civilization will turn ? And from the fires of 
discussion shall we bring forth the molten metal of high 
thoughts and noble aspirations, to be hammered and shaped into 
fair and enduring institutions on the anvil of debate ? Yes, 
that is precisely what we shall do if the old stock still retains 
its fiber. 

:nbw ZEALAND The series of papers on the political institutions of 

INSTITUTIONS. New Zealand, of which two have already appeared, will 
be continued from time to time in these pages. They 
will be illustrated with portraits and scenes from Mr. Henry D. 
Lloyd's notable work, "Newest England," used by the courtesy 
of his publishers, Doubleday, Page «& Co., of New York. The 
next paper on this subject will be entitled " How the People 
Smashed the Money Ring." 




^N this series of papers we are to look California squarely in 
I the face. What we want to know is the plain truth about 
the conditions affecting those three fundamental elements 
of its social and economic life — water, land, and labor. Pro- 
ceeding on the theor}' that there is a margin of natural wealth 
as yet undeveloped sufficient to support a population of many 
millions, and that those of us who are now here are charged 
with the responsibility of laying the foundations for a wonder- 
ful future, we are interested, first of all, in learning the real facts 
of the present situation. The reputation of this State is too 
well established to suffer aught from a candid consideration of 
the evils which have grown up from the mistakes of pioneers 
who, not unnaturally, failed to appreciate the nature of their 
environment in a new and strange land. It is no discredit to 
any country that mistakes were made at the beginning. It is 
in the highest degree creditable when the people set out ear- 
nestl}^ to correct those errors and to make the future better than 
the past. 

The best study of irrigation as related to home-making to be 
had in California is that offered by the remarkable Kings River 
region. It is not that this stream is the largest in the State. 
The Sacramento and Colorado Rivers each carry ten times as 
much water. The Kern serves a larger area of irrigated land. 
Neither does the interest of the Kings River region arise from 
the fact that it has given birth to the most famous settlements 
on California soil. It is indeed the home of notable colonies, 
but in this respect it does not rival certain localities in the 

The peculiar claim of this region to popular interest at this 
juncture is the fact that here, rather more perfectly than any- 
where else in the State, the laws governing our irrigation indus- 
tr}^ have worked out to logical conclusions. If the}- are good 
laws, then peace and progress must hold sway in the large dis- 
trict watered by the Kings. On the other hand, if the laws are 
bad, we shall find friction, disturbance, litigation, and stagna- 
tion. For the past twenty years this district has been the scene 
of the most active water and land development. Enterprise has 
not been carried on by one or two large companies alone, but by 
quite a multitude of small ones. Hence, in all respects. Kings 
River is the best example of the working of our water laws to 
be found within the wide boundaries of California. But in 
many respects it is typical of the general situation, and as such 
it may be studied by all interested in bettering the economic 
conditions of the State. 



The domain commanded by Kings River — in Fresno, Kings 
and Tulare counties — was made for a land of little homes. It 
was designed to be densely populated and to give its people 
largest measure of independence by enabling them to be self- 

324 OUT W EST 

sustaining: in consequence of diversified production. It was not 
intended to V)e the playground of the rich, but the workingfield 
and homespot of that great element of moderately well-to-do 
who make up the majority of our vast population. Here the 
conditions of soil, climate and water supply, of geographical 
situation and surrounding resources, are about all that could be 
desired. In spreading out this fertile plain which slopes gently 
from the rugged foothills to the heart of the valley, in assigning 
the mountain sentinels to eternal guard on either hand, in send- 
ing the melting snows to supply the summer's need, and then giv- 
ing the favored land a gentle and compelling climate, God did his 
best for the Kings River country. 

In spite of many difficulties, the region is one of the garden 
spots of California. But it is capable of being more than that. 
It might be one of the chiefest glories of all the West. Inter- 
mittent prosperity it has had, but it should be the home and 
abiding place of prosperity. Average people should find here 
the highest satisfaction for all their needs. The twentieth- 
century civilization, of which the poets dream, ought to spring 
into being in response to the magic touch of the waters of the 
Kings. Where now there is one home and family, there ought 
to be a hundred families and homes. Where now there is scant 
water supply, there ought to be abundance. Where now there 
is anxiety about raising the crop, and solicitude lest the profits 
be sacrificed in the sale, there ought to be the blessed certainty- 
of raising the crop and selling it to advantage. Where now 
there is loneliness and heart-hunger, there ought to be a multi- 
tude of neighbors and the very highest social and intellectual 
advantages. Where now there are difficulties of transportation, 
over roads deep with dust or with mud, there ought to be cheap 
and easy means for moving people and products. All this God 
evidently intended. The plain import of His expectation is 
written in His own large characters on the works of His omni- 
potence. And first and foremost of these is the river which, 
gathering its supplies from peak and slope, breaks through the 
foothills and sweeps in sinuous course through the fertile domain 
God gave it for its own. 

The drainage area tributary to the Kings covers 1742 square 
miles. It is rich in water-yielding character. The average 
rainfall in the locality suited to cultivation is 9 or 10 inches, 
which makes irrigation absolutely necessary. The flow of the 
stream is most irregular. It varies much with different years 
and with difi^erent seasons of the same year. But the highest 
scientific authority places the average at from 5,000 to 10,000 
cubic feet per second. As water rights are sold under the 
principal Fresno canals, this would be sufficient to irrigate 
anywhere from 500,000 to 1,000,000 acres of land. 

The Kings River region raises successfully more different 
kinds of fruit than are grown elsewhere in California. Near 
the foothills it is an orange country, producing crops alike re- 
markable for quality, quantity and the early date at which they 
are ready for market. The plains are peculiarly suited to the 
production of grapes — both wine and raisin. All the deciduous 
fruits are extensively cultivated with good results. Great crops 

Jwnj f 'ainwiii^Sy '"T'mmm 

m^ ^i^^m^% WM mmmM inns 

'^mm $mm^ n^Mmw m^m^ i^mi 

From photos, furnished by the 

Agricultural Dept., Washington. 


of alfalfa are harvested, and the dairj' industry is profitable. 
In a word, under irrigation the Kings River region is one of the 
garden spots of the earth. 



Irrigation and colonization have been far from a failure in 
this region. On the contrary, large sums of money have been 
expended in bringing the water to the lands, and thousands of 
people now live where cattle obtained only scant subsistence 
before the day of canal-building. 

The city of Fresno is the monument to a colonization effort 
which was wonderfully successful. There is no more beautiful 
or substantial community in the State, and Kings River made 
it possible. In many respects, Fresno, with its surrounding 
colonies and great vineyards, represents the most ideal coloni- 
zation result in the State. Hanford, the county seat of Kings, 
is another very notable community. Fowler, Selma and Kings- 
burg are beautiful settlements on the main line of the Southern 
Pacific. North and east of these lie Sanger, Reedlej', Dinuha, 
Munson and smaller places, which have also grown up in re- 
sponse to the irrigation development. Further down the course 
of the river, on its rich bottomland, is the great property known 
as the Rancho Laguna de Tache, where still other and newer 
communities are coming into prominence. In all, a total area of 
about 200,000 acres are irrigated by the Kings River supply. 
By no means all the land receives sufficient moisture, but what 
has been done in the way of cultivation stands to the credit of 
the irrigation development. 


What has been accomplished in the Kings River district is an 
achievement made in spite of the worst water laws ever imposed 
upon a civilized community. The water rights, which are the 
foundation of these thousands of homes and tens of thousands 
of cultivated acres, originated in our loose method of appropria- 
tion. By this method we post a notice at the point of proposed 
diversion, bury a copy of it in the county records, and proceed 
to build a canal. There is no means of knowing how much 
water really flows in the stream, how much has been legally ap- 
propriated, or how much remains to be claimed for the benefit 
of new ditches. This river flows through three counties. The 
records of each must be searched in order to get even a vague 
idea of the amount of water which has been claimed. 

The expert investigation of this stream, made by C. E. 
Grunsky, the well known San Francisco engineer, revealed 355 
claims which had been filed upon its waters, distributed through 
three counties. How much water had been claimed in this way? 
A total of about 750,000 cubic feet per second, or more than a 
hundred times the total volume in its channel. Could there be 
a better foundation for litigation than 355 claims, with a total 
of 750,000 cubic feet, to a stream having a normal flow of 5,000 
to 10,000 cubic feet per second ? 

Yes, the foundation of trouble is capable of being made yet 
wider. Permit everv man to handle his own headgate, and to 



From photos, furnished by the 

Agricultural Dept., Washington. 


shut down his neighbor's headgate at will, and you have added 
another element which cannot fail to increase the interest of 
the situation from a dramatic standpoint. Here are people 
claiming- one hundred times as much water as is available, from 
a common source. Without the water their land is worthless; 
with it, it is the choicest land in the world, for it will grow all 
the crops of the temperate and semitropic climate to perfection. 
Just as there was no exercise of public authority over their 
original appropriations, so there is none over the distribution of 
the water to the various canals. And of these canals no less 
than 55 find detailed mention in Mr. Grunsky's report. Think 
of it! A stream a share in which is essential to property values 
— even to the existence of human life — which is utterly without 
public supervision of an}' sort ! Something more valuable than 
gold, because there is so little of it in proportion to the amount 
of land waiting to be reclaimed, is left to be fought for with 
shotguns and endless lawsuits. 

But the inevitable strife arising out of such conditions is by 
no means the worse aspect of the situation. The worst is the 
fact that after all the fighting and litigation nothing is really 
determined and no man can be absolutely sure that the title to 
the water which represents the real value of his home is secure. 
"What," somebody asks, "do )'OU mean to say that a court de- 
cision does not give final title to the water ? " Most emphatic- 
ally it does not. And there never can be any such thing as 
secure, unassailable title to water in California until the State 
itself has asserted its paramount control, adjudicated titles, and 
issued them directly upon its own authorit}'. Then titles will 
be secure, and not before. Until then no man depending upon 
the waters of Kings River may go to sleep at night without 
knowing that he may awake in the morning to use his last 
dollar in defense of that water right without which his home 
would be worthless. 


To illustrate, let us look at some of the results of litigation. 

September 12, 1885, judgment was entered decreeing that the 
Centervilleand Kingsburg Irrigation Ditch Company is required 
to remove all dams and other obstructions placed or maintained 
by that company in Kings River, and enjoining it from divert- 
ing any waters from the river or in any manner interfering with 
its flow. 

Surely there was a decision which seemed conclusive enous^h 
for anybody. But did it prove so ? By no means. 

February 25, 1900, the same Centerville and Kingsburg Com- 
pany is awarded 600 cubic feet per second, subject to the prior 
rights of the People's Ditch Company, of the Lower Kings 
River Ditch Company, and of the Last Chance Ditch. And the 
Centerville and Kingsburg is still in business. 

It was also decreed on November 5, 1885, that the Kings River 
and Fresno Canal Conii)any should take no water from the river 
and should fill in the head of its ditch. A similar judgment was 
entered against the 76 Canal, now Alta Irrigation District, on 
Nov. 4, 1889, except that the 76 was permitted to water certain 


riparian lands in Fresno County. Spite of these sweeping- de- 
cisions, both canals are still taking- water from the river. 

It is stated, on the authority of the United States Geological 
Survey, that the expense of litigation for the last ten years has 
averaged $40,000 a year. This would be bad enough if the liti- 
gation settled anything, but of the 103 important lawsuits which 
have occurred in the last few years not one has really and finally 
settled rights to the stream. 


The inevitable result of all this wearing and indeterminate 
litigation is a tendenc}" to monopoly, brought about by the con- 
solidation of canal interests. If this consolidation were under- 
taken in the interest of the public, it would be a step in the right 
direction. But it goes without saying that the larger interests, 
having capital with which to operate, naturally seek to assert 
their control over the element which dominates the situation. 
The fact that water rights are not attached to the soil, but are 
represented by shares in the various companies, makes it com- 
paratively easy for the controlling interest to be acquired by 
those having money to invest. The result is that the Kings 
River situation is not improving as the years go by. There is 
not water enough, as water is now handled, to irrigate all the 
lands which have been put into cultivation, not to mention the 
vast areas capable of improvement if irrigation might be more 
extensively applied. More and more the control of the stream 
goes into the hands of those who treat it as a merchantable com- 
modity — water merchants who sell the melting snows. 

Space is not available for a full discussion of the subject. But 
enough has been said to show how well worthy of development 
is this magnificent Kings River district, and how ill-suited to 
that development are existing water laws. The question re- 
mains : How can Kings River be made to irrigate all the lands 
depending upon it and tens of thousands of acres more, and so 
bring peace and prosperity to a great community? 

[to be continued.] 


TN the two-years' fight that has been conducted in California 
i for the reform of the water laws, the Wyoming system has 
been constantly held up as an example of sound principles 
and good administration. As a consequence, some of those 
who are opposed to any change of the existing laws have 
recently attacked the Wyoming method and declared that 
it has failed in important respects. It has been asserted, 
(1) that recent court decisions deny the right of the Board of 
Control to exclusive jurisdiction in the settlement of water con- 
troversies, and (2) permit the appropriator having more water 
than he needs to sell a portion of his right to others. The 
effect of such decisions would be to unsettle thousands of titles 
which have been adjudicated by the Board of Control, and to 
overturn the doctrine of State ownership of water with the 


rigfht of use attached to the soil. In view of the prominence of 
the Wyoming system in the California debate on this subject, 
it is a matter of the highest importance to have the truth made 
known in connection with this subject. 

The head of the Wyoming water administration is State 
Engineer Fred Bond, Writing in reply to the inquiries of Out 
West, he treats of these matters as follows : 


"Our Supreme Court has not rendered any decision to the 
effect that water rights may be adjudicated by the courts or by 
the Board of Control at option bf water users; on the contrary, 
it has upheld the authority of the Board of Control to determine 
and adjudicate all water rights in the first instance. 

" In a case entitled, 'Farm Investment Company vs. Carpen- 
ter et al.,' decided May 26, 1900, the Supreme Court held that 
in case a party had failed to appear before the Board to make 
proof of appropriation at the time of an adjudication of water, 
he would not necessarily be estopped or barred from having his 
rights determined. The Court uses the following language : 

" 'Under the statutes now in force, there being no provision 
expressly barring or estopping a claimant failing to participate 
in the adjudication proceedings, and the decree not being res 
judicata, he is at liberty to assert and maintain those rights in 
the courts, through the regular medium of some form of pro- 
cedure recognized by the law for the redress of grievances, or the 
granting of appropriate relief.' 

"This only applies to those who have failed to take part in 
adjudication proceedings, and has nothing whatever to do with 
original adjudication by the Board of Control. 

" The Board had previously held, however, that their determi- 
nation of water rights did actually bar those not participating, 
so that under this decision it became necessary to amend our laws 
in such a way that these undetermined rights would be actually 
determined by the Board of Control under an additional proced- 
ure rather than through the courts. 

"Our Legislature was in session the following winter, and in 
February, 1901, passed an amendment to our water laws in 
which may be found the following : It is found in Chapter 67, 
Section 3, on pages 70 and 71, session laws of Wyoming, 1901. 

"Any person claiming a right to the use of water of any stream hereto" 
fore adjudicated by the Board of Control, being- or claiming to be an app'"o- 
priator therefrom, who shall have failed to appear and submit proof of his 
claims at the time of the adjudication of the rights of the various claimants 
to the water of such stream, shall be permitted at any time within one year 
after the passage of this Act, but not thereafter, to file a petition with the 
Board of Control for a hearing in respect to his claims to the use of water 
from such stream, and for the reopening of the decree heretofore entered for 
that purpose. Said petition shall embrace all the particulars required by 
law in the proofs of claimants in original proceedings before the Board and 
shall be verified by the oath of the claimant. Upon the filing of said peti- 
tion, if it shall apjiear to the Board that the petitioner had not appeared in 
the proceedings and submitted proof of his claims, the State Board of Con- 
trol shall make and enter an order reopening the decree heretofore entered, 
determining the rights to the use of water upon such stream, for the pur- 
pose of receiving the testimony on behalf of the petitioner and determining 
his rights to the use of such water. Thereupon the division superintendent 


of the proper division shall fix a time and place for taking- the testimony 
and shall give notice thereof as required by the provisions of Sections 861 
and 862 of the Revised Statutes, 1899; in the case of original hearings. The 
petitioner shall at the time of submitting his proof and testimony at such 
hearing, file a correct map of his ditch and the lands irrigated therefrom, 
provided, that the hearings permitted by this section shall be subject to the 
same provisions of law as to inspection of testimony, contests and appeals, 
as in other cases." 

" This act went into force and effect February 16th, 1901. For 
a full report of our Supreme Court's decision, in the case referred 
to above, please refer to Pacific Reporter, Vol. 61, pages 258 et 
segui, the substance of the decree being- found chiefly on pages 
269 to 270. 

" It cannot be too forcibly stated that water rights in Wyom- 
ing must be adjusted by the State Board of Control, and that 
our law provides no other method, whatever, for the determin- 
ation of these rights in the first instance. Differences which 
ma}^ arise between individuals trespassing upon each others rights 
can be taken into the Courts just the same as differences between 
them in other matters can be taken there, but under the holdings 
of our Supreme Court as to the duty and authorit}^ of the Board 
of Control and the statute quoted, all original determinations of 
water rights are made solely by the Board of Control." 


"As to whether or not a person can sell water in this State, as 
you know, the Board of Control has uniformly held that no 
person acquires a property right in water, and that, therefore, 
he cannot sell that which he does not own, 

"In a recent decision by one of our district courts, it was held 
where a user of water had made his appropriation before Wyom- 
ing became a State, and had transferred a part of it during each 
alternate week to another party for his use in the irrigation 
seiason, that such transfer was valid. This is not a case of hav- 
ing secured water from the State of Wyoming, but it involves 
the question at least as to whether or not territorial water rights 
may not be transferred from one user to another. So it has been 
appealed to our Supreme Court, and will probably be argued 
sometime this winter. So far as I am informed, there have been 
no other attempts to transfer water, although this one was de- 
cided nearly a year and a half ago, as I remember. Nor do I 
think that transfers will be undertaken under this district court 
decision, as the Supreme Court may reverse it, in which event a 
transfer would create complications not desired by any of those 
in interest." 

So the model administrative methods of Wyoming go on 
serenely, undisturbed by the decisions which gave rise to the 
talk about the " failure of the system." 


/Vt'.v /</<■«/ —William E. Smythe. 
Vice- President— H. T. Fowlek. 
SecretaryTreasurei — BiSHOP J. Edmonds. 


Will S. Green, Colusa. 
Marshal R. Beard, Sacramento. 
H. P. Stabler, Marysville. 
Harvey C. Stiles, Chico. 
John Kirby, San Francisco. 
N. J. Bird, San Francisco. 
Frank Cornwall, San Francisco. 
John S. Dore, Fresno. 
John Fairweather, Reedley. 
E. H. Tucker. Selma 
A. Hallner, King'sburir. 
A. H. Naftzsrer, Los Ansreles. 

S. W. Ferirusson, Los Angeles. 
Walter J. Thompson, Los AnireleiB. 
A. R. Sprafirue, Los Anseles- 
Charles F. Lummis, Los Anireles. 
E. T. Dunnintr. Los AnsreleK. 
Scipio Craitr, Redlauds. 
Elwood Cooi)er, Santa Barbara. 
W. H Porterfield, San Diegru. 
Georjre W. Marston, San Dieg-o. 
Bishop J. Edmonds, San Dieiro. 
William E. Smytbe, San Dieg-o. 

^^rtHE State League was organized at a meeting held in the 
\ directors' room of the Southern California. Fruit Ex- 
change Saturday, Feb. 15th, and provisional organiza- 
tion effected as above. The formation of local Constructive 
Clubs was begun in Fresno county Monday, Feb. I7th, with a 
large and enthusiastic meeting in the town of Fowler, which 
thus goes into history as the starting point of a new movement 
in the economic life of California. 


The President and Secretary-Treasurer of the League are 
addressing large crowds at least once, and frequently twice, 
each day. By the time these words are read they will have 
presented the Constructive cause to the voters in the leading 
points of Fresno, Tuolumne, Stanislaus, Kings, Tulare and 
Kern counties. Local clubs are organized at the close of each 

Other speakers will take the platform later, among them 
Henry D. Lloyd of Boston, Thaddeus B. Wakeman, president 
of the Liberal University of Oregon, Benjamin Fay Mills of 
Oakland, Prof. Fowler, several members of the State Committee 
and many prominent members of local clubs. 

Among the newspapers which have already declared their 
earnest and aggressive support of the construction policies are 
the San Dicgan Sun (daily), the Fo-u'ler Ensign, the Schna 
Irrigator, the Rcedlcy Exponent, and the famous Citrograph of 
Redlands. Doubtless many others will be reported later in the 
month, which cannot now be definitely included, owing to the 
early date at which this paragraph is written. 


The State Committee announces the following program for 
discussion in the local clubs or village lyceums during the ne.xt 


three months, which is intended to be a period of intellectual 
awakening-, to be followed later by the sharp iig-hting- at the 
polls for a working force in the legislature to " bring- things 
to pass" : 


1. The present water laws. 

2. The reforms recommended by the United States Irrigation Com- 

[Material for above in volume issued by the Agricultural Department, 
called " Bulletin No. 100," which will be furnished to the secretary of the 
local club.] 

3. The Constructive League plan for converting all existing works on 
Kings River into one comprehensive public system, with provision for 
mountain storage and valle3' drainage. 

[Material for this in "King's River Conquest," March and April numbers 
of Out West.] 

4. New Zealand Land System. Principles of the plan for purchase of 
large estates and their improvement and colonization. 

[Material in Henry D. Lloyd's " Newest England," of which at least 
one copy should be purchased by local club.] 

5. Application of method to California estates. 
[February and future numbers of Out West.] 

6. Compulsory arbitration. The San Francisco strike and its effects on 
agriculture, horticulture and civilization generally. 

[January and future numbers of Out West.] 

7. The New Zealand method of enforcing peace between labor and 

[See "Newest England."] 

8. Progress in Cooperation. Present situation of the Raisin Growers 
Association discussed from standpoint of local experience. 

9. The general cooperative movement in California. 
[See " Cooperative Journal," published in Oakland.] 

10. The cooperative industries of Great Britain. 

[Local clubs should have at least one copy of Henry D. Lloyd's book, 
" Labor Copartnership."] 

11. The European method of assisting cooperative organization through 
the government administration. 

[See current and future numbers of Out West.] 


The program for California and the West brought forward in 
these pages included compulsory arbitration of all disputes be- 
tween labor and capital. This feature was added to the pro- 
gram for two reasons : first, because it seemed to be in the line 
of civilization ; second, because it seemed clearly in the interest 
of the workers in our cities, who must be joined to the workers 
in the country if we are to carry out the policies essential to the 
building up of the State. But it appears that influential leaders 
of organized labor do not favor compulsory arbitration. 

Why ? Because they think the forcible settlement of disputes 
is better ? No, they concede that the present method is practi- 
cally a resort to barbarism. And they concede that the New 
Zealand method is the only scientific basis for the settlement of 
labor troubles. Why, then, do they not approve of its adoption 
in California ? For the saddest reason in the world — that they 
have no confidence in our courts of justice. They say experience 
has shown that those courts are not on the side of the masses of 
men — that they will not be on their side until working-men here 
follow the example of their brothers in New Zealand and stand 
solidly tog-ether in political action. Well, the Constructive 

334 OUT W EST 

movement may furnish the opportunity for just such action and 
guarantee its success by uniting the workingmen of the country 
with those of the town. 

But the same labor leaders who shrink from the adoption of 
compulsory arbitration at this time assure us that they are 
heartily in favor of the water, land and cooperative features of 
the program. They regard the cooperative store and factory 
as a part of the solution of the labor problem. The other part 
of the solution they see in our proposition to open the great 
estates to settlement by the landless and to give them the assist- 
ance of the State in making homes. "When the employer 
knows we can turn to the soil and work for ourselves," said one 
man, "he will understand that we cannot be starved into sub- 
mission to hours and wages we think unjust." We are assured 
that the workingmen of our cities will give a very large measure 
of support to the constructive policies. 

The present preliminary campaign is academic in its nature. 
It is intended both to educate and to test public sentiment. By 
the time the political campaign opens, the League, in its State 
convention, can determine how much of its original program 
may reasonably be demanded from the great parties. 

In the meantime, let us agitate, educate and organize. What 
a glorious privilege to fight for California ! Ah, this is a land 
worth fighting for ! 



^HE discussion of live economic questions in this depart- 
ment is bringing a large and interesting correspondence 
to the editor's home in San Diego. There is abundant 
evidence that the problems involved in making a great popula- 
tion prosperous on the soil are now being debated at many a fire- 
side and in many a social and political club. Probablj' there has 
not been a time since the fifties when so many people were dis- 
cussing the condition and future of society as are doing so to- 
day. In spite of the prosperous surface of things, there is a 
widespread suspicion of breakers ahead and a strong conviction 
that out of the throes of a nation's labor will come a new birth 
of institutions. 

Many good suggestions have been received from correspond- 
ents both West and East, but they all betoken the same general 
trend — the demand for new ideas to meet the new needs of new 

A clergyman, who has made his home in a new district just 
coming under irrigation, writes to suggest a plan for founding 
an industrial colony " to support a Christian school as a home 
missionar)"^ agency — a school giving prominence to the industrial 
features of our advanced educational institutions." His idea is 
that colonists would be securing a home and an education at the 
same time. Seeing the values to be created with the growth of 
improvements and population, he thinks it possible to secure 
from this source a permanent fund to sustain the public insti- 


There is certainly an element of value in the suggestion. 
Take a perfectly blank desert, put water and men upon it, and 
millions of dollars will be wrought out from the union of these 
forces. Under a well ordered plan of development, a large por- 
tion of these values might be applied not only to create schools, 
but libraries, gymnasiums, social clubs, and everything that ca- 
ters to the finer instincts and higher development of men. 

But what becomes of these potential values under our present 
methods ? The clergyman tells the sad story in the last sentence 
of his letter : "I am studying the possibilities of this district. 
The difficulty of securing enough land in a body without pay- 
ing too much confronts me here." That is to say, the speculator 
has forestalled the homemaker and the architect of institutions. 
The profits that might have been reserved for education and 
social betterment have gone to greedy individuals who saw the 
chance to take the profits that really belong to the public. For, 
be it understood, the very soil of which the clergyman speaks 
belonged two short years ago — every blessed acre of it — to the 
people of the United States. The water which is making it val- 
uable belonged to the people also. But now both water and land 
have been gobbled up by speculators, and those who have been 
deprived of their heritage, under the operation of our unjust laws, 
cannot get it "without paying too much." If the people will 
give their support to the constructive policy advocated by this 
magazine, we will put a stop to that sort of thing forever. 

One of the leaders of a struggling cooperative colony in the 
mountains of Western Colorado writes to describe how 300 men 
and women are working hand-in-hand to get homes on the 
public domain. They are still in the first struggle of canal- 
building, and must of course get the water before the}^ can grow 
crops Many of them are paying for their interest in the 
colony with their labor, but about half the number are still 
"back East" working at their trades and earning money to 
help sustain those at the front. The method is somewhat 
similar to that employed in founding Anaheim, the mother 
colony of Southern California. But it may be suspected that 
the thrifty Germans had rather more capital, while the Colorado 
settlers have rather more ideals. It is devoutly to be hoped 
that the brave cooperators will get firm hold of the beautiful 
valley among the mountains, but how much better it would be 
for the settlers and the government if Uncle Sam himself would 
put the water on that land and save all these trials and hard- 
ships! Even with water provided, enough difficulties would 
remain to develop the robust character we want to see main- 
tained in our pioneers. 

A civil engineer in Chicago submits a detailed plan for making 
beautiful railroad towns in the Southwest, which is so good that 
space will be found for it in these pages hereafter. 



By H. P. WOOD. 

Lly California is wonderfully attractive. It is a 
land of sunshine, health, happiness and op- 
portunity. One of its most desirable por- 
tions is San Dieg-o. This is a principality 
unto itself, having an area of 8,500 square 
miles, or slightly more than Massachusetts. 
On the north the county is bounded by Orange 
and Riverside counties; on the east by the Col- 
orado river, which here divides Arizona from 
California ; on the south by Baja California, 
a territory of Old Mexico, a land rich in 
minerals ; while on the west the Pacific ocean 
washes the shores of the county for a stretch of 75 miles. The land rises 
gently from the ocean a distance of from 30 to 60 miles to a chain of 
mountain peaks, forming the backbone of the county, descending again 
rapidly to the Colorado River Valley. 

The arable portion of the western slope is divided into a series of irregular 
terraces or plateaus. The Tia Juana, Otay, Sweetwater, Mission, Soledad, 
San Dieguito, Agua Hedionda, San lyuis Rey, and Santa Margarita or Los 
Flores valleys, form the lower or coast terrace, comprising a large acreage 
of practically frostless laud. Next come the Jamul, Jamacha, Dehesa, El 
Cajon, Poway, Bernardo, San Pasqual, Escondido, San Marcos and Vista 
valleys, varying in elevation from 400 to 500 feet above sea level. 

The altitude of the third terrace or foothill region ranges from 1,000 to 
2,500 feet. The area of tillable land in these valleys and adjoining mesas 
is approximately 600,000 acres, a much larger area being suited to pasture 
and grazing. The elevation of the mountain valleys varies from 2,000 to 
4,500 feet. These are now chiefly devoted to stock-raising ; but in time, 
with the improvement of transportation facilities which are being rapidly 
extended, many of them will be found well adapted to the growing of 
small fruits, vegetables and diversified farming. 

To the east of the mountains in the valley of the Colorado is an immense 
area of fertile soil, which until quite recently has been lying dormant ; 
but now water is being brought from the Colorado River and fully 500,000 
acres of the richest and most productive land is being rapidly taken up by 
homeseekers. These broad acres will soon add their products of barley, 
sugar beets, sorghum, alfalfa, wheat and corn to the output of San Diego 
county. Many miles of main canals and laterals have already been built; 
construction is being pushed ; and, although the enterprise was only fairly 
commenced some two years since, water is being delivered to several 
thousand acres. During the past season large crops of millet and sorghum 
were raised, proving the fertility of the land. While there are sections 
here and there containing more or less alkali, the soil of the valley is for 
the greater part of the very best, being the silt washed down by the Colo- 
rado River during countless ages, rich in plant food, which with good 
management can be depended upon for profitable returns. The towns of 
Imperial, Paringa, and Calexico have already sprung into existence ; 
Imperial boasting a church and parsonage, national bank, general mer- 
chandise store, lumber yard, hotel and printing office. 

Gen. A. W. Greely, Chief U. S. Signal Service, is authority for the state- 



ment that the forty square miles 
in which the city of San Diego is 
situated, has the most equable 
temperature known. The wind* 
from the Colorado delta on the 
east and the never failing sea 
breezes fanning the western 
boundary of the county, together 
with a humidity that is never 
oppressive, combine to produce 
the most perfect climate that is 
found the world over. That this 
fact is becoming generally recog- 
nized is shown by the constantly 
increasing number of seekers 
after health and comfort who fly 
to this place of refuge to escape 
the heat of the interior during 
the summer as well as the rigors 
of winter ; for here December 
and June are more pleasant than 
the most delightful spring and 
autumn anywhere in the Bast. 
The average annual rainfall in 
the city of San Diego is about 
ten inches. The amount of rain, 
however, increases and greater 
extremes of temperature occur 
as you leave the coast, the higher 
mountain peaks being often cov- 
ered with snow to a considerable 
depth during part of the winter 

The population of San Diego 
county according to the last cen- 
sus was 35,090, but it is safe to 
assume that this land, which is 
as productive as its European 
counterpart, Italy, can and will 
eventually support a proportion- 
ate number of people, which 
would give the county practi- 
cally two and one-half millions. 

While the pueblo of San Diego 
is the oldest municipalil)' in 
California, the modern city 
(which according to the last cen- 
sus had a population of 17,700) 
was founded by A. E. Horton in 
1867. The situation is not only 
sanitary and attractive, with 
its hills and slopes following 
the curves of the beautiful bay. 



so well protected by Point Loma; 
but it is also admirably adapted 
for the ocean commerce that is 
now seeking- entrance through 
the silver gate. The bay of 
San Diego has an area of over 
22 square miles. It is the only 
landlocked harbor for a stretch 
of 600 miles south of San Fran- 
cisco, and is perfectly safe at 
all times of the year. Numerous 
wharves extend into deep water, 
and in their neighborhood may 
be found lumber yards, planing 
mills, warehouses, foundries, etc. 
Then come the retail business 
blocks, many of them very hand- 
some structures ; and beyond 
these, spreading out over the 
undulating hill land is the resi- 
dence portion of the city, hun- 
dreds of charming homes fill- 
ing up block after block. 

The electric street railway 
system is equipped with mod- 
ern cars, and is complete in 
every respect. Pure and whole- 
some water is provided in 
abundance, the supply and dis- 
tribution being controlled by the 
municipality. The sewage sys- 
tem was wisely planned and is 
ample for a population of 100,- 
000. The streets of the city are 
well lighted by electricity. San 
Diego's schools, private and pub- 
lic, have an excellent reputation. 
An attractive public library 
made possible by the generosity 
of Andrew Carnegie, supple- 
mented by the liberality of the 
citizens of San Diego, has just 
been completed. Besides sev- 
eral weekly papers, the city 
supports three excellent dailies, 
one morning and two evening. A 
large and handsome opera house, 
perfect in its appointments, is on 
the circuit of the best theatrical 
and operatic companies. The dif- 
ferent religious organizations 
worship in attractive edifices ; 
secret societies and benevolent as- 



sociations have their lodge rooms; numerous musical and literary clubs are 
supported by an active membership of ladies and gentlemen. The Country 
Club, a prosperous institution, has extensive and well kept golf grounds. 
There are several strong banking institutions in the city ; a large number 
of excellent retail stores ; markets well supplied with meats, game, fish, 
vegetables and fruit ; excellent hotel accommodations and lodgings, and 
restaurants noted for their cheapness and excellence. Houses large and 
small, furnished and unfurnished, may be had at reasonable rentals, while 
for invalids and those requiring special medical and surgical care there are 
several thoroughly modern sanitariums. The visitor should not fail to go 
to Point L<oma — not only for the sake of the magnificent view, but also to 
note the interesting work being carried on by the Theosophist colony under 
the leadership of Katherine Tingley. A few miles up the valley is the 

One of the Business Stkeets.. Photo from the li Stu.iio. 

Old Mission, the first founded in California ; and many other places of 

Coronado, just across the bay from San Diego, is the great summer and 
winter resort of the Pacific Coast. Hotel del Coronado is known the world 
over, an immense caravansary, perfect in every detail, where nothing is 
left undone that can in any way contribute to the comfort and entertain- 
ment of guests. The Coronado Beach Company has at great expense pre- 
pared a portion of its land just between bay and ocean, about half a mile 
south of the hotel, upon which it has created a " Tented City," a special 
resort for visitors from the interior and neighboring States, who do not 
care for hotel life and yet wish to enjoy the many privileges ofl^ered at this 
attractive resort. Here you may pitch your own tent, or rent one already 
furnished, and proceed to enjoy a life of ease, comfort and pleasure. In 
this delightful region, summer or winter, you may engage in walking, 
golfing^ wheeling, driving, fishing, shooting, boating, swimming, gaining 
in health and strength with each day's sojourn. A large number of wealthy 
people have been attracted to Coronado, and there are many beautiful pri- 
vate residences, the number increasing rapidly from year to year. 
• A charming drive southward from Coronado over the ocean boulevard 



takes you to Coronado Heights, a location with charming possibilities. A 
short distance further on, and just at the head of the bay, is the beauti- 
fully situated townsite of South San Diego, having connection with Coro- 
nado and San Diego over an excellent boulevard and bicycle path, as well 
as by the Coronado Belt Line of railway. 

Otay is the principal village between the head of the bay and the Mexi- 
can line, only a few miles distant. This place, and the land tributary to 
it, are directly under the Otay Reservoir and will be the first localitv to 
benefit by the completion of the Southern California Mountain Water Com- 
pany's great system of reservoirs. 

Adjoining San Diego on the south is National City, which has a popu- 
lation of about 1,200, and is the center of the lemon industry of San Diego 
county, a large manufactory of citrus products being located at this point. 

South of National City is Chula Vista with its many beautiful homes, 
each surrounded by from ten to twenty acres of oranges and lemons. 

La Jolla, " the jewel " is situated about fifteen miles north of San Diego, 
being the present terminus of the San Diego, Pacific Beach and La Jolla 

On the Bay. 

Photo, from the Fitch Studio. 

Railway. This is a charming village of cottage homes, a seaside resort 
whose bathing beach and storm-worn clifi's honeycomed with caves, well 
repay a visit. Near La Jolla is the grove of Torrey Pines found only in 
this locality ; and from the top of Mount Soledad, back of the village, and 
within easy walking distance, a wonderful view may be had of the sur- 
rounding country, mesa, hill and mountain towards the north , east and 
south, while to the west the panorama takes in a sweep of 200 miles of coast 

Escondid<j, a place of about 1,000 inhabitants, attractively situated in the 
fertile valley of the same name, is one of the most prosperous towns in 
Southern California. 

Oceanside, about thirty miles north of San Diego has a population of 
nearly 500. This place is becoming popular as a summer bathing resort, 
and is easily reached, being on the main line of the Southern California 
Railway, with branches running to Escondido and Fallbrook. 

There are many other interesting villages in the county. Pacific Beach, 
overlooking False Bay, noted for its thrifty lemon orchards ; Del Mar, at- 
tractively situated near the ocean ; Encinitas, with its interesting cactus 
gardens ; Carlsbad, the center of quite a salt industry ; Raniona, in the 

Samples ok San Diboo Scbnbry. Photo, from th* FUck Stwiiio 

Some San Diego Homes. 

Photos, from the Fitch Studio. 


beautiful and productive Santa MariaValley; Julian and Banner, the principal 
mining towns ; Descanso, Campo and Dulzura, El Cajon and Lakeside, in the 
Cajon Valley (which magnificent stretch of land is noted for its fine oranges 
and superior rasins) ; Spring Valley, La Mesa and Lemon Grove, along the 
line of the Cuyamaca Railway, are also active centers for quite a suburban 

There are 150 school-houses distributed throughout the county, and the 
instruction is up to the usual high standard found throughout California. 

From the port of San Diego, which has one of the finest harbors on the 
Pacific Coast, transportation may be had by either rail or water, thus as- 
suring low rates on all classes of products, a wide range of which is made 
possible by the difl'erence in elevation of the various parts of the country. 

The progress of any locality in the Southwest is largely dependent upon 
its water supply ; and in this line of work San Diego county has made 
excellent progress, as the following table of development on the western 
slope will show : 


Elevation above Capacity in 

Name of Reservoir sea level million 

at base of dam 

Barrett, under construction 1,600 ft. 15,226 

Cuyamaca, built 4,650 " 3,718 

Dye Valley 2,200 " 1,275 

Bscondido, built 1,300 " 1,150 

La Meca, built 453 " 2,000 

Lower Otay, built 400 " 21,653 

Morena, under construction 3,100 " 15,226 

Pine Valley 3,700 '* 6,800 

Pamo 803 " 16,000 

San Luis Key 2,613 " 62,950 

Santa Marie ...1,500 " 3,000 

'Sweetwater, built 145 " 5,882 

Upper Otay, completed to 70 ft. contour 540" 1,000 

Water is impounded mainly for the citrus orchards of the frostless 
plateaus bordering the coast ; the higher valleys requiring but little or no 
irrigation for their crops of cereals, deciduous fruits, olives, etc. 

Unimproved citrus land is worth from $50 to $300 per acre with water. 
Improved orchards from $200 per acre up. Land for deciduous fruit, 
olive, grape, and general farming, $5 to $50 per acre. Values are not in- 
flated, and there are many safe investments for capital. 

It is estimated that a carload of citrus fruit is shipped out of Southern 
California every twenty minutes during the entire year, a fair proportion of 
which comes from San Diego county. 

The lemon and orange culls, which were formerly allowed to rot and sour 
the land, are now taken to the Citrus Products factory and turned into 
citric acid, oil of lemon, oil of orange, extracts, etc. 

San Diego county olive oil received a gold medal at the last Paris Expo- 
sition. The demand for pure oil is much greater than the supply, while 
the superiority of the California pickled olive is creating an increased in- 
quiry for that product. 

Last year's crop of apples grown in the justly famed Julian "apple 
belt" represented about 50,000 boxes. 

The county's honey crop for 1901 amounted to 100 carloads, having a 
value of about $1,000 per car. , 

Low Til>K AT La Jolla. Photo, from the I-'ilcli .Slmdic. 



The dairy interests of the county are extensive. The system of havingf 
creameries at convenient points enables the owner of only a few cows to 
g-et all the benefits of modern methods, thus g^reatly encouraging the 

The question is often asked what can a man do in San Diego county with 
from two to five thousand dollars. Many instances of success may be 
cited where a beginning was made with very much less, and it would seem 
that this should be so under conditions so favorable, where the soil is so 
rich and productive ; and where, in addition to the ordinary horicultural and 
agricultural pursuits, there are so many opportunities for the development 
of industries as yet comparatively new to the Southwest, such as tobacco 
raising, silk and cotton culture, the growing of tlower bulbs, seeds, etc. 
The cost of living is reasonable, and the price of building material com- 

The Cliffs at La Jolla. 

Photo, from the Fitch Studio. 

pares very favorably with other parts of the country. The opportunities 
for getting products to market are quite good today, and with the comple- 
tion of a direct line of railway east from San Diego, a route for which is 
now being surveyed under the auspices of the San Diego Chamber of 
Commerce, the entire county will be especially favored as regards 

In addition to the horticultural and agricultural" interests of the county, 
the opportunities for investment in inining are attractive. One of the 
largest producing gold mines in the State is located at Hedges in the east- 
ern part of the county, while the towns of Julian and Banner are almost 
entirely supported by the mines in their vicinity. Besides gold, some ex- 
cellent copper prospects are being developed. Silver, zinc, lead and tin 
have been found, as also antimony, while the largest deposit of lepodilite 
known is situated near Pala in the northern part of the county. Kaolin of 



good quality has been found, and considerable development is now going* 

on for oil, which is thought lo exist throughout the county. Coal prospects 
also exist, and are receiving some attention. The following minerals are 
found as well — asbestos, cement, fire clay, Fuller's earth, gypsum, lime- 
stone, manganese, marble, mineral paint, mineral water, salt, mica, 
graphite, sulphur and alum. 

Quite recently a deposit of unusually beautiful tourmaline was uncovered 
near Mesa Grande, from which gems valued at many thousands of dollars 
have been taken out. 

The sportsman reading this article will probably ask what of the shoot- 
ing and fishing ? And it is enough to answer that quail are abundant in 
the foothills, with an occasional deer lo reward the hardy hunter, while 
the variety of fish to be caught in the bay and just off shore anywhere 
along the coast is almost endless. 

In summing up it may be truthfully said that no part of the United 
States offers greater inducements to seekers after health, pleasure or profit 
than San J)iego county. There are many who expect to see it become a 
great commercial metropolis — indeed, this is inevitable if the country 
about it is ever so thickly settled as localities elsewhere less favored by 
nature. But however this may be, it is certain that those who now make 
their homes in San Diego may count on having the best the world has 
to offer on the purely physical side of living, no lack of the best of in- 
tellectual and social companionship, and ample opportunity for doing 
profitably their share of the world's work. 

A Front Vikw of thk Swbetwatkr Dam. 


PuBLisHKD Monthly by 


Office of Publication I 

115 SoutH Droad-wray t«T floor 
L.OS Angeles. California 

RoBT. A. Thompson, Maaairer San Francisco Office— 310 

Pine Street. 
Shaklot M. Hall, Manager Arizona Office — Prescott. 
John H. Hamlin, Manager Nevada Office— Reno. 

Entered at the Los Anreles Postoffice as second-class matter. 

W. C Pattkrson, President; Chas. F. Lummis, Vice-Pres. ; F. A. Pattbr, Secretary; Chas. Cassat Davis, At- 
torney; Cyrus M. Davis, Treasurer. 

Chas. Foreman, D. Freeman, F. W. Braun, John F. Francis, E. W. Jones, Geo. H. Bonebrake esUte, F. K. Rnle. 
Andrew Mullen estate, I. B. Newton, S. H. Mott, Alfred P. Griffith, E. E. Bostwick, H. E. Brook, C. M. Davis Co., L. 
Replonrle, J. C. Perry, F. A. Schnell, G. H. Paine, Louisa C. Bacon. (For additional list, see Contents pare.) 

Address all MSS. to the editor with return postafre. All other business to the respective departments. 
SUBSCRIPTION RATES— 11 a year in the United States, Canada and Mexico. fl.-V) a year to other countries. 


" I always read it, for I am heartily in sympathy with 
so many of the thinsrs for which it works." 



"The finest California niafrazine ever printed. A happy 
chanire of title."— San Francisco .Star. 

* * 
A fine number. The new title is so superior in every 
way to the old that it seems stransre anyone should fail to 
see the wisdom of the chansre. — San Francisco Chronicie. 

We were determined not to like "Out West." We were 
always in love with "The Laud of Sunshine." We had 
watched it irrow in fame, in usefulness, in circulation, in 
influence and in power, with pride and interest. 

We are now reconciled. The mairazine is even better 
than before. It has become the occupant of a wider field. 
It takes in a broader scope of country. It looks at tbinars 
from a more elevated standpoint, and thus thrusts back the 
horizon to a arreater distance. It retains all the old writers 
who have delisrhted and instructed us all these years, and 
adds new ones. 

Yes, since we have read Oi't West we like it and rec- 
ommend it most heartily.— Redlands, Cal., Citrograpk. 

j a pa 935^ ai;)d ^t7i9e5^ 


Direct Importers of the IvArgest 
Stock in Los Angeles. Kahe Old Blue 
AND White Pokcelains, Satsuma, Cloi- 
sonne AND Bronzes. Beautiful Kimona.s 
AND Rugs a Specialty. 

William Wylrs 
Fkbdrrick H. Kinuman 

Kingman & Co. 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


Boys and youngr men, a handsjome moustache or fine 
beard crown on the smoothest face by use of our 
PERSIAN HAIR GROWER. Will strengthen hair on 
head, cures dandruff, thickens eyebrows and is per- 
fectly harmless to tenderest skin. Ladies will find it 
unexcelled for hair and scalp. Send 25c. for treatment 
worth $1.00.— Dudley nig. Co., Roxbury, Mass. 



V The beat Fish Hook on earth for S«. Luke and Rtrer fishlnp, Noi 

'losing bait. No coming- home without your largest fish. No breakine: 
'loose or tearingflut. No one can afford to fish vriihoutone. Nosprings 
to get out of ordipr. It issimple and strong; beine a levek the harder a 
'fish pulls the stronper it wiU hold him. It is easily adjusted lo ail kinds 
of fishing by slidinR the little clamp on ihe rod. Made in three sizes. 

"' Ask jour dealer (or the QRGBI^ LEVER HOOKS. If vou cannot 
gel them, they will be sent direct on receipt of price. .Send postal 
note or ac stamps. 

Greer Lever Fish Hook Co., 

. Eocm 581 AusteU Building, ATLANTA, OA. 


^"^^•^'CnUars & Cuffs Wf^^-. 
f^H2Rv West -moY. N Y.'te^^' 

San Francisco Coas^ Ag^ents 

I t^ v^ :<?* '^ v9* t.?* (^ «^* (,?• t^* (,?• (^* t,5* (^* t.^ «,?• «^* cdT* «,?• (,$• «^* t^ i5* <^* t^* «,?• ^* »^* t^* *^* <^* fc?* «(?* «,?* (,5* <,5* (,5* <^* t^* ^* ^* ^* t^* 


H016I Fieasanion 



Situated in a pleasant part of the city. Very con- 
venient to all the theaters, churches and principal stores. 
Two lines of cable cars pass the hotel. Sutter Street 
line direct from the Ferries to the hotel and to Golden 
Gate Park and other points of interest. Elegantly fur- 
nished rooms, single or en suite, with or without private 
I bath. All modern improvements for the comfort and 
* safety of the guests. The excellence of the cuisine and 
service are leading features, and there is an atmosphere 
of home comfort rarely met with in a hotel. 

Rates on the American plan, from $2.50 to $5.00 per day for one 
person. Special terms by the week and to families. 

O. M. BRENNAN, Proprietor. 

Guests desinng^ rooms wuhom board 
will be accomodated. 


prevents early wrinkles. It is not a freckle coatinir ; It re- 
moves them. ANYVO CO., 427 N. Main St., Los Anfireles. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

WILL develop or reduce any 
part of the body 

A Perfect Complexion Beautifier and 

Remover of Wrinkles 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' 


Electric Maisage Roller 

(Patented United States, Europe, 
L — islJSkUttiHIi Canada.) 

"lis work is not confined to the face alone, but will do 
kfood to any part of the body to which it is applied, de- 
veloping or reducinir as desired. It is a very pretty addi- 
tion to the toilet-table."— C'A/'caf'o Tribune. 

"This delicate Electric Beautifier removes all facial 
blemishes. It is the only positive remover of wrinkles and 
crow's-feet. It never fails to perform all that is expected." 
— Chicago Times- Herald. 

" The Electric Roller is certainly productive of irood re- 
sults. I believe it is the best of any appliances. It is safe 
and effective." Hakkiet Hubbard Ayer, JVew York World. 


An Electric KoUer in all the term implies. The invention 
of a physician and electrician know throusrhout this coun- 
try and Eurojie. A most perfect complexion beautifier. 
Will remove wrinkles," crow's-feet" (premature or from 
agre), and all facial blemishes — POSITIVE. Whenever 
electricity is to be used for massatrintr or curative pur- 
poses, it has no equal. No charsrinsr. It will last forever. 
Always ready for use on ALL PARTS OF THE BODY, 
for all diseases. For Rheumatism, Sciatica, Neuralgia, 
Nervous and Circulatory Diseases, a specific. The pro- 
fessional standintr of the inventor (you are referred to the 
public press for the past fifteen years), with the approval 
of this country and Europe, isaperfect iruarantee. PRICE: 
Gold, $4.00. Silver, $3.00. By mail, or at office of Gibbs' 
Company, 1370 BroadwaYi New York. Circular free. 
The Only Jfileotric Roller. All othera are fraudu- 
lent Imltationa. 

"Can take a pound a day off a patient, or put it on."— 
New Tork Sun, AuR. 30, 1891. Send for lecture on " Great 
Snbjectof Fat." no dieting, no hard work. 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' Obesity Cure 
For the Permanent Reduction and Cure of Obesity. 
Purely Vearetable. Harmless and Positive. NO FAIL- 
URE. Your reduction is assured— reduced to stay. One 
month's treatment $5.00. Mail, or office, 1370 Broadway, 
N. Y. "On obesity, Dr. Gibbs is a recosmized authority." 
— New Tork Press, 1899. ncduction quarantccd. 

"The cure is based on Nature's laws. — A^<r«/ Tork Her- 
ald," July 9, 1899. 


Wo will iir.'scnt .vou witli tlio llrst t!\ you 
taki' ill to Hi lilt .v<Mi In a i^oixl paying l)"8t- 
lu'HH. Si'ikI 10 ci'iitH for full line of samplos 
mill cllri'ctlons Ik.w t<i l>('»;in. 

Send lOCts. and get this, 
beautiful solid rolled gold^ 
Lovers Heart Bangle set i ' 

with iiMoii«<l itonet. Or oiir ' 
raU «y» Hiik; lt*i th« b«at bar- 
irnin you ever %ni fnr 10 c«iiU; % premium abio- 
liitflv mKK Calalnmii! fnw; rfii(tt warr«nl.-d 
S ytani. iScrtn J wiry Co., 87-89 WaihlDKUiii St., ('hl<'aK», lit 


%^ Q ^P 11 no matter wliprn it In. Sond do- 
iKTiptlon And cHBh prl<w niul kcI »iy 
wonrterfnlly miopoimful plan. W, M. OSTRAN- 
DER, ^o^tll American UlUg., I'lUlaUulpbl*, I'a. 

Horse a 

Scheirs Patent Adjustable Torm 


It Is tiresoine to fit people 
by the usual methods. It Is a 
pleasure to fit and carry out 
the most unique 
design by 
means of this 
is made to 
dnpl icate 
a ny on e's 
form, and 
can be iMte- 
as the per- 
son's form 

Is made 
to stand as 
;>ris(in Stands, for- or backward, 
iiiiisequenlly skirts 
will bans' and waists 
fit with perfection and 
comfort. Whenorder- 
inir send a perfectly 
rated linins' with 
waist-line aMrked, also 
skirt measures from 
waist-line to floor 
(front, hips and back!, 
with close flttinff col- 
lar and sleeres. 

Los Angeles Office: 316 South Broadway 

Rooms 3 and 4 Phonc Jamcs 4441 

San Francisco: \\505 Powell St. 


of the other man's HOUSE and into vour own. Don't 
Horrowa HOME. Huv it! See "W. J. BEAVER 
about It, 212 LaugHHn Bldg.. L,ob Angeles 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

i^ Stop and Think ! 

The Equitable Life 
Assurance Society 

"strongest in the world," is selling a 5% Gold 
Bond running 20 years. You can buy this bond on 
installments, paying for it in 20 years. The bond 
is insured. If you die before completing your pay- 
ments, the bond will be delivered to your family at 
once. Thus you can buy protection for your family now and an income for your- 
self in old age, if you live. 
Fill out the coupon and mailit to A. M. JONES, Gen'l Agt. 

A. M. JONES, General Agent, 414 Wilcox Block, Los Angeles. Please send 
full information about the new 5% Gold Bonds to 

Name Street No. 

Town State 

/ was born the day of Year. 

Mount (Diiipliell Ordn^e Triict 



Soil rich, deep and specially adapted to citrus fruits. 


Unlimited water for irrigation at 25 to so cents a year. 
No need for fertilizers. No scale or other insect pests 
to fight. No frost to guard against. 


C ondition of soil and climate m.ake the fruit ready 
for the market by Thanksgiving, -when prices are much 
higher than later in the year. 

These facts ought to make it the highest 
priced orange land in California. Instead, 
it can be bought for less than one-third the 
price of less desirable property elsewhere. 

Whether you are an old orange-grower, a 
newcomer wanting to go into the business, 
or merely looking for information, write to 
me and find out about it. 

W^. N. ROHRER, Fresno, Cal. 


24 Post Street San Francisco, Cai. 

The Leading- Business Trainingr School of the 

West. Prepares Young' Men and Women 

for Business Careers. 

Graduates now successfully 

applying- their knowledg-e. 
Stenographers have been 

trained at Heald's. 

Nearly 1,000 pupils enrolled 

last year. 

Average daily attendance. 

Nearly 300 graduates last 

Positions filled during- the 

Additional positions offered 
last year that could not be 
filled for lack of graduates. 
Typewriting- machines in 

the Typing Department. 
Counties in California repre- 
sented last year. 
Heald's Business Colleg-e is 

nearly 40 years old. 
Teachers employed in the 

States and Territories .sent 
students to the college 
last year. 
Foreign countries were rep- 
resented in the student 
body last year. 
There are three Banks in 
the Business Practice 
School is open the entire year, day and night. 





















Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


The Vose Piano is popular because it 
the lover of music. It has a powerful, 
musical tone, an ideal action, excels in 
architectural symmetry and beauty of 
case desig-n, and is scientifically con- 
structed on lines that give great dura- 


has removed all the annoying obstacles 
in piano playing. The Pianola has 
made it possible for thousands to play 
the piano artistically. It needs no 
muscial study and requires no musical 
taste. It is the perfected piano player, 
and will play any grand, square or 
upright piano. 


When you're going to select a small 
musical instrument, make your choice 
from a broad assortment of the best 
made instruments — such as we carry. 
Our stock is complete — more so than 
any other stock in Southern California. 
Banjos, Mandolins, Guitars, Violins, &c. 


No firm sells musical instruments on 
easier terms than we. You can buy an 
instrument here and make any reason- 
able arrangement for payments that 
suit you. In this way you can have 
any instrument you want and *' play as 
you pay." 

Southern California Music Co. 

216 218 West Third St. 
Los Angeles, California 



and again, 
for many years," 
under all conditions? 
by countless users, 


has been tried and 
tested, and its 
superior merits 

Wyckoff, Seamans 
and Benedict 

JSIew York 

113 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

ami (om id 


A Combination of the Rich Pahlen Mountain Properties and 
the Badger Group, Comprising- Twenty-one Claims of the 
Richest and Most Extensive Copper and Gold Ore Bodies 
in the entire State of California. 

A large number of men and teams at work, and the deeper the 
work the richer the ore. We have water and fuel in abun- 
dance, and are developing one of the greatest mines in all 
the West. It is the Company's purpose to push this enter- 
prise as fast as the sale of stock will permit, and have a 
smelter turning out copper bullion at the earliest possible 
da)'. 7^0 realize money for imniediate use we offer 

Shares, Par Value $1.00, at 10 Cents a Share 

To those who may wish to purchase blocks of stock on the in- 
stallment plan at the present selling price, the following 
plan is offered, but is subject to withdrawal when stock is 
advanced in price : 

Less than 500 shares — All cash. 

500 shares — $25.00 cash and $12.50 per month for 2 months. 

750 " — 25.00 " 12.50 " 4 

1000 " — 25.00 " 12.50 " 6 

1250 " — 25.00 " 12.50 " 8 " 

1500 " — 25.00 " 12.50 " 10 

Special Offer to Agents — Who are Wanted in Every City 


For Stock, send New York Draft, 
P. O, Order or Registered Letter, to 

California Copper King %% >f«.ff.?^gr^ 

S. p. CREASIIMGER, President 

Stanley Harris, Sec'y and Treas. H. R. Adams, 1st Vice-Pres. and Mgr. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

" ...^ 



No. I The Mongoose — *'Yovi can't taKe a picture, -yo\x have no tripod I 



A Monthly Magazine of Photographic Information. Supp. Illustrated. 




This Orange 

^ fl 




.flHHk^ j/ 




CRy.^TALizED Navel Orange 

Crystallized Fruits 

Assorted in lib, 2tt> and Stt> Fancy 
Boxes, sent prepaid, 75c. per pound. 
We send our fruits to all parts of the 
U. S. Properly packed to insure 
}>erfect delivery. We give careful 
attention to mail orders and till them 

Wells Candy Co. 447 S. Spring St., los Angeles, (dl. 

John A. Smith, Burnt Wood Novelties, Hardwood Floors, Grille-work. 456 S. Broadwa) 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Open Runabout 

Nothingr on the Market 
Equals it for the Money asked. 

•5!35x3o 363o*3o3o IJo** 3o3o* Sil* S*)R3l*)ft* 35* * * * * *3o * *3l * * * * * * 



49 its own wear. Equipped with 1% inch Cushion Tires* Choice of ?♦ 

- - - - - ^ 


Dealers in Fine Carriagres and Harness: ^ 

50 J -505 S> Broadway hh 

•S( Of op or oji^ op or or or or or or or or or 

2 Colors in Trimming and Painting* 


Jd we have them 

^ Two to Six-Gang Walking, Subsoil, Sulky, Steel 
M3 Chilled, Shovels, etc., to meet any want. 



49 164-168 N. Los 4nqeles St. 


Haivley^ King & Company 

Farm Implement Department ; 





Secured by First Mortg-agfes held in trust 
by the State Bank and Trust Co., are as 
SAFE as 


Six years of unqualified satisfaction. 
Write for Booklet. 



Help — All Kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co., 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 






Oranges, Lemons and Oi.ivks, Small Fruits, 
Roses, Palms, Etc. UeautifuUy illustrated 
cataloiirue mailt-d FREE. 

419-421 SANSOMm St. San Francisco 

Seeds make 
good crops, good 
crops make more cus- 
tomers—so eac)i year the 
crops and customers have 
grown greater. That's the 
secret of the Ferry fume. 
More Ferry's Seeds sold 
and sown than any other 
kind. Sold by all dealers. 
, m)2Ne€dAniin(il FREE. 
D. M. Ferry & Co. 

Cox Seed Co. 

411-413-415 Sansome St. 
San Francisco, Cal. 



Alfalfa, Clover, Brome Grass, Austra- 
lian Rye Grass, Garden and Flower 

Ornamental Trees, Roses, Fruit Trees 
and Small Fruits, French Prune on 
Myrobolan Root, Blenheim and Royal 
Apricots on Peach Root. 

Muir Peaches. 

Almonds — IXL, Nonpareil and Ne Plus 

Apples — Yellow Newtown Pippin and 

Pear— Bartlett. 

Sugar Prune. 

Mammoth Blackberry. 

Send for 1902 Annual Catalogue, 
beautifully illustrated, free by mail. 

Rose Bushes 

By Mail 


62"' Soiitli Spiimr Stret't. Los Anjfeles 

'4'8-page photo-illustrated cata- 
logue, 15 cents, which may be 
deducted from first order. 






T<> still further extend the knowledge of the 
ttl ready famous D. «fe C. Uosos, we havo hi'- 
lectod from tli<' million plunts which wc grow 
yearly, nuniherlnn over a thousand In variety. 
Our (ircat TrinI ('allection-I6 D. A: V. 
RoNCH for t!!ll .OU. This we send, poi)tnK<> i>ald, 
to any part of the U. .■^. an<l Colonies, satl.sractlon 
and Hafe arrival KUaranteed. The collection In- 
cludes some varieties truly Rrent In iH'auty of form, 
richness of (■()lorlnt;,vlKor and hardiness. These Hoses 
will hlooni freely this yeur.contlnuini; through the season. 
All different l<lii(is. proiierly lalielwl. Htron^ plants, not slips, 
on thrir own roota. Orders hooked nt any time, and for- 
warded at the proper planting season, or when you dlr«>ct. 

Seymour V. Kraslck, Kast Uoekaway, N. Y., writes: "Your 
Kr<'nt •■ rrialCollecliotr'nf roses readied me Safel v liy ninll. Kvery 
plant livecl; hiis trown lliicly. mid hloomed continuously. I would 
not sell the collection for live times Its cost." 

FKRR with rverr order for the above the grrat nrtr Riw YcUom Mamaii 
Cachet ita Olio of tiie It) vnrivtli's aii'l » r<>tiirii oluvk (okI r<ir 'i.'< cimiiii i.ii ur\i i,f[,t 
[i-\ y..ii i.i.iin..,, whrn- .vou •«» thi« a.l»vril..nH'iil. The liSd Annnul F.dltlon of 6i 
<i)ul<le to Ititoe Culturr. Ill |iniiii— iilli liuw lorrnn , niwl <1<'..'riS<'v. riMviii rc»r< and all ' 
ll,.»-.M "■.nh Kr..«ii,-_trii' niiliovrv or.l.-r for llio bU.\.. .\Uo free on requrat. Auk for It 

THE DINOEE &. CONARD CO., West Grove, Penn'a, U. 8. A. 

K.atnhllahiMl tH:>0. 70 (inrnhonw.. 

— ~ -la. — — - 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 





THE COLLEGE. Faculty of 16. Ample equipment. Students 
may pass from any class to the State University or any 
in the East. 

THE PREPARATORY SCHOOL. As "Chaffey" stood amonir the 
highest accredited schools in the State. Utmost pains taken 
with physical development, manners and character, as 
well as with the intellect. 

University Station. 

Dean Wm. T. Randall, A. M. 



New Building's. Gymnasium. Special care of health. 
Entire charge taken of pupils during school year and 
summer vacation. Certificate admits to Eastern Collegres. 
European teachers in art and music. 12th year beeran 
Oct., 1901. 

Occidental College 


Three Courses : Classical, Literary, Scientific, 
leading to degrees of A. B., B. L., and B. S. Thorough 
Preparatory Department and School of Music. 

First semester begins September 25, 1901. 

Address the President, 

Rev. Ouy "VT. Wadsworth. 



A Boarding and Day College for Boys and Young Men 

COURSES l Classical, Scientific, Commercial and 

For further Infornnation address REV. J. S. GLASS, C. M,, D. D. 

Formerly Casa de Rosas. 

Girls' Collegiate ScKool 

Adams and Hoover Sta., 
Lob Angeles, Cal. 

Ai/icB K. Parsons, B.A., 
Jeannb w. Dbnhbit, 



EIGHTH YEAR, 1901—1902. 

A select Boarding and Day School. Pre- 
pares for colleges, government schools, 
technical schools and business. Faculty 
large, competent, experienced ; all depart- 
ments thoroughly equipped; location near 
all city advantages, yet sufficiently iso- 
lated to be beyond demoralizing influence 
and dangers. 

Before deciding upon a school investi- 
gate the advantages we offer. Special rates 
during vacation. Illustrated catalogue upon 

Telephone Main 1556. 





(Graduate Vienna Military Academy.) 

The Harvard School ] 



An English Classical Boarding and Day School for Boys. 

Head Master. 

Reference : Chas. W. Elliot, LL. D., President Harvard 
Hon. Wm. P. Frye, Pres't pro tern. U. S. Senate. 

Pomona College 


Courses leading to degrees of B. A., B. S., and B. L. fts 
degrees are recognized by University of California, Stan- 
ford University, and all the Eastern Universities. 

Also Preparatory School, fitting for all Colleges, and a 
School of Music of high grade. Address, 

Dr. Geo. A. Gate8, President. 

Zos jfjo^e/CiS 

212 iA£eST THIRD ST. 

Is the oldest established, has the largest attendance, and is the best equipped business colleg'e 
on the Pacific Coast. Catalogue and circulars free. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

The Kodak came from us, but being in rnM|)i\rT TD|Dnn( 
a hurry he failed to get one of our wrlrAvl IKirUUO 

KODAKS dnd PHOTO SUPPLIES of all kinds 





Under Chamber of Commerne 


John A. Smith, Burnt Wood Noveities, Hardwood Floors, Grille-work. 456 S. Broadway 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

I III k ^ 

Two things that 
always go together, 


^"^ Elg^in 

and a time table. More than 9,000,000 
Elgin Watches regulate the hours of 
business and travel the world around. 
Every Elgin Watch has "Elgin" en- | 
graved on the works. Booklet free. | 

Elgin, Illinois. 

Headquarters for all Tourist* 

to the 

great Lick Observatory 

Charming Summer 

^^rrv 30(1 ^'Winter! Rcsort 


This beautiful hotel is sit- 
uated in the wonderful 
Santa Clara Valley, "the 
Garden of California," at 


In a word, the Vendome 
is Modern, Comfortable, 

Is First-class in every res- 
pect, and so are its patrons. 

Write for Ratbs and 
Illustrated Souvenir. 



Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 




Incorporated 1871 

Capital .... $600,000.00 

Surplns and Undivided Profits, $878,000.00 
Deposits .... $6,300,000.00 


I. W. Hbllman, Pres. H. W. Hellman, Vice-Pres. 

J. A. Gkavbs, 2nd Vice-Pres. Charles Sbylbr, Cashier 

G. Hbimann, Assistant Cashier 

W. H. Perry 
I. N. VanNuys 
H. W. Hellman 
A. Haas 


I.W. Hellman, Jr. 
J. A. Graves 
J. F. Francis 
Wm. Lacy 

O.W. Childs 
I.W. Hellman 
C. E. Thom 

Drafts and Letters of Credit issned and Telearrapfaic and 
Cable Transfers to all parts of the world. 
Special Safety Deposit Department and Storajre Vaults. 

W. C. Pattbrson, Prest. P. M. Grbbn. VIce-Pres. 

Frank P. Flint, Second VIce-Prest. 

W. D. WOOLWINE, Cashier 

E. W. COE, Assistant Cashier 

D. J. Wigdal " " X 

lie [OS Meles Nalionol BqiI 

Cor. First and Spring Streets 

Capital Stock 

Surplus and Profits over 


This bank has the best location of any bank in Los 
Anareles. It has the larerest capital of any National bank 
in Southern California, and is the only UNITED STATES 
DEPOSITARY in Southern California. 



Largest National Bank in Southern Calltornla. 

Capital Stock S *oo/x>o 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over }5o,oco 

Deposits t,ooojaoo 

J. M. Elliott, Prest. W. G. Kbbckhoff, V.-Prest 
J. C. Drake, Second V.-Prest. 
W. T. S. Hammond, Cashl<r 


J. D. Bicknell H. Jevne W. G. Kcrckhoft 

J. M. Elliott F. Q. Story J. D Hooker 

J. .C Drake 

All Dppartments of a Modern Banking Business Conducted 



jgfff-^yf'.y^ ^ O"' P""'"* "I"* Very Attractive 

''^^> Baker & Hamilton 


San Francisco and Sacrameito 

^T— 25// 



Capital $200,000 divided into 40,000 shares, par value $5.00. The comp.-iny owns absolutely SX) acres of 
proven irround and is a mine, no prospect. $8,000 produced in last four months. A comparatively 
small sum of money will put us in a position to pay biff dividends. For this puri>ose A L,IMITEI> 
the Secretary, Henry A. Greene, for maps and prospectus. 




>*PWPaloma Tpilet5?ap 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


TEL. MAIN 1240 

908-920 N. MAIN ST. 

Some of our Specialties 


Recofftiized Standard of the 
world. Saves you $100 to $500 per 
year in fuel. Prices greatlj' re- 
duced and within the reach of all. 
One firm in Minnesota using- 92 
Ottoeng-ines has purchased 60 in 
the last two years. Write us for their testimonial, also others, and for catalog-ue and prices. 


will run on g-as, g-asoline, distillate or 
crude oil. The only reversible gas en- 
g-ine in the market. Speed variable in- 
stantly at a touch of the hand while run- 
ning. Simple; easy to buy; easy to start; 
on crude oil costs less than K of a cent 
per horse-power per hour. Splendid eng-ine 
for the farmer or irrig-ator. Lowest prices. 


of pumps and complete pumping plants. 

Our long- experience enables us to select 
the best possible pump for your special con- 
ditions. Our prices always satisfactory 
and results g-uaranteed. 


Latest and best. Writes 
in sig-ht. Fastest speed. 
One Chicago firm uses 
over 120 Olivers. One 
San Francisco firm uses 
over 60. Larg-est firms in 
East using- larg-e num- 
bers. Many special points 
of advantag-e. 


THE WINTON MOTOR CARRIAGES— 15-Horse power-^'" ^° «"y""'«'^« y°" '^^'^ "^^ ^'^^ ^'^^^ 

•^ and wagon, as fast or slow as you wish to 

ride. Holds World's speed record one to ten miles. Gasoline eng-ine motor. Always ready for any distance. ISO miles 
without a stop. No explosions, no 
dang-er, easy and comfortable to 
ride in. A veritable road locomotive 
and palace car combined. 


We have one of the best 
equipped Foundries, Pat- 
tern and Machine Shops 
on the Coast. 

Our aim— to PLEASE 
us g-ive you prices on any- 
thing- you need. 



Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


When your eyes need attention, and 
when you need gflasses — for the very 
best service — come to us. We have all 
the latest improved scientific instru- 
ments to help us in our work, and are 
thoroughly equipped in every way. We 
give you competent, conscientious ser- 
vice and the assurance that your eyes 
will get just the help they need. 


KYTE & eilANICHER, Props. 


236 South Spring St. 


^ir COLBY'S 




Los Angelku, Cal., Sept. 16, 1901. 

This is to certify that I have personally used 
Colby's Death to Rheumatism and Neuralfirla, 
both upon myself and patients, and that I have 
found it an invaluable remedy in muscular rheu- 
matism, ifivinar immediate relief, which I am 
pleased to say proved permanent. 

Very sincerely, Dr.Nbstor A. Young. 

"Colby's Death to Rheumatism and Nearal- 
sria" cured me. I had been usinir crutches for 
three weeks. I was relieved of all pain in a few 
minutes. One bottle cured me. 

University Planinir Mill. N. E. JoHNBON. 

I had sufifered for a year and a half with my 
back. One application of "Colby's Death to 
Rheumatism and Ncuraliria" cured me. 

226 W. Jefferson St. J. A. Brown. 






Hours— a to i) a.m., u to J p.m.. and to - p-m. 


OrrERS FOR PUBLIC SUBSCRIPTION a limited amount of its Treasury 
Stock at the bed-rock price of lO cents per share, par value ONE. DOLLAR, full paid 
and non-assessable. Incorporated under the laws of Arizona. Mines in Arizona. Capital- 
ization, $1,000,000.00. One million shares. No personal liability. Estimated amount of ore 
in sight, over $600,000.00. The money to be used in installing mill and machinery. For 
further particulars and prospectuses, address : ^ ,^„ „ „,,.,«.„« 

^ t- f ' g2S BYRNE BUILDINQ 

STANDARD GOLD COMPANY los anqeles. cal. 

Modern ness 

is the spirit and fact of our entire establishment. 
Our mechanical plant represents the most up-to- 
I date laundry equipment in the West, and includes 

— facilities, such as our " NO SAW EDGE on 
Collars and Cuffs " machine, which is our own patent. Experience and circumstances 
have enabled us to weed out inefficient help. Skillfulness, promptness and courtesy 

We occupy our own building, from the ground floor up, in the business center of 
the city, and are therefore convenient of access. Call or phone. 

Empire Laundry 

Phone Main 635. 


SatlsfacttoR Caaraiitrrd 

RamonaToilet «soap 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 





Main shaft down to 220 feet to water level, where high grade sulphides have 
been developed. Development stock, 25 cents per sKare, par value 
$1.00. Absolutely Non-assessable. 

Ezra T. Stimson, President 

Treasurer Stimson Mill Co. 
L. W. Blinn, Vice-President 

L. W. Blinn Lumber Co. 

Warken Gillelen, Treasurer 

Pres. Broadway Bank & Trust Co. 
P. H. Clark, Secretary 





of twenty acres, eight and 
nine year old trees, situated 
within two blocks of the 
city limits of San Bernar- 
dino, Cal. Five inches con- 
tinuous water flow. 


Will sell for cash for $7,500. 

Address: Box A, 

605-607 FROST BLDG. 


Orange l^and 

I offer for sale Ten -Acres 
of land in Thermalito, near Oro- 
ville, Butte Co., in the heart of 
the Northern Citrus Belt, at 
Fifty Dollars per acre. 

In this district are grown the 
finest Navel Oranges in the 
world, ripening- from four to six 
weeks earlier than in any other 
place in California. Title perfect. 

for Particulars address 


Oroville, Butte Co., California 

lUVlin TUCITDIPAI nni n HDCAM prevents early wnnkles. It is not a freckle coatiuff ; it re- 
AnllU lllLAInlUAL bULU UllLAifl moves them. ANYVO CO.. 427 N Main St., Los Ansreles. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


We Sell Oranae OrcHards 

That pay a steady investment, with 
trood water riffhts. We have them in 
the snburbs of Pasadena, finely lo- 
cated for homes, also in the conntry 
for profit. 



1 6 S. Raymond Avenue, PASADENA, C AL. 
Los Angeles Office : 3 J 7-3 J 5 Bryne Bldg. 



For Sale, $0,000. 20 -acre 

Lemon Orchard in full bearing, with 
good six-room house, barn, etc. W'ater 
piped for irrigation. Absolutely frost- 
less. Located in one of the most 
healthful and attractive portions of 
San Diego County, near railroad, 
schools, church, and only ten miles 
from San Diego. 

THIS PLACE HAS COST FULLY $10,000. It is now 
owned by a business man livintr in Los Ancreles 
who has no time to look after it. The place has 
been kept up iu first-class condition, and offers 
one of those rare opportunities for a purchaser 
to settle down without having- to fix up a 
nesrlected place.— R. W. Poindkxter, 309 Wil- 
cox Ulock, Los Anjfeles. 



FINE RESIDENCE in Redlands, with 
mafirnificent outlook, near to KLECTRIC 
car line, modern house, elegantly furnished, 
all modern conveniences, wide verandas, 
plate glass windows. For sale at half its 

ORAN6E 6R0VE— $20,000 buys 145^ acres 
in full bearing. $6,000 house, barns, etc., 
situated near electric car line, having mag- 
nificent view of Redlands and the mount- 
ains beyond. 

Redlands is unsurpassed for salubrious . 
climate, mag-nificent scenery, excellent 
schools, churches, libraries and society. No 

Call upon or address: JOIIN P. rlSK, Rooms 
land 2, Union Bank Block, Redlands, Cal. 


a practically new seven-room cottage with all modern 
conveniences and surrounded with lawns and rare semi- 
tropic trees, plants and flowers, address 449 N. Grand 
Avenue, Los Angeles. 


Come to Porterville ! 

Where Oranges and Lemons 
are grown free from Smut 
and Scale. 

equalled Climate. To in- 
vestigate means to invest. 
For information, address 

• secreiory Boord oi Trade. 
























PADDOCK COMPANY, Riverside, Gal. 



We Sell the Earth 


We deal in all kinds of Real Estate, Orchard and 
Residence Property. Write for descriptive pamphlet. 

Room 208, 202>^ S. BROADWAY 




Land Agent for I. W. Uellman, the largett property owMtr 
in Los Angeles City. 

P. A. STANTON i** s. broadway 


References ; Farmers ami Merchants Hank, Los Ann'tlis .• 
Nez'aJa National Hank, San Francisco. 



209 Orange Street 

For reliable information as to coat, 
care and culture of Redlands 
Oranar* Groves, call on or address 


RcdUtvU, Ctl. 

No Dry 
Seasons at 


Corning, Tehama 
County, Cal. 



Land in Small Pain-lH at Low I'ricos. Thi> (iroati'st Fruit Colonv in the World. Over One Million Thrifty Fruit 
Trct'S ; Railroad Facilities ; Fruit Dryer and Cannery ; Fine Hotel, Opera House, Churche.«, Gr.ided School, Weekly 
Newspaper, ."iOdO Ki-sidfiits, Numerous Social, Reliarioiis and Fratern:i1 Orjf.mizations, S«i>«>rb Soil, rienly of W.itcr, 
Unsurpassed Climate. Free Illustrated Literature fiii nisln-il l>v 

RALPH HOYT. Southern California Office. 2»l Dounliis lUiiMlny. I OS Wlill I >. C \l . 

Please Mention that You Saw It in OUT WEST. 

Before Locating in California 

MaKe a XKorovi^H 
Investigation of 

San Joaquin County 

It has the most fertile lands in the State at the lowest prices. 

It has a navigable river and numerous railroads, causing- the lowest trans- 
portation charges in the State. 

Its markets are constant and active for all farm produce. 

It offers the best opportunity for the farmer or home-seeker that can^be 
found on this coast. 


Call on or address Stockton Chamber of Commerce, Stockton, Cat., or the 
Chatnber's Branch Office at 66 Bryson Block, Los Angeles, Cal. 

San Joaouin (Bounty 


Fruity Vineyard, Alfalfa, Vegetable and Grain Land for sale at prices 
so low you will scarcely believe it possible. 

Wc have the BEST BARGAINS in Farm Lands to be found in the 
United States, 

San Joaquin County is the center of agricultural California. Nothing 
can stop it from becoming the center of the States* population. 


n. C. NORRIS & Co., 247 Wilcox Block, Los Angeles 

Or write to our Correspondents, EATON & BUCKLEY, Stockton, Cal. 

J |._ — —J J—, ^ nr T\ A r^ T^TT A ^ TZ^ T^ ■^*"' Pancake Griddles, Bread, Biscuit, Cake and Pie 
L^l 1 I L^C, \J lL iVi \J t^ tl^ ^ ^ C^ ti Pans. Metal and Wood combined. Everlastinsr kitchen 
necessity. Postpaid to you for 14 cents. HOUSEHOLD SPECIALTY CO., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Southern Califonia 


not fall to see 


24 miles from Los Angeles, on the 
Kite-shaped track of the Santa T6 Ry. 


It has first-class hotel accommodations, good drives and fine scenic surroundings. 
Its educational, social and religious facilities are complete. It is surrounded by the 
most productive and beautiful orange and lemon groves in the world, and as a place of 
residence is warmer in winter and cooler in summer than many other famous orange 
For especial information or complete and handsome illustrated literature, 

Write ^- ^AfuS.^Jiiff'^^ir'^ Chamber of Commerce 











Spring St. 
Los Angeles 



Full line of . . . 

Opals, Turquoise 
Zarapes, Pottery 
Mexican Art Work 
California Souvenirs 
Carved and Burnt 
Leather Goods. &c. 


FO R ^ A L E 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Imperial FRESNO 

The richest county in California* Produces a greater 
variety of products than any other county in the State. The 
only county that can produce RAISINS and FIGS successfufly. 

Its orange and lemon industry is still in its swaddling clothes, 
but its citrus fruits can be shipped from two to four weeks 
earlier than from any other section. 

I have some exceptionally rich orange land, fully protected, 
that will increase in value from J 00 per cent to 1000 per cent 
withiri the next few years. Alfalfa finds its HOME in Fresno 
County, producing more FULL crops than any other section. 

Its mineral resources are yet UNDEVELOPED, but they will 
compare favorably with other counties of the State. 

I will execute commissions of purchase and sale for non- 
residents ; investigate and furnish special confidential reports on 
Fresno city and country property ; take the entire management 
of vineyards and other property and estates. 


References upon application. 


The Real Estate Merchant 

Northern California Office: Central California Office : Southern California Office: 

10 Montgomery St., San Francisco 1031 J St., Fresno 123 S. Broadway, Los Angeles 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



IF YOU ARE ABLE to lay aside a few dollars each month, we 

have a business investment to tell you about that will insure you a handsome 
and increasing^ income for your lifetime. The immense profit in growing 
rubber exceeds the revenue from any known business. We have a plantation 
of 7500 acres in the rubber district of Costa Rica, where a small army of 
diligent workmen are engaged day after day in turning the land into planta- 
tion property ; 75,000 rubber trees have already been planted, and 10,000 cacao 
trees are well along toward maturity. We have prepared some valuable 
literature on the matter which will be mailed free. 

MONTHLY PAYMENT PLAN. A limited block of treasury 
stock may be purchased on monthly payments as follows: $5.00 down and 
$5.00 per month buys 500 shares; $10.00 down and $10.00 per month buys 1000 
shares. Price of stock, 50c per share. For further particulars, address 



^"If 11 ^ 'W 'W t! -^ *¥ -^ ^ "IB 11 JV Ti ^ if, 11 7l ^ -^ ^ ^ ^^r^r^r^^VW^ 



•The most profitable varieties on the best soil, in 
the finest condition. I have more than I want to 











take care of, and will sell part in ten-acre tracts at prices 
«^^ X below present conservative values. Write me iox y 
,j/^\^particulars. Better )'et, come and see proper t v. ^^^^o*^ 

A. P. GRIFFITH, Azusa, Cal. ^^ 

.tohn A. Smith, Burnt Wood Novelties, Hardwood Floors, Grille-work. 456 S. Broadway. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Maier & Zobelein 



For Family use and Export a specialty. 

A pure, wholesome beverage, recommended by 
prominent physicians. 


TEL. Main 91 








Are the 




"The Fox" 

In the Middle States and in the 
East where " The Fox " is bet- 
ter known, it is " The Iveader." 
and EASY ACTION have 
made it the STANDARD. : : : 




104 Front Street 


Hummel Bros. & Co. furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



unset -L/imited 



fc: Solid Vestibvile Train Los Angeles to Ne-w Orleans 

^ Leaving Los ^Vn^eles 

fc Every Tuesday, TK\arsday and Saturday 

^ At 8:30 a. m. 




^I Write or ask 6. A. PARKYNS, Assistant General Freiarbt and Passen- ^S 

^ g-er Airent, 261 South Spring Street, Los A nreles, Cal., for particulars. -^ 



[islde Track Fluer" 





LEAVE Lo» Angeles— Arcade Depot 8:45 am 

ARRIVE Colton. 10:42 am 

" Riverside 11 :00 am 

[2 hours and 30 minutes stop, allowinsr time for 
lunch; drive on Victoria Avenue by way of 
Arlintrton Heiarhts and New Indian School, 
returniiiK' on the famous Masrnolia Avenue.] 

LEAVE Riverside 1:30 pm 

ARRIVE Loma Linda 1:60 pm 

[Stop of 33 minutes to enjoy the beautiful pan- 
oramic view from plateau surroundinir Loma 
Linda Hotel.] 

ARRIVE Redlands 8:36 pm 

[Stop of 1 hour and 30 niinntes to permit drive to 
Smiley Heitrlits and other points of interest.] 

LEAVE Redlands 4:05pm 

ARRIVE Los Anieles. 1:20 pm 

[In ample time for dinner ] 

Leaving Los Aiitfeles this train will travel by 
way of Puente, Pomona .ind Ontario, returning 
via Covina; tlius affordinir the opportunity of 
seeinir the famous Citrus Fruit Belt of Cali- 
fornia, passinir the old San Gabriel Mission. 

.^99" For further particulars see Apent Southern Pacific Co., or write 
a. A. PARKYNS, As5t. Qcn'I Frt. & Pass. Agt. 
261 South Spring Street LOS ANQELES, CAL. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



California Limited 




Daily Service BetwecH San Francisco 
$ Los Angeles and Chicago 

641 iWarkct Street 200 S. Spring Street 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

?K — - - - - -^ — The Delightful Scenic Route 

^•^To Santa cMonica 

And Hollywood 

Fine, Comfortable Observation Cart Free from Smekt.ate 

Cars leave Fourth street and Broadway, Los Antreles, for Santa Monica via. Sixteenth 
street, every half hour from 6:35 a.m. to 6:35 p.m., then each hour till 11:35 ; or via Bellevue 
Ave., for Colearrove and Sherman, every hour from 6:15 a.m. to 11:15 p.m. Cars leave Ocean 
Park, Santa Monica, for Los Angeles, at 5:40 and 6:40 a.m. and every half hour thereafter 
till 7:40 p.m., and at 8:40, 9:40 and 10:40 p.m. 

Cars leave Los Anireles for Santa Monica via. Hollywood and Sherman via. BelleTne 
Ave., every hour from 6:45 a.m. to 5;45 p.m., and to Hollywood only every honr therea.fter. 

•**~For complete time-table and particulars call at office of company. 

Sinarle Round Trip, 50c. lO-Trip Tickets, $2.00. 





The great transcontinental route 
throug-h Salt Lake City and the 

M\ maooiiiceoi sceoery lo urn 

No European trip of equal length 
can compare with it in grandeur 
of scenery or wealth of novel in- 
terest. Pullman Palace and ordin- 
ary Sleepers through to Omaha, 
St. Louis and Chicago daily. 

For information, handsomely 
illustrated pamphlets, etc., call 
upon your nearest Ticket Asrent, 
or address : 

G. W. HEINTZ, Asst. Gen. Passengrer Airent, 
Salt Lake City. 

r. W. THOMPSON, Gen. Agent, 635 Market 
St., San Francisco. 


It has taken a arreat deal of money and care to perfect 
our track and prompt train service, but we pride our- 
selves on hcinor able to offer th- traveling public the 
finest and smoothest track in California, with up-tt>-date 
trains, havinir all the needful appliances for comfort 
and speed, runninir at convenient hours to the best 
ocean resorts on the Pacific Coast. Anions' the most 
prominent are Long- Beach, Catalina Island. San Pedro 
and Terminal Island. Excursion Ticktts sotJ fvery day. 

4g"Write Agenta of the Siilt L»K« Roxit^ 

for tllnstrated leaflets and desired Infor- 
mation. All Inqulrieg cheerfnlly anawered. 

E. W. GILLETT, GenU Past. Agt. 
T. C. PECK, Astt. Grn'l Pasx. Art. 




I STOCKTON Yosemite Hotel \ 


prevents early wrinkles. It Is not a freckle coating ; it re- 
moves them- ANYVO CO.. 427 N. Main St., Los Angele». 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

17 Hniipc LOS ANGELES 

ui IIUUI O CAM FnAiinci 



Pacific Coast Steamsliip Co. 


Leave San Francisco : SANTA ROSA Sundays, 9.00 a.m. 

STATE OF CAL Wednesdays, " " 


Leave Los Angeles : SANTA ROSA Wednesdays, 10.00 a.m. 

STATE OF CAL Saturdays, " " 

Operate Steamers to and from Mexico, Humboldt Bay, British 
Columbia, Seattle and Alaslca 

W. PARRIS, Agent 

328 S. Spring St. 




Hummel Bros. & Co. furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 




f( It contains strongly American Editorials, Letters from Washington, 

S Kew York, London and Paris by trained correspondents ; its short 

•* stories are famous and are widely copied throughout the United States ; 

y its selected Departments, both verse and prose, are edited with the 

greatest care ; Art, Music, the Drama and Society notes are handled bj* 

J experienced writers. 

«i The ARGONAUT is acknowledged by all to be the best Weekly on 

jl the Pacific Coast and one of the best in the United States. Persons 

P once having formed the habit of reading The ARGONAUT find they 



$1 Send us a postal card and we will forward you, postage paid, some 

S sample copies. 


5 246 Sutter Street San Francisco, Cal. 







Drink pure water from the fountains of the mountains. Tents 
and cottages to rent. Excellent store, meat market and dairy. 
First-class hotel, electric light, complete sewer system, mountain 
spring water piped throughout all buildings. Seven hundred and 
thirty-four thousand acres of pine forests for hunting and moun- 
tain climbing. Golf links, lawn tennis, croquet and billiards. 

Round Trip Tickets on Santa Fe, Los Angeles to 
San Jacinto, good on Tuesdays, Tliursdays and 
Saturdays— FIVE DOLLARS. 

Daily stage meets all trains at San Jacinto. Sunset telephone 
for guests. Call up " Idyllwild." For particulars address : 


1414 South Hope Street, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Hummel Bros. & Co. furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 





Gives the only true and scientific physical treatment for bodily deformities, nervous exhaustion 
and muscular development, in existence. His treatment is based upon a thoroucrh knowledg-e of 
the physical anatomy of men and women. A THOROUGH DIAGNOSIS 
NEEDS DETERCDINED and a treatment given which will meet 
your particular case. There are over one thousand different movements each 
for a separate purpose in the Blomqvist System. Every ilisease or deformity is 
(g-iven a specific movement. Other systems boast of twenty-five separate move- 
ments and are g-iven without intellisrent direction. If you have liver trouble, i 
dyspepsia or indigestion, or are threatened with lung- disease, nervous prostra- 
tion, or if you want a strong-, healthy, well developed body, write us. Any muscle 
developed to any size. The Blomqvist system is the only treatment that will CUre curvature Of the 
spine. No need of children going through life all crooked and maimed when our treatment will make 
them strong, straight and robust. Ladies can have wrinkles removed, irregularities corrected, cold ^f,^^ 
feet and hands made warm by our treatment for the circulation. Strongest testimonials furnished 
from U. S. senators, physicians, and people of the highest social rank. A trial of the Blomqvist System 
will convince anyone. Booklet, full information and indorsements sent free. Write today. 


Your choice at Half-price 

Half-tone and Line-etching Cuts 

We have accumulated over 
2000 cuts of Western subjects 
which have been used but once in the Land of Sunshine or Out West. 
They are practically a* ^oorf a* ««TO, but will be sold at half-price, viz., SMc 
a square inch for half-tones larger than twelve square inches and $1 for those 
under that size with 40c additional for vignettes. Line etchings, 5c a square 
inch for those over ten square inches and 50c for those under that size. 
If you cannot call at our office send $1.50 to cover express charges on 
proof book to be sent to you for inspection and return. The book is not for sale 
and must be returned promptly. If you order cuts to the amount of $5 
the cost of expressage on the proof book will be refunded. 

Land of Sunshine Pub. Co. 

Room 7, No. 121>^ South 
Broadway, lyos Angeles 

^pWyaiotna toilet5?ap 


DRUG stores; 

John A. Smith, Burnt Wood Novelties, Hardwood Floors, Grille-work. 456 S. Broadway. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


Lnxakola i-i the only laxative that acta 
as a tonic to the whole female eystcm, 
BtrenKthenintr the organs and purifying the 
blood. It will curetho most confirmed case 
of conbtipation after every other remedy 
has failed. 

With your howel8 and stomach free 
from refuse and impurities; with your 
kidneys and liver workinpr naturally, and 
your blood pure and rich, backaches, head- 
aches, weak nerves, blotchy, muddy, sal- 
low complexions and all similar troubles 
will vanish, and you will feel and look 
atrone, healthy and vlproroua. 

Because of its purliy, pleafant tastOi 
■ind Kentle, yet eflfective, action, infants 
and the most delicate invalids can take It 
without any disagreeable or harmful after- 

Laxakola combincH two medicines, viz: laxatlr* 
and tonic, and at one prin . No other remedy ^vea 
■o much for the money. At druirprists 25c. and 
Wk:. or free sample of THE LAXAKOLA <X).. 13S 
IfoaMiu Street, N. Y. or 3M Dearborn Street, ChiCMgo, 


56 beautiful views, Southern California, 
artistic and attractive. Postpaid, 10c. 

CALirORNU ART CO., Frost BIdg., Los Angeles 



Boys, Olrls, oid an<l youn^ alike, 
make money working for uk. 
We fnmtvh ripHal tofttanyno in bo^ 
w. bcuil UM lOc aUmpii or ailvrr for full ln>iructk>ni and • )iii«e( 

DplM to work with. liRAPER PUBLISHING CO.,CUcafeja. 

For sale at less than half price. We want an ay ent in 
every town and city in the U. S. Send 85c. for lampU 
opal worth 92. Good agenta make flO a day. 
Mexican Opal Co., 607 Frost Bldg., Los Anreles. CaL 
Bank reference, State Loan and Trust Oo. 




I have been taking Ripans Tabules for the dys- 
pepsia, and they have helped me wonderfully. I do 
not know any particular way they affect me, 
but they seem to give vigor to the entire system. 
I had a sort of languid feeling, but since taking 
the Tabules I feel spirited and have not that mel- 
ancholy way about me. I think they are good for 
a general build-up of the system, as they seem to 
act like a tonic. 


The five-cent packet is enougfh for an ordinary occasion. The family bottle^ sixty 
cents, contains a supply for a year. 

Help— All Kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co., 300 W. Second St. Tel, Main 509. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 







A California Education 

The bound volumes of the Land of Sunshine make the most interesting 
and valuable library of the far West ever printed. The illustrations are lavish and 
handsome, the text is of a high literary standard, and ot recognized authority in its 
field. There is nothing else like this magazine. Among the thousands of publica- 
tions in the United States, it is wholly unique. Every educated Californian and 
Westerner should have these charming volumes. They will not long be secured at 
the present rates, for back numbers are growing more and more scarce ; in fact the 
June number, 1894, is already out of the market. 


Vols, land 2. July, '94 to May, '95, inclusive $3.9u 





is interested and should know 
j=r ' "■^^ about the wondeiful 

Marvel I^T' 

If your druggist cannot 
supply the MARVEL, 
accept no other, but write us for 
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able to ladies. Endorsed by PbysicianB. 

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J by druggists or by mail. 25c a box. Samples free. 

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i "Conquest of Arid America" I 

'i is pronounced by reviewers " one of the few really b¥ 

^ best books on the West. A book every American JJ 

49 should read." "One of the most interesting, one of ^ 

••i the truest, most prophetic and most vital." " It is as i> 

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'^ By special arrangement with Mr. Wm. E. Smythe, the □♦ 

^n author of the above famous book, we are permitted to ^ 

49 offer it as a premium together with a year's subscrip- ^ 

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^o Beginning with the July issue, 1901, this magazine ^ 

49 has regularly devoted some twenty pages to ^ 

'^ Irrigation, Cooperation and Colonization, under the 0^ 

^ personal supervision of Mr. Smythe. Those who desire ^ 

49 to keep in touch with the really big things of current )j^ 

J^ progress and interest, or enjoy the great variety of o^ 

MD articles which will appear in this department from the |T 

49 pens of the foremost thinkers and writers of the West, L^ 

zi should take advantage of this premium offer. !♦ 

« * 

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Offices: 115 South Broadway Telephone Main 417 

/. A modern plant, ''all ttnder one roof/' for 
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UtaK ^ California 
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Los Angeles, Cah: 

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The Pacific Mutual 

Life Insurdnce (ompdny of (alifornid 


Paid Policy-holders t 
Assets^ ♦ ♦ . 
Surplus to Policy-holders, 

St3, 500,000,00 





Correspondence Invited as to Agencies, 
Policies and Annuities 

Jas. Irvine 


Hugh M. LaRue 
Geo. a. Moore 
Geo. W. Scott 


Henry T. Scott 
Wm. R. Sherwood 
Wakefield Baker 
James Carolan 
W. R. Cluness 

W. H. Crocker 
Henry J. Crocker 
D. W. Earl 

Chas. N. Fox 
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GEO. A. MOORE, President Geo. W. Scott, Vice-President 
M. R. Higgins, 2nd Vice-President and General Superintendent 
S. M. Marks, tiecretary R. J. Mier, Assistant Secretary 

W. R. Cluness, M. D., Medical Director 
W. R. Cluness, Jr., M. D., Assistant Medical Director 

Pacific Mutual Building 

Royal Baking 

If you wish the lightest, 
finest, sweetest, most health- 
ful biscuit, cake and bread, 
Powder is indispensable in their 

There are imitation baking powders, mad' 
from alum and sold cheap, which it 
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has the largest sale in t/te United 
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upon request. 


270 Main Street 

Chicopee Palis, Mass. 

yvrKii^. ivv^:« 

Vol. XVI, No. 4 


Copyrighted 1902 by The Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Hotel Westminster.... 


American and 

European Plana 




Los Angeles 

Every Modern 
Comfort and Convenience 
that can be found in 
any Hotel. 
Unsurpassed Golf Links. 

Send for Booklet on 

Los Angeles and environs 

F. O. JOHNSON, Proprietor 

TOURISTS and otbers going Eastward 
will find that a stop off of a few days 
at Salt Lake City can be most pleasur- 
ably spent. "The Knutsford" Is the only 
new fire-proof hotel, for the better class 
of trade, in the city. Every place of in- 
terest is nearby this hotel. Do not be 
misled, but check your bairtraire direct to 
"The Knutsford," Salt Lake City. 

N.B. — An interesting illustrated book- 
let on "Zion." will be mailed to anyone 


G. S. 

HOLMES, Prop., 

Salt Lake City. 


The Angelas e^ 

On the corner of Fourth 
and Spring Streets, J* «M 

Opened Dec 28, 1901, by 

G.S. HOLMES, Pror 

I IIP iMiuistxrti- Hold. >.tM l.ake Ciiy. W 


K iiutstorti" Hold. S.Tlt Lake Ciiy. 

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Stylish Spring Clothing 


There is style in every point of every garment offered 
in our high-class clothing for men and youths. .". Well 
selected patterns that are refined and pleasing. These 
garments at our " regular " prices are better values than 
are usually offered elsewhere at " special prices." 

Suits or Overcoats, $10 to $25 

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IRRIGATION ■'■■'E ■-■'■Es 

■ ■■■■l%Mi^ I I VII ARTHUR S. BENT 

ESTABLISHED 1886 651 S. BROADWAY, Los Angeles ^ 


THere are many -wortKy people 
Vf not needing more tKan V? 


to write the amount of their available assets, who would like a home in California, but are deterred on 
account of the mistaken idea that they cannot buy land there or make a start without a fortune already 
in hand. Such people should investigrate the 


in Fresno and Kings Counties, California, where you can buy some of the best and most fertile land in the 
State at $35 and $4U per acre. Land on which can be raised not only all the California fruits, but all the 
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If you want to chanue your location, if you are tired of cold winters, cyclones and blizzards, come to 
LACUNA DE. TACHE.. If you have $1,000 or even less, and an ambition to work, you can 
succeed. Write to-day for descriptive printed matter. A postal card brings it. 


Mention Out West. LATON, Trestio County, CAL. 

T T'T'TT C^ r^ C^ A/T ^ rD XT A C^ TTT^ ^°^ Pancake Griddles, Bread, Biscuit, Cake and 
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President of Stanford UniTersity. 


Chicairo University. 


The Historian of California. 

Author of "The Led-Horse Claim," etc. 

Author of " Stories of the Foothills." 


Author of " The Sister of a Saint," etc. 

Author of " A Forest Orchid," etc. 

The Poet of the South Seas. 

Author of " Sonars from the Golden Gate," etc. 

Author of "The Man With the Hoe." 

The Poet of the Sierras. 

Author of " The Life of Aflrassiz," etc. 

A uthor of " The Shield of the Fleur de Lis." 


Author of "The Conquest of Arid Amerlca,"etc. 

The greatest Western Painter. 

Ex-Prest. American Folk-Lore Society. 

The Historian of Coronado's Marches. 

of the Smithsonian Institntion, Washinston. 

Literary Editor S. F. "Chronicle." 

Author of " In This Our World." 

Author of "The Story of the Mine," etc 

Author of " Rod and Gun In California," etc. 

A Director of the California Academy of Sciences 




Authors of "Our Feathered Friends." 

Contents— April, 1902. 

The Discovery of our Pacific Coast, illustrated, R. A. Thotnpson .353 

The Manzano Salt Lake, illustrated, D. W. Johnson .367 

Citrus Fruits 250 years ag-o, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis .377 

In Western Letters, illustrated, C. F. L ,>sq 

Sequoya, " The American Cadtnus" (portrait) "n'»0 

"Back There" (poem), Tracy and Lucy Kobinson 391 

The Captain of the Gate (story), Eugene Manlove Rhodes .391 

It Was His (storj-). Cloudsley Johns .397 

To F.ulalia (poem), A. B. Bennett 398 

Early Western History — from documents never before published in English — Diary of Father 

Junfpero Serra from Loreto to San Diego, 1769 (continued from March> 399 

The Sequoya League, " To Make Better Indians " 407 

The Landmarks Club .411 

In the Lion's Den (by the editor) .412 

That Which is Written (reviews by the editor and C. A. Moody) .420 

The 20th Century West, conducted by Wm. E. Smythe 425 

The Colorado River, illustrated, J. P. Lippincott 430 

The California Constructive League 435 

The Kings River Conquest, first paper in the series "Looking California in the Pace" (con- 
tinued from March) 437 

How the People Smashed the Money Ring, illustrated— third paper in the series <ii! x.-w 

Zealand Institutitions 440 

Riverside View of Reforms, illustrated, John G. North 443 

The Sacramento Valley, illustrated, W. S. Green 447 

Copyright 1902. Entered at the Los Angeles Postoffice aa aecond-class matter, (sbb pububbbr'b paqb.) 

Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 



We are authorized fiscal ag'ents 
for three of the largest and best 
mining' corporations in U'ashingr- 
ton, to-wit : 



Eleven copper-grold claims, 2,000 acres coking- coal lauds, both producing-; 175 men employed, bunkers 
completed, railway built, Montezuma postoffice established; only blacksmithing- coal on the Pacific 
Coast; hig-h-g^rade coking- coal, best by Government test; two quarterly dividends paid, and will come 
reg-ularly hereafter; an Al investment stock. A small block left at 32 cents a share cash, or 37 cents 
on installments. 




This big- company is just org-anized for the operating- of mines, smelters, rolling- mills, lumbering- and 
shipping- business. It owns extensive iron mines on Texada Island, B. C.; Barclay Sound, B C , and 
in Skag-it County, Washing-ton; also owns 7,000 acres rich coking- coal lands in Washing-ton. Its 
"Marble Bay" mine on Texada Island is now producing- copper-g-old ore to the amount of $12,000 net 
monthly, and output will be largrely increased by new manag-ement. This company will control steel 
business of the Northwest, to which country it will be what the g-reat steel concerns are to the East. 
Manag-ement the best. It will sell a little stock for development purposes, and we are authorized to 
offer a limited issue at 12K cents cash, or 15 cents on installments. We predict these shares will pay 
dividends by January next. 

Copper King Mining Syndicate 


The Copper King- Mining- Syndicate owns and controls 65 adjacent claims in the Carbon River district. 
The considerable development work done indicates the presence of veins of hig-h values. Reports are 
most satisfactory. To obtain funds for machinery and extensive development, shares are offered for 
a short time at 5 cents cash, or 6 cents on installments. These shares are honest speculation, and will 
soon be worth several times the price asked. 

Write for prospectus of any or all these 
companies. Address the selling afrents. 




Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. & Co., Tel. Main 509. 

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Our present stock is worth com- 
ing- miles to see. People livinj^ in Red- 
lands, Riverside, Pomona, and other 
Southern California towns will find it to 
their advantage to make the trip to Los 
Angeles in order to make early selections from 
this beautiful stock. RUGS FROM FIVE DOL- 
every rug guaranteed to be just exactly as rep- 
resented. Our Oriental Rug Department is in 
charge of an artist and collector of thirteen 
years' experience, and he will gladly explain 
to visitors the fine points of the various pieces 
shown. There are over 400 rugs in the 
stock in every size, from the small mat 
up to those large enough to cover a full 

size room. I 


225-27-29 S. Broadway, Los Angeles 
Opposite City Hall 


/^UR curtain and upholstery de- 
^^ partment is equipped to work 
out the most elaborate schemes of 
interior decorating and furnishing. 
The present stock of 


was selected with this idea in view. 
We will be pleased to make sugges- 
tions and submit sketches for all 
of the curtains, hangings, draperies 
and upholstering of an establish- 
ment, or any part of them. Write 
for particulars. 

The Spring furniture is all on display. 


439-441-443 S. Spring St., Los Angeles 

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City of Richmond 

Adjoining' shops of Santa F^ 
K. R., near terminus. Across 
Bay from San Francisco. 
The largest corporations in 
California are the Standard 
Oil Co., the Santa F6 R.R. and 
the Southern Pacific R. R. 


With all available shipping fa- 
cilities to be had by rail, deep- 
est water on San Francisco 
Bay, and cheapest fuel at hand 
from Standard Oil Co., 'this 
will be the greatest manufao- 
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Lots from $180 to $300— $25 cash, Balance $5 
per month. t9^ Send for Catalogues. "^KL 





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Carex Stricta, commonly called wire grass, grows in abundance in the marshes 
and peat lands of Northern Minnesota and Wisconsin. It attains a height of three to 
four feet, and grows up from the roots in a straight stem without joints or lateral 
leaves. When dried, it is woven or braided, and wrapped about furniture frames simi- 
lar to the method of utilizing the willow*, and presents a beautiful appearance. It is 
finished in a soft green or in natural color. It is toug-h and durable, and can be man- 
ipulated into all sorts of artistic, unique and 
attractive shapes. 

We have the agency for the genuine and 
only Raflfia Furniture which is made of this 
grass. We are putting it into the most lux- 
uriously furnished houses in the Southwest. 
It appeals directly to those who are well 
posted and have advanced ideas on the fur- 
niture question. 

Our assortment includes all sorts of porch 
pieces, hall pieces, fancy chairs, settees, etc. 


420-424 S. SPRING ST. 


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Modern hotel with steam heat and open crrates ; surf bathing- all the year; hot and cold salt 
water baths ; fine srolf links; tennis; boatinar and fishinir ; deliifhtful driven. 




An ideal home by the sea ; 200 rooms heated with open srrates ; hot and cold water in every room ; 
private baths ; splendid bowling- alleys. Redondo Beach boasts of having' the best fishii.if on the 
coast ; the largest carnation gardens in the world, and tennis courts and golf links second to none. 

Both these 
Hotels are 
(18 miles) 

Los Angeles 
and possess 
the finest 
Climate in 
the World. 

For Rates ami 
further Infor- 
mation address 

A. D. Wright 



The Delightful Scenic Route to 

Santa cMonica 

And Hollywood 

Fine, Comtnrttble Obttrvatlon Cars- - 
FfM fiom .>moke 

Cars leave Fourtli ^Uf»-t ami, Los Angeles, for Santa Monica via. Sixteenth 
street, every half hour from 6:35 a.m. to 7:35 p.m., then each hour till 11:35 ; or via Bellevne 
Ave., for Colegrove and Sherman every hour from 6:15a.m. to 11:15 p.m. Cars leave Ocean 
Park, Santa Monica, for Los Angeles, at 5:45, ():10and 6:35 a.m. and every half hour from 
6:55 a.m. till 8:25 p.m., and at 9:25, 10:25 and 11:05 p.m. 

Ctrs leave Los Angeles for Santa Monica via. Hollywood and Sherman via. BelleToe 
Ave., every hour from 6:45 a.m. to 6:45 p.m., and to Hollywood and Sherman only eTery 
Itour thereafter to 11:45 p.m. 

•ir'Por complete time-table and particulars call at office of company. 

Single Round Trip, 50c. 1(>-Trip Tickets, $2.00. 





Those conteinplatinf.^ kx;atinj,f in Southern California, 
either temporarily or pennaneiitly, don't fail to visit 
Ocean Park (South Santa Monica). This is considered one of the most l>eautiful seaside re- 
sorts on the Pacific. Elegant, modern and completely furnished cottages for SALE and RENT 
at reasonable rates. Full particulars and information will be carefully and promptly g-iven 
by addressing J. E. WARFIELD & CO. Real f$tate and Rental Agency 


^tfiaVatoma tpilet5?ap 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 


Dealer in ^ 




Blankets, Baskets 
and Relics 


UtaK ^ California 
Goods ^ 



Salt Lake City, Utah : 

Two Sale-rooms, Hotel Knutsford Bldg-. 

Factory and Warehouses, Busby Ave. 

Los Angeles, CaL: 

Corner Fourth and Main Streets, 

Opposite Van Nuys and Westminster Hotels 


Please Mention that You Saw it in OUT WEST. 

Schell's Patent Adjustable rorm 

For d r es s ma king 

It Is tiresome to fit people 
by the nsuai methods. It Is a 
pleasure to* fit and carry out 
the most unique 
design by 
means of this 
form, which 
is made to 
dupl icate 
form, and 
can be Inde- 
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as the per- 
son's form 

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person stands, for- 
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consequently skirts 
will hansT and waists 
fit with perfection and 
comfort. When order- 
ing- send a perfectly 
fitted lining' with 
waist-line marked, also 
skirt measures from 
waist-line to floor 
(front, hips and back), 
with close fitting col- 
lar and sleeves. 

Los Angeles Office: 316 South Broadway 

Rooms 3 and 4 Phonc James 4441 

San Francisco : 505 Powell St. 

The name •• SILVERWOOD" on an 
article means the same as the 
"STERLINO" mark on silver. 

Our reputation and 
full guarantee stand 
back of every hat 
we sell. If you can- 
not get a SILVER- 
WOOD NAT In yoir 
city send us your 
height and sl/e of 
hat worn ; state 
color and If a stiff 
or soft hat Is want- 
ed, and we'll send 
you the latest shape 
express prepaid 

Carriaire prepaid 
to any point. 


Yon certainly iret as mnch style, as mnch 
wear, as much satisfaction, ont of a Silrerwood 
Hat at three dollars — then why pay five? 


221 S. Spring St. LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

^W%/VWV% WW WW WV^ vvvvvvvv^vvvvvvv vvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv-^ 



C=..^^L_iF=-<:r5f=9 r^«j i>^ 








To help its members to build tiomest a-lso to make loans on improved property, the 
members giving first liens on their real estate as security. To help its stock- 
holders to earn from 8 to 12 per cent, per annum on their stock, and to allo'w them 
to open deposit accounts bearing interest at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum, ordi- 
nary, and 6 per cent, per annum, term. 

HOME OFFICE : 301 California St., San Francisco, California 

WM. CORBIN, Secretary and General Manager 

SiK 1''k.\mis 1>kaki:. /■fnin tin- iot'l',rr'liil,- hv fti, ,>fiis //ni/rtnieM iiOnH' rr/ml. 


XKe Land of SxinsKine. 


kmMxM^ iT»ti?^W 


I I I 

Vol. XVI, No. 4. 

APRIL, 1902. 

the: discovert or our pacific 



N the summer of 1542, just fifty years after \ 
the discovery of America by Columbus, 
the first expedition for the exploration of the 
coast of northern California left Mexico. It 
originated in a period of intense activity in 

^_ New Spain. Conflict of authority, of&cial 

jealousy, disappointed ambition, the tragic 
ending of the life of the most daring of the lieutenants of 
Cortez, and in fact the fall of Cortez himself, were all involved 
in its organization and final departure from Mexico. 

A few years before this time, Cortez had discovered the penin- 
sula of Lower California. The name given the then supposed 
island has been traced by Edward Everett Hale to the romance 
of chivalry, entitled The Adventures of Esplandian, a continu- 
ation of Amadis de Gaul, in which California is described as 
an island lying on the right hand side of India. Amadis de 
Gaul was the most popular work of its time ; it was translated 
and reprinted in all the leading languages of Europe; children 
were named, and kings and queens assumed titles, from its 
fancies. It was the only work of its class that escaped the 
flames when the library of Don Quixote was expurgated ; and 
Bernal Diaz says it was the favorite book of the conquistadores. 
"Califria," feminine for Calif, was the Queen, and "Cali- 
fornia" the island oyer which she ruled. She hated men, 
dressed as a warrior, for the better use of armsj and was 

Copyrieht, 1902, by Land of Sunshine. Publishing Company 

Map of the New World In 1704. 

/■'rom //arris's " Voj-a4frs. 


El ADtLANTADO DoN Pedro de Alvarado, de Badajoz. 

guarded b}^ grif&ns who crouched at her feet or fought in battle 
against her foes. "Freely translated, California means Land of 
the Amazon Queen" (Ticknor's Spanish Literature, Vol. I, 
Chapter III). ^ 

The explorers of this time did not know that America was a 
separate continent. They had no conception of the width of 
the Pacific ocean, and thought the coast of Asia was near by, 
if not conterminous with, that of Mexico. 

Lower California was the limit of northern exploration. 
Cortez was preparing for a voyage beyond the ocean coast of the 
peninsula, which would have brought him to northern Cali- 
fornia, when a change in the administration of civil affairs in 
New Spain put a stop to all further ventures by him in the New 

No man of the white race was ever more honored by the 
North American Indians than Hernando Cortez. He had over- 



Chakles the Fifth. 

thrown and destroyed their rulers and their heathen gfods, and 
they seemed to idolize him in their stead. His reception in 
Mexico on his return from Honduras was an exhibition of bar- 
baric splendor, perhaps never before or since equaled on the 
continent of America. These and other princely attitudes 
alarmed the court. It feared that Cortez would forswear his 
allegiance and establish, with his native allies, an American 
Empire of his own.* 

As a check to Cortez it was determined to establish a vice- 
regal government for New Spain. In the absence of the Em- 
peror in Germany, the selection of a viceroy was left to the 
Empress, who named Don Antonio de Mendoza, ignoring the 
pretensions of Cortez to the position. t 

* It feared well. This is precisely what Cortez was arranorinir to do. He wan the next 
srreatest soldier of all the Conquest, but a traitor to his wife and to his kincr. It is peca* 
liarly typical of the Closet Historians that the sentimental idea is rife that Cortet was 
treated with "injustice" and ' insrratitude." No one familiar with contemporary record* 
can maintain this sentimentalism. Cortez wa« not punished for his treason ; he was 
simply estopped in it. — Ed. •• iBn* 

t That the irreat con<|ueror was not a statesman at all is abundantly shown by his 'whole 
course thereafter. His measures and his documents show an almost childish petnlance. 
Mendoza, on the other hand, was not only an honorable and clean man: he was the irreatest 
statesman Spanisli-Aiuerica lias had from his day till the time of Diaz; and he prored 
himself not only in Mexico but later in Peru.- Ei>. 



The arrival of the Viceroy stripped Cortez of the last vestig-e 
of civil authority in Mexico. He held, however, a previously 
granted concession for private exploration, of which he could 
not legally be deprived. Under this privilege he hoped to re- 
store his prestige by discoveries as great as those he had already 
made, but soon found that his efforts in that direction brought 
him into conflict with the Viceroy, who had plans of his own 
for a northern voyage, and instructions to thwart those of 
Cortez, without openly interdicting them. 

To understand why there should have been a struggle over 
northern exploration at this time it should be kept in mind that 
the country north of Mexico was thought to be a part of the con- 
tinent of Asia, and that China could be reached by sailing 
northwesterly along this supposed coast, or by a short vo.vage 
directly across the ocean from Mexico. The Aztecs were sup- 
posed to have migrated from that country, and it was thought 
that other rich kingdoms would be founded there. 

The Viceroy was also about to despatch the large and splen- 
didly equipped expedidion of Coronado in search of the Seven 
Cities of Cibola, thought to be near the coast, and he proposed 
to send a fleet to cooperate with it. 

Hbrnando CoRTK7.. I'holo h\ (.'. F. A. 

From the tiaiiitiitu' said to have heoii preHeiitcd by IWni to the hospital he f<>undi*d in 
Mexico in 1527, and still prenervod there. 


In the lig-ht of the present daj^ it is hard to believe that such 
erroneous ideas could have prevailed; but it took a hundred 
years of exploration to establish the fact that there was no con- 
nection between the continents of Asia and America. 

Pedro de Alvarado, hero of the "Leap," sole survivor of the 
lieutenants of Cortez, by now Governor of Guatemala, a bold, 
daring- and ambitious man, had for some time been building- a 
fleet of ships, at g-reat cost, in his province. They were now 
about ready for sea. He was in high favor with the court, 
having recently married a lady of noble birth. Not in sympathy 
with the ambitions of his former chief, Alvarado joined for- 

Cape Mendocino. Photo, by Mrs. M. P. Giles. 

tunes with the Viceroy, who became part owner in the Guate- 
malan fleet. 

Cortez succeeded in sending a fleet of two vessels up the ocean 
coast of the peninsula as far as Cedros Island, almost in sig-ht 
of the higher mountains in northern California. This ended 
his career as an explorer. On the return of his ships they were 
denied the privilege of the ports of Mexico, his supplies were 
seized and his officers imprisoned. 

Chafing over the curtailment of his once absolute power, in 
January, 1540, he returned to Spain to plead his cause in per- 
son before the Emperor. He was coolly received by Charles V, 
and was forbidden to return to Mexico. He died in 1547, a rich 
and distinguished — but disappointed — man. 

Cortez was among- the last survivors of the illustrious men of 
the first conquest. While not wholly free from the cruelties 
which characterized the age, he wis an angel of mercy in his 


treatment of the natives in comparison with some conquerors 
of his time. Of all the conquistadores he was the most 
esteemed by the Indians of Mexico, which speaks well for his 
general humanity. 

On the departure of Cortez, Alvarado came with his fleet of 
splendidly equipped little vessels, and six hundred men, to 
Natividad, in Jalisco. Here a formal agreement was made 
with the Viceroy as to their respective shares in the proposed 
northern exploration. 

When all was ready for sea, a revolt broke out among- the 
North Mexican Indians, and the fighting Adelantado turned 
aside to chastise them before his departure. He organized a 
force of cavalry, footmen and native allies for the assault. He 
was told that the natives were strongly entrenched, on their 
own territory, which they would stubbornly defend, and he was 
earnestly advised to wait for reinforcement. " By Santiago! " 
he exclaimed, " there are not Indians enough in the country to 
stand before my attack." He accomplished in a day and night 
a journey which usually occupied three days, and attacked the 
native stronghold on the native crag of the Mixton, whose top 
was protected by seven stonewalls and an abattis of fallen trees. 
His men were repulsed with heavy loss ; and Alvarado, struck 
down with a boulder rolled from up the cliff, received his death 
wound. He was laid on a litter beneath a pine tree, dying but 
not insensible, and a priest was hurriedly called in to shrive 
him. Asked where he suffered, he pointed to his wound and 
exclaimed, " Agui, y en el ahnay^ 

Thus perished, in probably the most desperate charge in 
American history, "Alvarado of the Leap," — the " Murat of 
the Conquest," the "Child of the Sun," as the Aztecs called 
him, the right hand of Cortez, a hero also of the conquest of 

The Mixton war, in which the North Mexican Indians made 
their last desperate rally, followed the tragic death of Alvarado 
and lasted for more than a year. On its close the Viceroy 
turned his attention to the fleet in the harbor of Natividad, of 
which he was now the sole owner. The fervor for northern 
discoveries passed with Alvarado — perhaps the only man just 
then best suited to lead them. Only two of the twelve vessels 
of his fleet were fitted out for a voyage, and the command was 
given to Don Rodriguez de Cabrillo, a Portuguese navigator in 
the viceregal service. 

Cabrillo sailed from Natividad, Mexico, on the 17th of J une, \ 

* " Here, and in my soul." ' 

t Alvarado crossed the Cordillera in 1534, from Guyaquil [Ecuador] to Quito, with an army, 
losing- many of his men from a storm of dust and ashes from the volcano of Chimborazo. 



1542, on his memorable voyage which resulted in the discovery 
of California. Crossing- the Gulf he tracked the ocean coast of 
Lower California to Cedros Island, the limit of the last voyage 
of Cortez. Leaving Cedros Island, on the 17th of September 
he discovered, and slipped the anchors of the "Santiago" and 
"Victoria" in the harbor of San Diego, which he called San 
Miguel. These were the first vessels, other than Indian canoes, 
that ever ruffled the surface of that smooth and beautiful bay. 

Indian Men of California. 

From //arrt's, 1764. 

He remained six days at this port, sailed north, and entered the 
harbors of San Pedro, Santa Monica, and Buenaventura. He 
passed through the Santa Barbara Channel and named many of 
its highlands and prominent headlands. The natives were 
friendly. They lived mainlj-- by fishing, and ventured far out 
to sea in their well modeled canoes, which were manned by ten 
or twelve oars each. Steering north from Santa Barbara, he 
passed the inhospitable coast of the Santa Lucia range, and in 
December, off Point Pinos, was driven back by a heavy storm 
to the channel for shelter. He anchored under the lee of the 
island of San Miguel and died there, January 3rd, 1543, from 



the effects of a fall aggravated by anxiety and exposure. He 
was buried on the island, but no trace of the grave of the dis- 
coverer of California has ever been found. His last order to his 
chief pilot, Perrelo, was to continue the voyage as originally 

Perrelo sailed north on the 18th of February, and made quick 
work of his part of the voyage. He was carried by favorable 
winds as far north as Cape Mendocino, possibly a little beyond 

Indian Women ok California. 

From Harris, r'b4. 

that point, where he encountered a strong southerly gale which 
drove him rapidly back to Point Pinos. His northern cruise 
lasted but six days, during which time he made no attempt to 
land. Returning to the Channel Islands he sailed thence for 
Mexico, and reached Natividad April 3rd, 1843, after an ab- 
sence of about ten months. 

Thus ended the voyage of Cabrillo, over which such fierce 
contention had raged. The interest of the Viceroy in explora- 
tion had lost its edge. The land expedition of Coronado, from 
which so much had been expected, had returned, and the Seven 
Cities of Cibola had turned out to be mere adobe pueblos. 


The voyage otherwise was a success. It rounded out the 
most brilliant era of discover)' in the history of the world, be- 
ginning with the voyage of Columbus in 1-192, and ending with 
that of Cabrillo in 154,2. In the fifty years between, the 
" Columbian era," the greatest discoveries and conquests by the 
Spaniards in the New World were made. When the size and 
class of the ships of that period, their rude equipment, and 
limited contrivances for navigation, are considered, the fabled 
wanderings of Odysseus and the Grecian Argonauts sink into 
insignificance before the actual performance of the explorers in 
the heroic age of Spain. It is a theme for an epic, were there 
another Homer. The bare recital, however, of its achievement 
is more marvelous than the fancies of a poet. All the West 
India Islands, the coast of the Carribean sea and the Gulf of 
Mexico, from Darien to Key West, and the eastern shore of 
Florida ; all the coast of South America, from the Orinoco to 
the Amazon and from the Amazon to the Strait of Magellan; 
all the Pacific coast of South America, from Tierra del Fuego 
to Panama and from Panama to Cape Mendocino, were explored 
and in part colonized. 

The route to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope was 
opened. The Pacific ocean was discovered, from a peak in 
Darien ; it was reached through the Strait of Magellan, crossed 
to the Philippines (not 3'et so named), and the "Victoria," 
flying the flag of Spain, was the first ship to sail around the 

The Aztec and Inca "empires," Darien, Nicaragua and 
Guatemela, were conquered and brought under the sovereignty 
of Spain. The Amazon river had been descended from the 
Andes to the Atlantic. North America had been crossed by 
land from the Gulf of Mexico to California, and recrossed from 
the Pacific through Arizona, New Mexico, and part of Colorado 
to the southern boundary of the present State of Kansas. The 
Colorado river was ascended from its mouth to the entrance of 
the Grand Caiion, and that wonderful gorge had been visited 
further up the river, from the Moqui villages. The southern 
Staties of Florida, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississ- 
ippi and Tennessee had been traversed, and the Mississippi 
river had been descended from the Lower Chickasaw Bluff to 
the Gulf of Mexico. 

NoTK. " The age of Columbus was perhaps the most illustrious of ages." 
— Arthur Helps' Spauis/i Conquest in America. *' Where in the history of 
nations," says" Alexander Humboldt, " can one find an epoch so fraught 
with important results as the discovery of America, the passage to India 
round the Cape of Good Hope, and Magellan's first circumnavigation of 
the world." — Cosmos, Vol. H, p. 673. 

[to be concluded.] 


TO the: manzano salt lahes. 


BOUT seventy-five miles southeast of Albu- 
querque, and east of the Manzano mount- 
ains, lies a reg-ion of plains bounded on the 
west by the foothills of the Manzanos, and 
on the east by a low and barren ridge. To 
the south loom up the red bluffs of the Juma- 
nos mesa, while toward the north the plains 
stretch unbroken to the Cerrillos and Ortiz 
mountains. The southern half of this low plain region, whose 
altitude is about 5,000 feet above the sea, is included in one of 
the old Spanish land grants, known as the Antonio Sandoval 
Grant, and is especially noted for its salt lakes and alkali 

During the summer of 1900 I had occasion to visit this re- 
gion in the interests of the Geological Survey of the Uni- 
versity of New Mexico. One of my most frequent compan- 
ions on such trips, a young man named Merrick, accompanied 
me in this instance. Our outfit consisted of a light mountain 
wagon drawn by two Mexican ponies, a small amount of bed- 
ding, a box of "grub," and camp utensils, and the instru- 
ments necessary in our geological investigations. Although 
the rainy season was near at hand we took no tent, as it 
would add materially to our load. We were arrayed in our 
usual camp costumes — blue outing shirt, heavy corduroy trous- 
ers and leather leggings, gray neckerchief and light sombrero. 
Each wore his cartridge belt and hunting knife, while Merrick 
had his " 30-30" Winchester and I carried a Colt's sixshooter. 
In addition we had a twenty-two rifle for small game. 

The country which we had to study was entirely new to us, 
and as we started out on that bright morning of the eleventh 
of June we felt that there would probably be enough of ad- 
venture in our trip to lend a touch of romance to it. The map 
indicated that our course lay through a region but little in- 
habited, for after we had once passed through to the eastern 
slope of the Sandia and Manzano mountains, only two small 
villages were noted in all the country which we expected to 
traverse. In view of this fact we had taken care to provide 
ourselves with all the provender we could conveniently carry, 
and also with a new ten-gallon water-can. Experience had 
taught us that to be in a salt country without plenty of 
fresh water was hazardous. 

The first night found us well through the mountain canon, 
and we went into camp in a group of tall pines on the eastern 
slope of the Manzanos. Camp life with us is reduced to its 
simplest elements, and the ordinary routine of camp duties is 
so well known that no delay occurs from the moment the word 
is given to halt until supper is served on the battered tin 
plates. Supper over, the ponies are tethered out where grazing 
is good, and we roll into our blankets to sleep. We are gen- 
erally quite tired at the end of a day's driving, and an early 
retiring hour is very fashionable. 


Next morning found us cooking breakfast before the day had 
fairly dawned, and we were on the road again before sun-up. 
The well traveled roads of the mountain canons gave place to 
less distinct wood roads, and not a few were the hours that 
were lost in following false trails. But we were used to such an- 
noyances, and as the day was bright, the scenery beautiful and 
small game plenty, we were in the best of spirits. Pew in- 
deed were the meals that were not graced by some such sav- 
ory dish as young squirrel, rabbit, dove, wild pigeon or night 
hawk. An occasional shot at a coyote, and one little adventure 
in which a gray fox was the loser, served to lend interest to 
the passing hours. 

As the afternoon wore away we passed down out of the tim- 
ber belt, and by evening we were on the edge of the plains at 
the upper end of the Antonio Sandoval Grant. No gloomier 
picture could have been presented to us that evening. As far 
as the eye could see there stretched the unbroken monotony 
of the plains. We knew that somewhere off to the south- 
east were the salt lakes we were seeking. Whether any hu- 
man being lived on that vast expanse of sand and sage brush, 
we knew not. Were the two villages marked on the map really 
there, or would they prove to be only ruined pueblos ? Was 
there any water free from salt in all that region ? What would 
become of us if we got down in that country and found no 
water which we or our ponies could drink ? These were the 
questions that appealed to us very forcibly that night. The 
water in our can was getting low, and out-door appetites had 
produced an astonishing effect upon the small box of provis- 
ions we were able to carry. 

Karly next morning we broke camp and started eastward over 
the plains. We had not journeyed over three miles, when pass- 
ing around a low swell in the ground we saw a small ranch near 
a spring of cold, clear water. Here we filled our water can, 
and learned that the first of the two places named on the 
map, Antelope Springs, was but a few miles distant ; while 
both there and at Pinos Wells — a day's drive further on- 
plenty of water was obtainable. The ranchman also gave 
glowing descriptions of the salt lakes, so that as we jour- 
neyed onward we were more anxious than ever to see them. 

We soon passed Antelope Springs, a single big ranch with 
the numerous smaller buildings and stock pens all painted 
white. Here we turned southward, and all the morning we 
drove lazily along, the glaring sun beaming down upon us 
with an ardor that was unmitigated by either cloud or shade 
tree. There was nothing to relieve the monotony of the 
plains — a rolling stretch of white sand covered with a scat- 
tered growth of sage and clumps of coarse grass. But the 
monotony of the slowly passing hours was occasionally brok- 
en into when a luckless rabbit would raise his head out of his 
warren to watch us pass by, or a coyote would come within rifle 
range to regard our movements. 

About two o'clock in the afternoon we neared a low ridge, 
some twenty-five feet in height perhaps, which seemed to 
curve off to the southeast and southwest as far as we could 



On the Edge of the Manzano Salt Lake. 

see. The road appeared to pass over this ridge, but what 
direction it took beyond that we could not tell. The whole 
formation was very curious, and many were the comments 
we made as we approached it. At length we came to the ridge 
and drove up the short but steep ascent to the summit. The 
sight which now met our eyes defies description. It was as 
though some fairy had touched the barren plains with her 
magic wand and caused the ground at our feet to roll away, 
revealing a deep valley covered with snow, and surrounded on 
every side by rainbow-hued walls studded with sparkling dia- 
monds. It was the Laguna del Perro, or Dog Lake, the largest 
of the group of salt lakes in the Antonio Sandoval Grant. 
At this point the lake was something less than a mile in 
width, but stretched away to the south farther than the eye 
could reach. The lake was over a hundred feet below us, and 
the bottom was covered with a thick coating of snow-white 
salt. There was no water present, except a few shallow pools 
farther to the south. On every side the walls rose almost per- 
pendicularly, and as they were composed of alternating layers 
of blue, yellow, orange, tan and red shaley clay, the effect was 
truly beautiful. Imbedded in this clay were numberless crys- 
tals of gypsum, and the sunlight reflected by these made the 
diamonds of this fair}^ valley. In many places the sand from 


the surrounding- ridges had washed down over the colored strata 
and hidden them, but even this rather added to than detracted 
from the g-eneral effect. It was a wonderful sight, and one that 
will long remain fresh in our memories. Almost the first word 
spoken was one of regret that we had not brought a camera.* 

The road plunged down the abrupt embankment to the lake 
bottom below, and then wound around the eastern side for a 
couple of miles to a point where it passed up on the ridg^e 
again. Down in that valley the heat was intense. The sun 
beamed down upon the g-littering coat of snowy salt, while 
not a breath of moving- air reached the bottom of that deep de- 
pression. We secured our samples of the salt and subsoils as 
quickly as possible, and made haste to reach the place where 
the road ag-ain ascended to the top of the ridge. The ascent 
was steeper than we had feared, and our ponies almost gave 
out before the summit was reached. 

The view which now greeted us was not that of a vast ex- 
panse of plains, but instead we found ourselves surrounded 
on every hand by smaller salt lakes. We kept a general 
southward course, stopping now and then to take samples of 
the salt crust and saline subsoils from the different lakes. All 
of these smaller lakes were perfectly dry when we first came, 
but late that afternoon one of the most terrific storms I ever 
witnessed swept over the valley. Several inches of muddy 
water soon covered the lake bottoms, and the salt crusts 
were entirely dissolved. The roads were washed out so badly 
that our progress was greatly retarded, while our spirits were 
dampened as badly as our clothing-. Soaked through and 
through, not a dry thread to put on, no wood for a fire, we 
were as cold, wet and miserable as two campers could well be. 
When night came we crawled into our wet bedding and lay 
down in the wagon bed to forget our discomforts in sleep. 

Morning dawned bright and beautiful, and under the influence 
of the genial sun we were soon dried out and in good spirits 
again. After continuing our course southward for some miles, 
we reached Lake Salinas, the most important lake in the whole 
group. It is rather circular in shape, not over half a mile in 
diameter, and is similar in appearance to the other lakes. 
But instead of a dry crust of salt over the bottom, some 
three feet of water stand in the lake the entire year. This 
water is a supersaturated solution of common salt, and large 
cubes of the salt are constantly crystallizing out and falling 
to the bottom. As a result there is a thick bed of pure salt under 
the water, varying in thickness from six inches to a foot or 
more. This one lake supplies all the ranches within the ra- 
dius of a hundred miles, and we met Mexicans with wagon 
loads of the salt on their way to Santa Pe, Albuquerque, and 
other points equally distant. These men load their wagons 
by driving well out into the lake and then shoveling the salt 
up from the bottom, allowing the water to drain off through 
the cracks in the wagon bed. 

In the archives at Santa Pe are records of proclamations is- 
sued in the days when hostile Indians roamed the plains, calling 

*This omission has been partly remedied thro' the courtesy 'of Messrs. W. P. Metcalf 
and J. E. S:iint who have loaned photos, of that regrion. — Ed. 



The Manzano Salt Lake. 

all the people to meet at some rendezvous, whence they might 
journe}' south to the Salinas for their year's supply of salt. 
The Galisteo divide was the usual meeting place, and here the 
men would cong-reg-ate with their wagons all fitted out for 
the trip. The government would furnish an escort of soldiers^ 
and under this protection the long wagon train would make the 
trip to the "great salt lake " and back. 

After collecting samples from this lake we continued our 
journey, passing numberless smaller lakes and ponds, and gath- 
ering what data seemed necessary for our report. Not until 
evening were we fairh' out of the salt basins, and then we 
hastened on toward Pinos Wells to replenish our larder and 
water can. Provisions were astonishingly scarce, and we had 
to depend almost entirel}^ on game. Antelope were seen now 
and then, but were always well out of range. A deer was 
sighted about dusk one evening, but it too was far in the 
distance. Smaller game was abundant, however. 

At Pinos Wells we secured plenty of water and a small stock 
of canned goods, and then began our trip home. This was 
accomplished in good time, our return course lying to the 
east of the valley, where we had to inspect several other salt 
basins. But none of these proved to be so full of interest as 
those of the Antonio Sandoval Grant. 

University of N. Mex. Geological Survey. 




WN two preceding papers we have seen something, by pic- 
^ ture and by text, of what was known in Rome, two cen- 
turies and a half ago, concerning- oranges, as set forth 
by the learned Jesuit Ferrarius in his sumptuous volume 
printed in 1646. Before dismissing this fine old book, it 
may be interesting to outline briefly something of its lore 
as to the other citrus fruits. 

Book II devotes 21 chapters, 131 pages, to the Citron — which 
it calls "Aegle," after the chief of the Hesperides, as it 
names the Lemon "Arethusa," and the Orange " Hesper- 
thusa." Five kinds of citron are specified, out of many ; 
the "Common," the "Embroidered," the "Gourd- 
shaped," the "Sweet-pulp," the "Fingered or Multiform." 
Oranges and lemons were budded on the citron root, as the 
hardiest of the family. It particularly flourished in Regium 
and Spain. It once caused a war between Patavium [Padua] 
and Venice. Flavius Josephus, writing in the First Century, 
mentions that the Seditious Jews pelted their king Alexander 
Jannaeus with citrons at the Scenophagia or Feast of the 

Tabernacles. "Bedraddinus Arabs, 
son of Cadiba Albech, illustrious 
in philosophy and medicine, who 
deceased in the 655th year of the 
Hegira [Hijra] of Mahomet, in the 
book which he wrote on ' Relaxation 
of the Mind through the Body,' 
testifies that he heard from Aloy- 
sius [Italian Jesuit, 1568-1591 ; 
patron saint of colleges] that the 
sweet-pulp citron was of the In- 
dies, and that citrons had been 
found in the Fortunate Isles, which 
are also called the Canaries, one en- 
closing another ; the one of sweet pulp and the 
other of sour." 

Citron trees, according to our author, should 
be planted with a south exposure, and sheltered 
from the north, southeast and southwest wind. 
An " aside" gives a just appreciation of 
Nicholas Poussin, the great French painter 
(born 1591) who drew some of the copper- 
plates for this book (see February number. 

From Ferrartus, ib4b 
The Common Lemon. 
(Reduced about %.) 



From FtrrartMS. 1646. 
Thr Multiform Citron. 
(Reduced one-half.) 

page 137, for one of his illustrations). Theophrastus, 
three centuries before Christ, wrote that the seeds, exactly 
purged, should be put in most diligently cultivated furrows ; 
on the 4th or 5th day, watered ; transplanted, when already 
"a little large," to soft and well watered soil ; afterward put 



in perforated earthen pots. But 
Ferrarius advises that if you would 
be fully up-to-date you choose "full 
and solid seeds from whole, gen- 
erous and ripe fruit, put in an 
earthen vase one finger deep, in 
the richest and most minutely 
crumbled soil, in the month of March 
or September, if the weather is 
warm or hot ; if it is cold, at the 
end of March or in April. Do it 
under a waxing moon, and one or 
two days before the full." 

Every kind of citrus fruit can be 
budded on the citron. Bven to get 
a "bigger and more jocund" citron, 
bud citron on citron. Many meth- 
,ods of budding are described. Even 
the numerous shoots which a trunch- 
eon throws out if buried, can prop- 
agate their kind ; as Caelius Cal- 
cagninus, in his Commentarius de 
Citrio^ remarks. 

There were three ways of raising 
the citrus after transplanting it 
from the nursery — either in low earthen pots, or in a space 
open to the sky, or trained on a wall. The latter method was 
the most approved ; because thus the tree was most easily 
covered in cold weather, its bearing fruitage was supported 
without taxing the limbs ; and the fruit, being all exposed 
to the sun, ripened faster. Directions are given for all three 

In transplanting, the roots of the citrus trees were " balled," 
even as now. The fit time to set them out was in October or 
November, and best when the moon was aging. Manuring 
varied with the temperature of the location ; a warm spot re- 
quiring it annually; a cold spot oftener. The various customs, 
in this matter, of the Calabrians, Regians, Sicilians. Cretans, 
Florentines, Maltans, and others are described. 

"Prom its thirsty fatherland, the citron has brought im- 
moderate thirst, and desires to drink water largely. But it 
does not thirst equally in diverse places and seasons. In sunn)^, 
dry and bibulous soil, in summer and dry months, it loves con- 
tinuous irrigations ; in shaded and humid soil less frequent." 
Care must be taken that the water does not stagnate, or the 

From Ferrarius, ib4b. 
Flowkrs of the Lemon. 
(Reduced about three- fourths.) 


earth "putrify." Irrigating should be done in the early 
morning or in the evening, that the water may not be heated by 
the sun. 

Directions are given as to pruning in the way best adapted to 
each of the three fashions of growing the tree (in pots, in an 
open space, or wall-trained ) and as to the tools used— billhook, 
forceps, saw, pruning-knife and refined wax. Pruning was 
done twice a year, in spring and autumn. 

A chapter is given to the ripening, picking and "curing" of 
the fruit. Palladius advises to pick by night ; Calcagninus to 
pick on a cloudy night. After picking, the fruits should be put 
where they do not touch one another, in separate wrappers, or 
smeared over with gypsum, and kept in a dark place, either in 
cedar sawdust or in chopped straw, and well covered with dry 

Two long chapters deal with "the Commoner" and "the 
More Occult Utility of the Citron." 

"The golden apples enrich the human race with precious 
benefits. Their beneficent force and multiple utilit}- have been 
slowly discovered by the experiments of men through the march 
of ages. In rude antiquity, this apple was exposed in houses 
for the delight of the eyes and nostrils ; it waS laid away in 
clothes-presses to kill moths by its perfume ; and, as though a 
thing of vast price, it was preserved in treasure-chests. De- 
tested for bitterness of rind and harshness of pulp, it was not 
regarded among eatables, but was employed as a medicament. 
On the other hand, Athenaeus Naucratica — an erudite enter- 
tainer of the Sophists, in the age of M. Antoninus Princeps, 
who gave directions in his volume* for a supper of elegant 
magnificence — testifies that in the memory of his ancestors this 
citron was used as a food. Furthermore, he thus narrates that 
the power of these api)les against poison was understood in 
Egypt in his time. ' That a citron, whether fresh or dry, taken 
before a meal, resists all poisons, was proved by a fellow-citizen 
of mine to whom was committed the administration of Egypt. 
After the Alexandrine code, he condemned certain criminals to 
be bitten by serpents. As they were proceding to the place 
destined for the punishment of murderers, a certain wench, wife 
of a huckster on that same road, chanced to have in her hands 
a citron, which she was nibbling; and in pity held it out to 
them. They, when they had chewed this apple, being put 
among huge and most savage snakes, received their venomous 
strokes without harm. Astounded at the novelty of the thing, 
the judge inquired of the soldier who guarded them whether 

• " DipnoBophia." 



From Ferrurius, 164(3. 
Section and Seeds of "Multiform" Citron. 
(Reduced about one-half.) 

the criminals had not drunken or eaten any antidote. And 
when he ascertained that a citron had been given them without 
guile, he ordered that on the next day the same [i.e., a citron] 
should be given to one of two [criminals], and both at once 
thrown to the snakes. Prom which it happened that he who 
had eaten the citron escaped uninjured, while the other expired 
on the spot. Following this, constant experiments made the 
faith most certain that the citron resists all poisons.' 



Thb Liourian "Spongy" Lemon. 
(Reduced about one-half.) 

From Ftrrarims, i(>4t>. 

*' But Plutarch, a century earlier than Athenieus, indicates 
that the citron was hardly in his time accepted as amontr foods ; 
since many of the older men then living abstained from it al- 
together, not being accustomed to it as food. ' Many things,' he 
says, ' which no one used to care to eat or taste, are now become 



most agreeable — like mead, brains, 
pumpkin, pepper and the Median 
apple' [all the orang-e family]. 
The citron tree — an alien long- re- 
fusing the hospitality of our soil — 
Palladius (later than Pliny) made 
Italian by accurate and lucky trans- 
planting ; whence it has already 
crossed into Spain and other regions 
and become accustomed there. By 
sedulous obstetric culture it has 
forgotten to grow up in multiform 
growths, and has lost its harsh- 
ness and become of various uses 
for medicaments, foods and delica- 
cies. I omit here to enumerate the 
infinite opportunities wherein the 
Median trees and their apples serve 
most excellently the race of men — in med- 
icine, in foodstuffs and in pleasure ; for this 
would be a labor of immense and peculiar 
volume." Wherefore he "omits" whatever 
he cannot get into 26 folio pages. He quotes 
the widely variant medical opinions of Galen, 
Paulus Aegineta, Avicenna, Rafis the fa- 
mous Arab, Averroes, and other doctors of 
antiquity, as to whether the citron should 
rank in the second or third " grade of dryness " — that is, 
as a preventive of gross humors. Galen held that 
citron rind, chewed fine, was "of value to invigorate the 
stomach." The juice of the rind was also used by him as an 
aperient. Avicenna cured " languor of the stomach " with cit- 
ron preserve. The rind was also used for heart-disease, "on 
account of its latent heat,'" and as an antidote against poisonous 
bites of beasts and snakes. The seed was used against all 
poisons. The acid of the fruit was commended by Avicenna as 
a styptic, and a preventive of cholera. Averroes held the 
seeds to be a "most instant antidote against every sort of 
poison ; but that the fleshy part procreated gross humors." A 
decoction of it, rinsed in the mouth, aids in difficult}^ of breath- 
ing; and is a help to pregnant women in nausea. A decoction 
of the bitter part is good for heart-disease, an appetizer, cholera- 
preventive, a stomachic; "it quenches the heat of the liver, 
and abolishes sadness." But it prejudices the lungs and nerves 
by its bitterness. Mesue prescribes two syrups of citron ; one 

From Ferrarius, ib4b. 
A "Fluted" Lemon. 
Reduced about three-fourths.) 

Thk Hakhadorus Lbmon. 
(Rftlucfd about one-half.) 



from the rind, to settle the stomach and give a good breath ; 
the other from the acid juice, to cure bile and fever, quench 
thirst, prevent drunkenness, cure vertigo, expel contagious fevers. 
Joannes Costaeus wrote that this s)'rup strengthens the whole 
body; "while torpid blood and a half-dead spirit are refreshed 
and revived b}^ a smell of citrus odor softly burned. It is best 
to add musk, in treating women — most of whom rejoice in that 

The author goes on through many pages, quoting the opinions 
of many "more recent" medical 
writers, with their special syrups, 
decoctions, and so on. Incidentally 
we learn (through a quotation from 
Bredaddinus) that the Arabs made 
a lamp-oil from the seeds. The seed, 
crushed and soaked in tepid water, 
was used by them as a sure antidote 
for scorpion-bites, Ferrarius names 
a long list of medicos who had al- 
ready by 1644 printed their testi- 
mony as to the medicinal virtues of 
the citrus family; but passes "in 
silence very many others, that I, 
who love brevity, may not be inter- 

The chapter on "The More Oc- 
cult Utility of the Citron " (XXI) 
is no less entertaining. 

"Although this tree does not ex- 
ude voluntarj' tears of precious 
gum, as do some of our native 
and exotic trees, by distillation, 
and by force of that process which 
the chemists call 'Refrigerating,' 

it yields liberally and in variety from leaf, flower and 
fruit, for manifold needs of man." A "most salubrious oil" 
was made from the flowers of the citron ; as also from the 
flowers of the orange — the latter oil being "vulgarly called 
Quintessence." An oil was made of the leaves of the citron, 
and another from its rind ; another from the rinds of oranges 
which hung too long on the tree or fell too early ; another from 
lemon rind — all by distillation. An oil was also expressed from 
citron rind. This oil was used as a flavoring-extract in cookery, 
by " inodorating " sugar or salt with it. Two sorts of citron 


Sweet and Sour Limes. From Fen 
(Reduced about three-fourths.) 

'CiTRONizKn Limk"— "Oblong or StAinn am> MoNhiKor 
(Reduced about one-half.) 

From Ferrarms, ittjb. 


Juleps are described. A compound of citron rind was made for 
the heart, stomach and breath ; and citron lozenges of several 
kinds for the same use ; the best being- made in Naples. A 
" citron- water," was used to flavor delicacies. Recipes are also 
given for a diaphoretic made from citron rind ; and for many 
sorts of confections, lozenges, oils, compotes, tinctures, flavors, 
etc. The crushed leaves and buds are also said to be most salu- 
tary for bruises and wounds. 

Turning to lemons and limes, the author devotes to them the 
Third Book, of 35 chapters, 170 pages, with 53 full-page copper- 
plate engravings — nearly all of them life-size illustrations of 
the fruit. The varieties described are the "Common Lemon" 
(of which there were many sorts), the " San Remo " or " Li- 
gurian," the " Ball-tipped," the " Gareta " and "Amalfi,"the 
small" Calabrian," the "Rio," the "Laura "Lemon (after a Nea- 
politan woman in whose garden this variety originated ; the fruit 
was 8/^ inches long, but with little pulp), the "Incomparable," 
the "Imperial," the "Sweet-Pulp," the "Lisbon Sweet-Pulp," 
the "Pear-Shaped," the "Fluted," the "Cluster," the 
"Common Fluted," the "Amalfi Fluted," the " Sbardonius " 
and the "Rosolinus" (after two famous Roman growers), 
the "Barbadorus" (after a Florentine grower), the "Scabby" 
(from its very rough skin), the " Citronized," (of several 
varieties), the "Inclusive" (with one lemon inside another), 
the "Pseudo-Citronized," the "Wild Citronized," the "Wax- 
Colored " (of many sorts, including one peculiar to Tripoli), 
the "Spongy," the " Wrinkled," the "Warty," the "Paradise 
Apple," the " Adam's Apple " (of several sorts), the " Lumia " 
(of many varieties). Of limes there are the "Sweet" and 
"Bitter," the "Oblong," the "Round," and several others. 
There are explanations as to the mode of growing the lemon 
and lime, and their various uses, just as for the orange and 

Philadelphia was not founded till 34 years after Ferrarius was 
printed , Boston and New York were not yet 20 years old— and 
none of these cities has even yet put forth so scholarly and so 
handsome a book on citrus fruits. Even from these superficial 
sketches it may perhaps be apparent that We are not the Only 

'CiTRONizRD Lemons Inclcdino 0th kks." 
(Reduced about one-half.) 



@rtHK death of Col. Richard J. Hinton re- 
j[ moves an interesting- and sympathetic 
fig-ure from the fast-thinning ranks of 
the "Old Timers" of the Southwest. Born 
in London, England, Nov. 25, 1830, he came 
to the United States just before reaching his 
majorit)'. A stone-mason by trade, he had 
had very little schooling, but had studied 
alone after working- hours. In this country 
he learned typesetting-, ari.d came to be a re- 
porter. His sympathies were strongly anti- 
slavery ; and as the Western sky g:rew dark 
with the coming storm, young Hinton went 

J^^ to Kansas and joined John Brown, becoming 
^^ a co-worker with that g-rim John the Baptist 
of Freedom. Missing Harper's Perry, Hinton 
served through three and a half years of the 
civil war, coming out a brevet colonel. After the war he went 
back to newspapering and literary work, editing various papers 
in New York, Washington and San Francisco. He was manag- 
ing editor of the San Francisco Post for several years, beginning 
with 1876. He made, at various times, investigations of irri- 
gation and other matters for the government, and was the 
author of a number of books besides these reports. Lives of 
Lincoln, Seward and Sheridan ; English Radical Leaders ; 
Handbook of Arizona; John Brown ; and The Making of the 

New West, are among- his works. 
Within a few years he collected, 
edited and published the poems of 
Richard Realf ; and later he was 
preparing a volume of The John 
BroTun Papers. Last July he re- 
visited the land of his birth, and 
he died in London Dec, 20th. 
Rather journalist than man of 
letters, he was aggressive and sin- 
cere, a hater of oppression and of 
sham, a staunch friend ; and as to 
the Southwest an earl}^, ardent and 
COL. RicHAKi, .1, HiMuN. cuduring lover. 

Sbquoya, "the American Cadmui).' 


"BACK, there:." 


ACK There, the g-ambler-wind the snow is shuffling", 
Plake after flake down-dealing- in despair ; 
The bladeless field, the birdless thicket muffling, 
But now no more the river's stillness ruffling. 
Oh, bitter is the sky, and blank its stare — 
Back There ! 

Back There, the wires are down. The blizzard, meaning 
No good to man or beast, shakes loose his hair. 

The storm-bound train and locomotive preening 

His sable plume, the ferry-boat, careening 
Between the ice-cakes, icy fringes wear — 
Back There ! 

* * 

Out Here, a mocker trills his carol olden. 

High-perched upon some eucal3'ptus near. 
The meadow-lark replies ; oranges golden 
Peer from the green wherewith they are infolden, 

And perfume fills the winey atmosphere — 
Out Here I 

Out Here, through virgin soil, in sunlight mellow — 
Ay, and in moonlight ! — man his plow may steer, 

Nor lose life's edge in friction with his fellow ; 

Nor, parchment-bound, with yellowing creeds turn yellow, 
But feel his heart grow younger every year — 
Out Here ! 

Hollywood, Cal. 



HAT a wild face 1 And what manners I Why do 
you men associate with such a fellow — a gam- 
bler and a brawler, and heaven only knows 
what else ? Who is he, anyhow ?" 

Thus Alice Milburn — pretty, lovable. East- 
ern — whose father had but recently settled 
in New Mexico. It was in the Black Range, 
where a party of young people from the little 
mining town of Chloride had been enjoying a 
day in the hills, and were now preparing for a 
moonlight ride home. 

The owner of the wild face, with another member of the party, 
had gone to catch the hobbled horses. The question was ad- 
dressed to the company in general. It was her cousin, Harry 
Gray, who answered. 


" My dear young Puritan maid, you should not be so prone to 
judge your fellow worm. Who is he ? Really couldn't say. He 
comes when you call Bud Keyes. But that may be only his 
summer name, you know. Where does he come from ? Quten 
sabe ? He does not encourage research. But he has a good edu- 
cation, and so is doubtless from the East. Q. E. D. What do 
we know of him ? Well, that he will stand without being tied, 
that he stays with his friends, and looks all and sundry square 
between the eyes. As to the gambling — " he glanced at the 
crowd with amusement in his eyes — " there are several pillars 
of society in this heathen land who indulge in that pastime 
when there are no special attractions at the Grand Opera House. 
I, myself" — he coughed deprecatingly — "in my younger days 
have sometimes played marbles for keeps." 

The grin which ran round the circle fully confirmed this state- 
ment, and he took up his parable again. 

"A brawler — not at all — an anachronism. He has shown 
himself willing and able to hold his own with all comers. He 
is reputed invincible and is certainly absolutely fearless, which 
out here, like charity at home, covers a multitude of sins. Had 
he lived in the days of King Arthur or Cceur-de-Lion, when 
homicide was a fashionable recreation, he would have been a 
hero. You idolize Ivanhoe and Launcelot for the same qualities 
you condemn in him. As for moving on equal terms with him, 
that is a peculiarity of people out here — due to climate perhaps 
— that however much you look down on them, they never look 
up to you. Probably it doesn't occur to them." 

*' He steals cattle," insisted Alice defiantly. 

" 'Convey, the wise it call' — convey, dear child. Apparently 
you don't understand the situation. The prisoner at the bar is 
guided by the morality of this latitude and longitude. The 
ethics of the cattle business are erratic the world over, and have 
been ever since Jacob took Laban's cattle on shares. The Greeks, 
always fond of making fine distinctions, made Hermes the god 
of merchants, cattlemen and thieves. Now in this country, the 
code of the upright cow-man disapproves of the conveyance of 
the stock belonging to your friends, to strangers not well-to-do, 
or cattle companies from which you have accepted any unusual 
favors. All other peccadilloes in this line are condoned— if suc- 

His dissertation was cut short by the approach of Keyes and 
the horses. 

The sun was just sinking, and as the shadows crept eastward 
thousands of evening primroses burst into blossom, as if at the 
touch of some fairy wand. 


" What beautiful flowers these are I" said Alice. *' It always 
seems to me there should be a poem written about them. May- 
be there are lives like them, which only blossom into beauty 
when the shadows of night reach them." 

"All aboard!" called Keyes, "bundle your traps into the 

"That man," said Alice to herself, " has positively no soul." 

A few days afterward she found in her mail these verses, 
without signature, and in a handwriting obviously assumed. 


" How may you know that I love you, dear ?" 
Mark the primrose when night is near, 
When the sleeping shadows are soft and still, 
And the sun dips downward behind the hill, 
Bright it blooms on the mountain's breast, 
Turns its face to the gleaming west ; 
Opens its pure white heart to greet 
The tryst of twilight with welcome sweet. 
All day long hath the glowing sun 
Beat on that hillside, bare and dun, 
Where now the touch of the night wind's breath 
A thousand .blossoms hath waked from death ; 
Fair as the fields of asphodel, 
In the twilight tales that our grandsires tell. 
So my life, to a stranger's eye. 
Seems harsh and barren and bleak and dry; 
So, unfolding, my heart unknown 
Blooms to beauty for you alone. 
Listen, dear love, what the primrose saith. 
With its stainless petal and perfumed breath, 

" I love thee ever, in life and death, 

And wait thy coming with folded faith." 

'''' Poor o\6. Harry," she said, as she laid them away with a 
sigh. For Harry had been her lover ever since they had been 
children together in far New England, and since she had come 
to the Southwest she had promised herself to Worth Hartley, a 
prosperous young stockman near Chloride. 

When, a year later, they dressed her for her wedding with 
Hartley, she saw, hidden away in the wreath of orange blossoms, 
specially imported from California for the occasion, a little 
folded primrose bud. 

" Who brought this wreath from town, Lily ?" she asked of 
her small handmaiden. 

"Mister Harry, he brought 'em. He told your maw he'd 
reckoned them was the first flowers like that was ever in these 
mountains. He said that there Keyes fellow carried 'em all 


way from Engfle to Mister Harry's place in the night time, 
'cause they might get wilted comin' in the stage." 

A lump came in her throat. "So like Harry," she thought 
— remembering a hundred delicate attentions of his in bygone 
days. "The gods take pa3' for the gifts they give." She hesi- 
tated for a moment as she looked at the fragile bloom, so elo- 
quent of love which gave all and asked for nothing. So pure 
— so spotless — what harm could it do ? She took it out at 
last with a sigh ; but, being a woman, put it away with the 

But she laughed, not many months later, as she burned both, 
when Harry was married. 

A perfect day was drawing to its close, and Alice sat under a 
spreading juniper in the pass, a book of poems in her lap neg- 
lected for the pages of the fairer book of Nature, outspread be- 
fore her delighted eyes. The ranch buildings lay half a mile 
below her, and, looking down on the other side of the pass, she 
saw the deep winding caiion, the long ridges starred over with 
cedar and pinon — and further, a seemingly bottomless chasm of 
which she could see only the opposite side — in the depths of 
which the Cuchillo Negro tinkled its way toward the far-off 
ocean ; then the massive pine-clad mountains, framing the wide 
mystery of mesa beyond, checkered with cloud — shadow and 
sun — vast, level, illimitable like the sea; then a gulf, a nothing- 
ness, which she knew was the broad valley of the Rio Grande ; 
beyond, a yellow blotch of sunshine which was the Jornado del 
Muerto — and far away on the eastern horizon — so mistj' and 
dim, and dwarfed by the distance that the weary ej'e could 
scarce know if it were sky or hill — a low, jagged line that 
marked where the blue of the sky melted into the purple of the 
Sierra Oscura, nearly two hundred miles away. 

But as she feasted her eyes on that fair prospect a horseman 
came in sight around a bend in the caiion below her. " His 
riding is as the riding of Jehu the son of Nimshi," observed 
Alice, "for he rideth furiously," and she stepped behind a 
mighty boulder, so he could pass without seeing her. 

As he came closer, she saw that it was Keyes. She had not 
seen him for long, though rumors of his wild doings had 
reached her — for he was now an Ishmaelite, shunned and feared 
— "trying to live up to the bad reputation foisted upon him by 
the unco' guid" — according to Harry Gray's version. 

He carried a rifle across his saddle, and looked back down the 
canon as he toiled heavily up the last steep slope to the divide. 
The wild face was drawn and gray. 


"He is fleeing from justice," she thought, her heart harden- 
ing, and drew further back. Then she remembered how her hus- 
band had told her that this man's indomitable courage had saved 
twenty lives at the burning of the Lady Godiva mine, when all 
others, however brave or reckless, had faltered. Relenting, 
thinking to offer him help — a hiding place or a fresh horse — 
she stepped out. 

"Mr. Keyes !" 

He sprang to the ground and came to meet her — and then — a 
miracle I For, as he came, the lines, deep traced by years of 
hardship, peril and dissipation, fell from him as a mask — the 
wild face, a moment since so worn and haggard, was calm and 
peaceful. The youth and beauty of the man had returned in a 
heart beat — he stood there a man such as his mother dreamed 
of over his cradle, with every energy of body and heart and 
brain collected, alert, set to one high purpose. 

He spoke abruptly without greeting. " Where's Hartley ?" 

" At the Anchor X round-up — near the Dalles." 

" Who is at the ranch ?" 

"No one but Lily Strong and the cook and Walter Hearn who 
has been quite ill — what is the matter, Mr. Keyes ?" 

"Much. Any horses at the ranch ?" 

" Plenty in the pasture, and the work horses in the stable." 

The wild face grew radiant — glorified. This was his hour. 
For the moment he was the equal of the gods and master of 
events, a fate-compeller. 

" Take my horse — ride fast— hitch up and drive for your lives. 
The Apaches are out. They killed John Adams and Harvey 
Moreland, and God knows how many more today." 

"Are the3^ chasing you?" she gasped, as he lifted her to the 

He flushed — and then, remembering that he was done with 
earthly pride forever — smiled. " It is a mere detail — Mrs. 
Hartley — but as it happens, they were coming my road and I 
■passed them." He raised his arm and showed the blood dripping 
from a wound. "They are close behind. Tell the boys to 
warn the country — and — adios !" 

But she waited. The air tingled with premonitions — the 
wind whispered of prophecy to her. "And you?" she said 
faintly, "you?" "I," he said gently, "I will rest here!" 

"Oh," she gasped, "they will kill you. Come — " 

"No — they would only kill us all." He looked at his rifle. 
"I will detain them here and give you a start." He raised his 
hat, and looked around reverently. " No man had ever a fairer 


spot to die in, or a better chance to redeem an evil life. Go now I 
every second counts." 

Each harsh judgment, every ungenerous word, rose up before 
her, smote her heart with reproach. She buried her face in her 
hands. " Oh why do you do this thing for me ?" 

" Why ?" His soul flamed in his eyes — he took one quick step 
toward her and stopped. The sun had dropped down behind the 
hill; the shadows gathered round him ; but she, above him, was 
still in the sun. "Look !" he said — as the primroses unfolded 
round his feet, as if his very gesture had called them into being. 
It is a curious fact that in a great crisis, when the world is 
crumbling about us, we see and note and remember the most 
trifling things. It was so with Alice. Every detail of that fair 
and peaceful scene — all the calm beauty of earth and sky — was 
photographed on her mind forever. 

And, as she listened to him, in some sub-conscious under- 
current of her mind, old half- forgotten words rang insistently 
like a wind-blown knell. 

" Look, Hector, how the sun begins to set, 
How ugly night comes breathing at his heels ; 
Even with the vail and darkling of the sun 
To close the day up, Hector's day is done !" 

And she knew that here and now a knightlier than Hector 
was to die. 

" Once — long since," said the quiet voice, '* you said that there 
might be lives like these flowers — that blossomed only at night- 
fall. It may be mine is one of them. It may be that my trysting 
time has come at last." 

She flashed one look at him. It is long and long ago — but 
she has not yet forgotten the tender smile she saw through her 
burning tears. 

'' rouV 

"I have dared — forgive me ! You must go now. Gk)od bye." 

Let no man dare to think of her as other than a true and loyal 
wife, because — though life and death hung trembling in the 
balance — she paused a moment yet to kiss the outcast's brow, 
and set high tryst where they should meet again. 

That night the dew fell upon the wild face ; the rising moon 
showed a moisture that was not dew, staining its primrose 
pillow. But the upturned face was smiling still. 

Tularosa, N. M. 




ATER ! water ! Take the gold ; I'll give it all 
^j^^M^S^M for a little water." He was quiet for a mo- 
. AWt„i4^mTgi ment and then : "I'm rich. It's pure gold, 
and I found it ; it's mine. I won't tell any 
one. No ; I must have it all. Oh ! how I 
suffered ; that terrible heat, and the thirst ! 
Water / No, it's all right now ; I don't need 
any water ; I've got the £-old I The hot sun 
blinded me, and my tongue dried up and 
cracked ; but it's all right, I've got the gold." 
"He's the most violent patient we have," remarked the at- 
tendant. "He was brought here over a year ago ; but he's the 
same now as he was then. Some prospectors found him on the 
Mojave desert, half buried in the sand. He must have lain there 
two or three days. Not one man in a thousand would have 


* * 

It was hot. Very hot. The sand reflected the sun's rays like 
a mirror. Some people may think that you cannot see heat ; 
but you could see it here. In any direction you cared to look 
you could see a few miles of glaring sand and then the landscape 
was blotted out by heat ! 

Do you know what heat looks like ? Watch a bonfire when it 
is burning brightly in the daylight ; between the flame and the 
smoke there is a hazy something of no particular color. Your 
fire must be very hot for you to see it plainly ; but on the Mojave 
it hides mountains and hills from view like a curtain. 

There is a saying that "it is useless to set a snare in sight of 
a bird ;" but though the Mojave is a trap, and evident to all, 
the bait is irresistible. 

Two men and two little burros were making their way slowly 
across the scorching sand in the direction of Death Valley. 
Gold, they were looking for, gold the God I 

At night thej'^ came to a pool of hot, slimy water ; this was to 
be the base of operations. Next day they would start out to 
hunt for the precious yellow gold ; and if the fierce heat didn't 
melt their brains and drive them insane, they would get back to 
the "spring " at night. 

For four days they came and went, each day going farther 
from the camp. On the fifth day no one came back. The day 
after that, one man came, but he passed the water. He had for- 
gotten it was there. He was mad. 


Two days later, some prospectors found something on the 
desert. The sand had drifted over it till it was nearly covered. 
They pulled it out and examined it. They were glad they did. 
It was still alive — but that wasn't what made them glad. 

They took him back to civilization and told where they had 
found him ; but they didn't tell what else they had found. He 
was mad ; it could do him no good ; they could have it all. 

" Poor fellow ;" said one of the visitors. " And he never found 
any gold after (ill." 

" Yes !" screamed the maniac. "I found it; all good gold! 
No one shall have it. It's mine ! D' you hear ? Mine 1 " 

Harold, Cal. 




SING the dew-kissed figs of Calendu, 
The drowsy morn is smiling down the vale ; 

The purple hills are nodding in the shadows of the dawn, 
The cotton-tails are frisking to the warning of the quail: 

'''' Cuidado /" cry the quails of Calendu ; 

Yea, heed, I beg, the warning, both in moonlight and 

in morning. 
For Eulalia is the love of Calendu 1 

Sand and cacti grimly guard this Calendu 
In wastes of burning desert either side ; 
And foothills, grim as death-heads, roast in quiet, intense 
And buzzards croak and mumble at your stumbles as you 
ride : 

'"''Cuidado ! " cry the voices of the valley ; 

Heed the hut behind the grove, for it holds the valley's love, 

For Eulalia is the life of Calendu ! 

There a stream all cool and quiet in the valley 
A grove of grotesque fig-trees wanders through ; 

Which was planted on a morning such as this is, round-returning, 
By a priest who owned the valley and the folk of Calendu : 

''''Cuidado 1 " cry the busy quail at morning ; 

Yea, heed, O Sir, the warning, both in moonlight and in 

For Eulalia is the love of Calendu I 

God rest you little valley, Calendu 1 

In your wrinkle in the long-drawn wilderness. 
And Eulalia gathering brevas in the dew : 

I return ye what ye gave me, for I bless. 

Euaenada, Mex. 


Frofn Documents never before published in English. 
Diary of Junipero Serra; McK. 28-J\ane 30, 1709. 

N the 8th I set forth from said place, and over those so painful hills 
arrived at the Pueblo of San Miguel, which is a branch \visitd\ 
of that mission, about midday. I found a like, or greater, number 
of- Indians of .said head-settlement \cabecerd\ who told me the same 
story, and I gave them the same remedy. And leaving them, [though] some 
followed me, I set out that evening for the Mission of Guadalupe and 
reached it after night had come on, and well tired. And with this I 
reached the end of what I had previously traveled of California in this 

On the 9th, which was Sunday, I said Mass and rested, of which I was 
well in need. And as the long distance from the foregoing Mission to this, 
which is counted as 30 leagues, was the first in which the Mules came 
entirely wearied and loaded, they were three days longer in arriving. And 
so for that, as well as that they might recuperate somewhat after their 
arrival ; and still more to write concerning various Affairs which remaitied 
unsettled, and to reply to various letters, I had to delay besides this day 
the following— the 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th. And in them the Father 
Reader Fray Juan Sancho, Master of Arts, ex-professor of Philosophy 
and later Reader of Theology in his Native Land, Minister of that Mis- 
sion, took great pains, with the greatest solicitude, to add alleviations for 
my road. And having understood that they said that of all the beasts 
saddled {^cruzadas, lit. crossed] for the expedition none were so forlorn as 
those they had assigned me, he caused to be gathered all that the Mission 
had, and [arranged] that with them the loads should be carried on to the 
next Mission. As was done, by this means giving the rest of going un- 
laden to those [mules] that I brought, for the four following marches. 
And it was seen that that favor was thus necessary, from the fact that not 
even unladen could they all arrive, and one had to be abandoned midway 
and another at the next Mission. This benefit extended even further, if it 
is remembered that the few beasts that had remained in that Mission after 
the Captain's heavy spoliation were only the old ones, and little less than 
unserviceable. In such sort that the Father, finding himself so scant of 
provisions, as has been said, and knowing that I would surely find it at the 
Purissima, did not dare to send off the Mules, for fear of finishing them 
up with that hardship. Besides this, he added among other [favors] the 
favor by me of most esteem, which was to give me a little page who served 
his Reverence ; a Spanish-speaking \ladino~\ Indian of IS years, who 
knows how to assist at Mass, read, and the other [duties] pertaining to the 
service. And he clothed him [new for me, with his changes of clothing, 
leather jacket, boots, etc., and fitted him out with all the trappings to go 
Horseback, and gave him a saddle-Mule, whereat he was very contented. 
And'th'us not only the lad but his parents took it for much good-fortune, 
and it was agreeable to all. Likewise in this Father the circumstance 
coincides that he was an acquaintance of mine ever since his days as a regu- 
lar student. God bless him. 

On the 10th there arrived at this Mission the Father Minister of Santa 
Rosalia de Mulege, to bid me farewell — it being understood that this Mis- 
sion is the only one which is not traversed on this road, since it is situated 
on the Coast of the gulf of California. This Father was one of those 

400 OUT W EST 

that came with me from Spain, and afterward my Co-Missionary in the 
Sierra Gorda. This is the Father Fray Juan Gaston, on whom I have 
looked with special affection— and I believe likewise he has returned it. 
So in this and the following days, between the three of us we consoled one 
another for our parting (which, it might easily be inferred, would be until 
the morrow of death, or after it) with the consideration that it was ar- 
ranged for the greater honor and glory of God ; and to gain for Him, some 
of us on one side and the others on another, many souls for His Most Holy 
Magesty. So may it be ! Amen. 

On the 11th and 12th the aforesaid was continued. 

On the 13th the F"'ather Gaston returned to his Mission, and we two were 
left, employing ourselves with the last arrangements for my journey, and 
in assigning from the ornaments of the Sacristy those which this Mission 
could contribute for the founding of the new [Missions], according to the 
charge of the Most Illustrious Seiior Inspector-General, with a view to 
economize expenses for said foundings. And a very competent list was 
made of phials, and an incensory, incense holder. Chalice, Cruets, all of 
silver ; Chasubles, frontals, albs, amices, girdles, purificatories, a large 
bell, and various other utensils, which appear in said list, which I 
sent to Loreto. And the Father agreed to remit everything to Mulege, 
that it might go from there by sea to Loreto, where everything which the 
remaining Missions contribute for the same end is being assembled. And 
on this day the cargoes set forth, so that by their going ahead this day's 
journey I should not have to wait so long at the next Mission. 

6. On the 14th I set forth from the Mission of Guadalupe a debtor to 
its Father Minister for a thousand favors. And with my new page I ar- 
rived at midday at the place called Santa Cruz, and by night at the ranch- 
eria of San Borja ; and I slept on the open ground. In the morning I 
encountered the Arrieros [muleteers] who had set out the day before. 
[They had] the news that they had taken a notion to fire off a bad enough 
gun with which those in the office at Loreto had armed one of the raw 
Soldiers that came with me ; nor had it been possible — though they knew 
its worth, or I would better say its worthlessness — to get the Seiior Com- 
missary Trillo to change it for another, though they begged it of him. 
And on firing it, it burst from above downward, and burned all the hand 
of the Soldier Marcelo Bravo, who fired it (though it belonged to his com- 
rade Carlos Rubio). And it left him for many days disabled for all work 
in the packtrain. I left in his place a Mozo of those that were traveling 
with me, and I passed on ahead. 

On the 15th, rising good and early, I arrived at the Mission of San 
1 Ygnacio at about 3 in the morning, or a little later. The new Father 
Minister of that Mission, the Father Preacher Fray Juan Madina Veitia, 
had the night before sent me out supper to the place where I slept ; and 
this [jiijjlit] he came forth to meet me about a league from the Mission. 
And after we had greeted one another and talked a little, walking along 
together, he pushed on ahead ; and dressed in surplice, stole and pluvial, 
he received me with [his] people in the door of the church, into which we 
entered to give thanks to God Our Lord, and to praise Him for the benefits 
received, etc. The Minister of this Mission ever since we arrived in Cali- 
fornia had been the Father Preacher Fray Miguel de la Campa, a Son of 
our College, a Missionary practiced many years in the Missions of the 
Sierra Gorda whence he had come forth to these [Missions] ; and he was 
already on his way accompanying the 2nd division of the expedition b'